[a - 45 lines; b - 61 lines]

1)[line 1] EIN NIFDIN TEMIMIN- they may not be redeemed [as long as they remain] unblemished [but rather must be offered as Kayitz ha'Mizbe'ach (see Background to Yoma 62:13)]

2)[line 3] ... KIBEL DAMAN... NIZRAK DAMO - caught the blood... the blood was dashed (ARBA AVODOS)

(a)The offering of a Korban consists of four primary actions. These four Avodos are Shechitah (slaughtering), Kabalas ha'Dam (collecting the lifeblood of the Korban in a vessel), Holachah (bringing the blood to the Mizbe'ach) and Zerikah (dashing the blood upon the Mizbe'ach).

(b)In our Gemara, Rebbi Yirmeyah asks Rebbi Zeira what the purpose of offering the second of the Se'irei Atzeres in a case in which the two of them were slaughtered simultaneously and their lifeblood collected in two vessels.

3)[line 5] [ ] AL TUM'AH SHE'UR'AH BEIN [ZERIKAH SHEL] ZEH L'ZEH- (Rebbi Zeira answered Rebbi Yirmeyah) [the second Sa'ir atones] for Tum'as [Mikdash v'Kodashav] that occurs between [the dashing of the blood of the first goat - even though the sin takes place following the slaughter of the Korban --] and that of [the second]

4)[line 9] " " DILMA "IM TIMZI LOMAR" KA'AMAR- perhaps [Rebbi Yirmeyah also wondered whether or not a Korban Olah atones for a Mitzvas Asei transgressed after the Korban was designated, and] he was asking [his question in the form of] "If you wish to say [that Rebbi Shimon intended that a transgression following the designation is included in the atonement, what about a transgression that took place after the slaughter?]"

5)[line 10]TODAH - The Thanksgiving Offering (KORBAN TODAH)

(a)One who has survived a life-threatening situation must offer a Korban Todah to express his thanks to HaShm for having saved him. There are four categories of people who must offer a Korban Todah: one who successfully completed a sea voyage, one who successfully traversed a desert, an individual who had been sick and is now recovered, and one who has been released from prison (derived from Tehilim 107; see Berachos 54b). One may also offer a Korban Todah as a voluntary offering.

(b)A Korban Todah is a form of Shelamim (see below, entry #10), and it is therefore offered in the same manner.

(c)Along with the animal that is offered as a sacrifice, a Korban Todah includes forty loaves of bread. These are subdivided into four types of ten loaves each. One loaf of each type is given to the Kohen who performs the Zerikas ha'Dam (see above, entry #2) (Vayikra 7:14); these four loaves are termed the "Terumas Lachmei Todah." The four types of loaves are:

1.CHALOS MATZOS - unleavened loaves mixed with oil;

2.REKIKIN - flat unleavened loaves saturated with oil;

3.SOLES MURBECHES - unleavened loaves baked from boiled flour mixed with oil;

4.CHALOS LECHEM CHAMETZ - loaves of leavened bread (Vayikra 7:12-13).

(d)A Korban Todah is offered and eaten in the same manner as a Korban Shelamim (see below, entry #10:c). Although a Shelamim may be consumed within two days and the intervening night, a Todah may be eaten only on the day upon which it is offered as well as the following night.

6)[line 10] SHE'SHECHATAH L'SHEM TODAS CHAVEIRO- that [a Kohen] slaughtered with the mindset that it was a Korban Todah belonging to another. This discussion in our Gemara applies equally to a Kohen who offers any Korban belonging to one individual while under the impression that it is that type of Korban belonging to another; the case of a Korban Todah is discussed since it is the source from which each opinion derives his ruling.

7)[line 12]PESULAH- it is invalid. Although the Korban is a valid sacrifice, it does not suffice to fulfill the obligation of he who was required to offer it according to Rav Chisda. Rav Chisda derives this from the fact that the Torah refers to the Todah and Shelamim sacrifices as "his Shelamim" and "his sacrifice" respectively (see below, entry #9). This implies that they must be offered with the intent that they are to fulfill the obligation of their owners.

8)[line 15] ?MENA AMINA LAH?- what is my source [that one is able to fulfill his obligation with a Korban slaughtered with the Korban of another in mind]?

9)[line 15]" [ ; . ,] [; , ]""U'VESAR ZEVACH TODAS SHELAMAV... B'YOM HAKRIVO ES ZIVCHO..."- "And the meat of the sacrifice of the Todah of his Shelamim [must be eaten on the day of its offering; do not leave it over until morning. And if his sacrifice is a vow or an oath, it must be eaten] on the day that his sacrifice is offered [as well as the next; and that which is leftover may be eaten on the second day]" (Vayikra 7:15-16). In these verses, a Todah is termed a Shelamim, whereas a Shelamim is termed a "Zevach."

10)[line 18]SHELAMIM (KORBAN SHELAMIM)

(a)One may offer a Korban in the Beis ha'Mikdash as a Nedavah (voluntary sacrifice; Vayikra 1:2). One type of sacrifice available as a Nedavah is a Korban Shelamim. Parts of this Korban is offered upon the Mizbe'ach, others are given to Kohanim, and yet others belong to the owner of the Korban.

(b)Korbenos Shelamim may consist of male or female sheep, cows, or goats. They are in the category of Kodshim Kalim (the lesser of two degrees of sanctity; see Background to Kidushin 52:32), and may therefore be slaughtered anywhere in the Azarah (as opposed to Kodshei Kodshim, which are limited to the northern part). Before its slaughter, the owner places his hands on the head of his animal and leans on it with all of his might (Semichah). The blood of the Shelamim is applied to the lower half of the Mizbe'ach at the northeastern and southwestern corners only, in such a way that there is Dam on all sides of the Mizbe'ach (Shenayim she'Hen Arba). Nesachim (see Background to Yoma 31:30) are offered together with a Korban Shelamim.

(c)The Chazeh (breast) and Shok (thigh) of the Shelamim are given to a Kohen (Vayikra 7:34). Certain fats and other parts of the Korban are burned upon the Mizbe'ach (Vayikra 3:3-4, 9-10, and 14-15). The owner and his guests, who may be either men or women, may eat the rest of the Korban within the borders of Yerushalayim. The meat may be cooked in any fashion, and must be consumed within two days and the intervening night.

11)[line 20]HEFRESH- a distinction

12)[line 23]DIDEI- [a Todah sacrifice of] his own [that had been designated as thanks for a different deliverance]

13)[line 24]AD'TANI- instead of teaching

14)[line 30]CHATAS (KORBAN CHATAS)

(a)Should one transgress a sin b'Shogeg (unintentionally) for which he would have been liable to receive the punishment of Kares (see below, entry #23) had he done so b'Mezid (intentionally), he must offer a Korban Chatas. This Korban consists of a female goat or sheep.

(b)One who offers a Korban Chatas first leans on the animal with all his might (Semichah) in the northern part of the Azarah (inner courtyard of the Beis ha'Mikdash). He then recites Viduy, confessing his sin and asking HaSh-m for forgiveness. The animal is then immediately slaughtered. The blood of the Chatas is applied to the Keranos (cubic Amah posts on the corners of the Mizbe'ach) beginning with the southeastern corner of the Mizbe'ach and continuing to the northeastern, northwestern, and southwestern corners. The Kohen accomplishes this by dipping his finger into the bowl and then applying it to each corner. The remaining blood is then spilled onto the Yesod (base) of the Mizbe'ach. The Emurim (innards and certain fats; see below, entry #60) of the Chatas are offered on the Mizbe'ach. Certain parts of the Korban are eaten by Kohanim in the Azarah; they must be consumed before the day following its offering (Vayikra 4:27-31).

15)[line 30] SHE'SHECHATAH L'SHEM CHATAS- that [a Kohen] slaughtered with the mindset that it was a Korban Chatas [offered to atone for a sin other than the one for which it was actually intended]

16)[line 31]OLAH (KORBAN OLAH)

(a)An Olah sacrifice has the status of Kodshei Kodashim (the greater of two degrees of sanctity; see Background to Kidushin 52:32), and is sometimes required of the public (e.g., the Korban Tamid; see Background to 6:28:b) and sometimes of an individual. An Olah must be offered by an individual to atone for the transgression of an Asei (a positive commandment), a Lav she'Nitak l'Asei (see Background to Yoma 36:19), or certain sinful thoughts (see Vayikra Rabah 7:3). Voluntary Olos (Olos Nedavah) may be offered as well. A Korban Olah must be a male cow, sheep, or goat.

(b)One who offers a Korban Olah first leans on the animal with all his might (Semichah) in the northern area of the Azarah (courtyard of the Beis ha'Mikdash). He then recites Viduy, confessing his sin and asking HaSh-m for forgiveness. Since an Olah is in the category of Kodshei Kodshim, it must be slaughtered in the northern part of the Azarah (as opposed to Kodshim Kalim - the lesser degree of sanctity - which may be slaughtered anywhere in the Azarah). The blood of the Olah is applied to the lower half of the Mizbe'ach at the northeastern and southwestern corners only, in such a way that there is Dam on all sides of the Mizbe'ach (Shenayim she'Hen Arba). The Korban is then skinned and dismembered. An Olah is unique in that the meat of the animal is burned on the Mizbe'ach in its entirety. The skin of the animal, however, is given to the Kohanim. An Olah must be burned on the same day that it is slaughtered. Nesachim (see Background to Yoma 31:30) are offered together with a Korban Olah.

17)[line 31]PESULAH- it is invalid [completely, to the point that it is as if he has not offered a sacrifice]

18)[line 34] AL MI SHE'MECHAYAV CHATAS- on behalf of [another] who is obligated to offer a Korban Chatas

19)[line 35]KESHERAH- it is [a] valid [sacrifice, although it does not exempt the other from his obligation to offer a Korban Olah]

20)[line 36]" [ ]""... V'CHIPER ALAV [HA'KOHEN ME'CHATASO V'NISLACH LO]"- "... and [the Kohen] shall atone for him [upon his sin, and he shall be forgiven]" (Vayikra 4:26) - This verse refers to a Korban Chatas.

21)[line 40] MECHUYAV ASEI- obligated [in a sacrifice to atone for having transgressed] a positive commandment

22)[line 40] V'AMAR RAVA...- This statement of Rava is necessary to understand the previous assertion of Rava. Rava now explains that one who transgresses an Asei can receive atonement through the offering of a Korban Chatas. It therefore follows that an attempt to offer a Korban Chatas on behalf of another who is not obligated in any Korban is equivalent to offering a Korban Chatas on behalf of one who is obligated in a Korban Chatas. This renders the Korban invalid, as Rava explained earlier.

23)[line 42] CHAYAVEI KERISUS (KARES AND MISAH B'YEDEI SHAMAYIM: Heavenly Punishment of Untimely Death)

(a)Some sins are so severe that they are punished with untimely death. There are two types of untimely death that are used as heavenly punishments: Kares, and Misah b'Yedei Shamayim. Kares means "being severed" from the world and dying before one's time. Misah b'Yedei Shamayim means "death at the hands of heaven." These punishments are not administered by the courts, but through divinely administered justice.

(b)One who deliberately transgresses a commandment that is punishable with either Kares or Misah b'Yedei Shamayim is punished even if there are no witnesses to his act, and even if he was not warned at that time of his transgression that his violation will result in his untimely death.

(c)The Tif'eres Yisrael, in his commentary to Sanhedrin 9:6, lists a number of differences between Misah b'Yedei Shamayim and Kares:

1.One who is punished with Kares will die before age 60 (according to Moed Katan 28a, or before the age of 50, according to the Yerushalmi Bikurim 2:1). One punished with Misah b'Yedei Shamayim will die after the age of 60 but before his time has come (according to Moed Katan ibid., or before the age of 60, according to the Yerushalmi ibid.)

2.When one is punished with Kares, even his children (who are minors at the time of his sin) die, and he bears no further children. When one is punished with Misah b'Yedei Shamayim, only he is punished and not his children (Yevamos 55a and RASHI there; see, however, RIVA in Tosfos to Yevamos 2a DH Eshes, who maintains that Kares only involves the death of one's children in the two cases where the Torah adds the word "Ariri." However, he might be referring to the death of children who are not minors.)

3.Some add that when punished with Misah b'Yedei Shamayim, the sinner's cattle and possessions slowly expire until he is left destitute - see Insights to Yevamos 73:2 and Insights to Pesachim 32:2.

4.In addition to the above, in certain instances a form Kares is prescribed in which the sinner not only dies before his time but is also 'severed' (Nichras) from receiving a portion in the World to Come (see Sanhedrin 64b, 90b).

(d)As stated in the Mishnah at the beginning of Kerisus, there are 36 sins listed in the Torah for which one receives Kares: the sixteen forbidden conjugal relations listed in the Torah (Vayikra 18); one who curses G-d; an idol worshipper; one who worships Molech (see Background to Sanhedrin 53:5); one who practices Ov (see Background to Pesachim 113:62); one who desecrates Shabbos; one who ate Kodshim or entered the Mikdash while in a state of Tum'ah; one who consumed blood, Nosar (see Background to Pesachim 120:9), or Pigul (see Background to 6:60); one who slaughters or offers a sacrifice outside of the Mikdash; one who eats Chametz on Pesach; one who eats or performs Melachah on Yom Kipur; one who compounds Shemen ha'Mishchah (the oil made by Moshe Rabeinu to anoint the Mishkan and its vessels, Kohanim Gedolim, and the kings of the Davidic dynasty) or the Ketores (see Background to 11:25) for his own use; one who anoints himself with Shemen ha'Mishchah; one who neglects to give himself a Bris Milah; and one who neglects to offer a Korban Pesach.

24)[line 43] ?L'MEIMRA D'VAS MINAH HI?- does [Rava] mean to say that [the atonement of an Asei] is relevant to [a Korban Chatas]?

25)[last line]OLAH- an Olah offering [which atones for the transgression of an Asei (see above, entry # 16)]

7b----------------------------------------7b

26a)[line 1] ME'KIV'A LO MECHAPRA- [a Chatas] does not atone [for the transgression of an Asei] in a fixed manner (the way in which an Olah does)

b)[line 1] ME'KUFYA KAPARAH- [but] it does offer a "floating" atonement. This means that although a Chatas will not atone for the transgression of an Asei of one who has already designated an Olah for that purpose, it can offer atonement for one who has transgressed an Asei but has not designated an Olah to atone for it. Therefore, since it is all but impossible for anyone to have avoided transgressing an Asei, the Korban Chatas of one Jew that was slaughtered with another in mind would theoretically atone for the other's transgression of Asei'in, and is therefore invalid.

27)[line 4]" ; ' - , ""MOTZA SEFASECHA TISHMOR V'ASISA; KA'ASHER NADARTA LA'SH-M EL-KECHA NEDAVAH, ASHER DIBARTA B'FICHA"- "Guard and perform that which leaves your lips, as you vowed a voluntary offering to HaSh-m your G-d that you uttered with your mouth" (Devarim 24:25). In the first piece of Gemara following the Mishnah (2a), the Gemara explained that there is a seeming contradiction in the wording of this verse. A Neder refers to a pledge that one is responsible to replace if lost, whereas a Nedavah refers to a pledge that one is not responsible to replace. The verse may therefore be read to mean: "If you acted with the pledge as you promised to, then you have fulfilled your pledge; if not, then it is as if you had pledged a different sacrifice and your original obligation remains". Since no portion of the Avodah (service) of even a Nedavah may be performed with the incorrect intent (29b), it is clear that even after one slaughtered a sacrifice with the incorrect intent, he may not therefore continue the Avodah with such intent.

28)[line 5] ' MISHUM D'SHANI BAH [CHULEI], KED'REISH PIRKA- because it was diverted from its intended purpose etc. as was explained at the beginning of this chapter. In the first piece of Gemara following the Mishnah (2a), the Gemara explained this logic as follows: because it was diverted from its intended purpose at the time of its slaughter, should it therefore continue to be diverted from its intended purpose as its service proceeds?

29)[line 6] HA'BA'AH L'ACHAR MISAH- that is offered after [the] death [of he who pledged it by his heir]

30a)[line 6] B'SHINUY KODESH- with the mindset that it was a Korban other than an Olah

b)[line 6] B'SHINUY BE'ALIM- with the mindset that it was being offered for one other [than the heir]

31)[line 12]MAR- a third-person term of respect

32)[line 12] BA'I L'ISUYEI OLAH ACHARITI- [the heir] must offer another Olah [since, as its owner, he had become obligated to offer it upon inheriting it, and he had not fulfilled that obligation with this Olah since it had been slaughtered with another in mind]

33)[line 13] IY IKA KAMAH ASEI GABEI MECHAPRA- if he had transgressed a number of Asei'in it would have atoned for him [and in this case it did not, but he is not obligated to offer another in its place]

34)[line 15] DORON- a present

35)[line 15] ?HEICHI DAMI?- what would the case be [in which an Olah comes to atone]?

36)[line 16]" ...""ZEVAH RESHA'IM TO'EVAH..."- "The sacrifice of the wicked is an abomination..." (Mishlei 21:27).

37)[line 18] LO ZAZ MI'SHAM- lit. he does not move from there; i.e., immediately

38)[line 19]('' '' '' '' '' '' '' '')(CHATAS AL MI MECHAPER OLAH L'ACHAR DORO''N SIMAN)- This is a mnemonic device for remembering the seven preceding statements of Rava. In a Siman, the words are often expressed in a different form or are chosen in such a way that the phrase has some meaning. Here, the phrase may read as "For whom does a Chatas atone? He who offers an Olah after it as a present". This is indeed the concept expressed in the next discussion of the Gemara. If so, this would explain why this Siman appears in the middle of a discussion, as well as explaining why it appears after the statements of Rava instead of before them, which is usually where a Siman is located. The Siman refers to the following words:

1."CHATAS" - "Chatas she'Shechatah l'Shem Chatas" (7a, line 30)

2."AL MI" - "Chatas she'Shechatah Al Mi she'Mechuyav Chatas" (7a, line 34)

3."AL MI" - "Chatas she'Shechatah Al Mi she'Eino Mechuyav Klum" (7a, line 38)

4."MECHAPER" - "Chatas Mechaperes Al Chayavei Asei" (7a, line 41)

5."OLAH" - "Olah she'Shechatah she'Lo Lishmah" (line 2)

6."L'ACHAR" - "Olah ha'Ba'ah l'Achar Misah" (line 7)

7."DORON" - " Olah Doron Hi" (line 15)

39)[line 22] ?LAMAH BA'AH LIFNEI OLAH?- why is it offered before a Olah [when one is obligated to offer both Korbanos (i.e., a Metzora (see Background to Sukah 13:10:a:III) or a Nazir (see Background to Beitzah 35:23))]?

40)[line 22]PERAKLIT- an advocate

41)[line 23]RITZAH- has appeased

42)[line 25]" - , [' -...]""SHAMOR ES CHODESH HA'AVIV, V'ASISA PESACH [LA'SH-M EL-KECHA...]"- "Observe the month of Aviv (spring), and offer the Pesach sacrifice [to HaSh-m your G-d...]" (Devarim 16:1).

43)[line 27]", '- [' ...]'""VA'AMARTEM, 'ZEVACH PESACH HU [LA'SH-M ...]"- "And you shall tell them, 'It is a Pesach sacrifice [to HaSh-m ...]'" (Shemos 12:27). In this verse, the Torah instructs one what to answer his son who asks, "What is this service to you?" (previous verse).

44)[line 28] , IM EINO INYAN L'SHUINUY KODESH, TENEIHU INYAN L'SHINUY BE'ALIM - if it is not referring to a change in [the name of its]Korban, interpret it to refer to a change in the owner (IM EINO INYAN... TENEIHU INYAN)

(a)There are times when the Torah appears to unnecessarily teach that which it has already taught elsewhere. In such cases, the Gemara will often apply the rule of "Im Eino Inyan l'Zeh, Teneihu Inyan l'Zeh - "if it is unnecessary to teach that which it appears to, apply it to a related teaching."

(b)The verse quoted by the Gemara earlier already taught us that a Korban Pesach offered with the mindset that it was a Korban other than a Pesach is invalid. Although the same may be inferred from this verse, it is not needed for this teaching. Our Gemara therefore derives from it that a Korban Pesach offered with the mindset that it was being offered for one other than its owner is invalid.

45a)[line 30]L'MITZVAH- that this is [the preferred way of fulfilling] the Mitzvah

b)[line 30]L'AKEV- that it precludes [one from fulfilling the Mitzvah altogether]

46)[line 31]" ' - ...""V'ZAVACHTA PESACH LA'SH-M ELKECHA TZON U'VAKAR..."- "And you shall sacrifice a Pesach sacrifice to HaSh-m your G-d [from] sheep or cattle..." (Devarim 16:2).

47)[line 34] MOSAR PESACH - a leftover Pesach sacrifice (MOSAR HA'PESACH)

(a)An animal designated as a Korban Pesach (see below, entry #55) that was not offered as such for any reason (e.g. it was lost on the fourteenth of Nisan) is termed a "Mosar ha'Pesach". Such an animal may be offered at any time as a Korban Shelamim (see above, entry #10). A Mosar ha'Pesach is identical to a Shelamim other than that which it may be eaten for only one day and the following night, as opposed to the two days and intervening night allowed for a regular Korban Shelamim.

(b)Some opinions maintain that before one may offer a Mosar ha'Pesach as a Korban Shelamim, it requires an Akirah - an active uprooting of its status (TOSFOS to Pesachim 60b DH b'She'ar; see Background to Pesachim 64:2). According to these authorities, if the animal is slaughtered without an Akirah, it is still a Pesach and therefore invalid since it was not slaughtered at the proper time for a Korban Pesach (see Pesachim 60b). The offering of a Mosar ha'Pesach "she'Lo Lishmo" - with intent that it be a regular Shelamim or Olah - is enough to qualify as an Akirah.

(c)The term "Mosar ha'Pesach" may also apply to money that was sanctified for the purpose of purchasing a sheep or goat for a Korban Pesach. If the value of the animal subsequently depreciated, then the leftover money is designated "Mosar ha'Pesach" and should go toward the purchase of a Korban Shelamim.

48)[line 36]... KEVASIM... IZIM- sheep... goats

49)[line 39]SHELAMIM- a Korban Shelamim (see above, entry #10)

50)[line 42]"" "HU" L'AKEV BEIN HACHA V'HACHA- [the word] "Hu" (see above, entry #43) [-- which implies that the Korban Pesach must remain in the state in which it had been in until this point - teaches us that] both here [regarding Shinuy Kodesh] and there [regarding Shinuy Be'alim] that [lack of either] precludes [one from fulfilling the Mitzvah altogether]

51)[line 44] , HO'IL V'GALI, GALI- since it has ben revealed [that a Pesach slaughtered as a different sacrifice or for a different person is invalid], it has been revealed [that any part of the service of a Pesach performed with such intentions is invalid]

52a)[line 46]" , , , , , ""ZOS HA'TORAH LA'OLAH, LA'MINCHAH, VELA'CHATAS, VELA'ASHAM, VELA'MILU'IM, UL'ZEVACH HA'SHELAMIM"- "This is the law of the Olah, the Minchah, the Chatas, the Asham, the initiation of the Kehunah, and the Shelamim sacrifice" (Vayikra 7:37).

b)[line 47]"[ ' ] [' ]""[ASHER TZIVA HASH-M ES MOSHE B'HAR SINAI] B'YOM TZAVOSO ES BNEI YISRAEL L'HAKRIV ES KORBENEIHEM [LA'SH-M B'MIDBAR SINAI]"- "[Which HaSh-m commanded Moshe upon Har Sinai] on the day that he commanded Bnei Yisrael to offer their sacrifices [to HaSh-m in the desert of Sinai]" (Vayikra 7:38). This verse immediately follows the verse cited in the previous entry. Our Gemara understands that the general reference to sacrifices in this verse includes those not specified in the previous one.

53)[line 48]BECHOR (BECHOR BEHEMAH TEHORAH)

(a)An ox, goat, or sheep first-born to its mother in the possession of a non-Kohen is automatically Kadosh (sanctified). Nevertheless, its owner should verbally sanctify it by declaring that it has the Kedushah of a Bechor, similar to the way in which one sanctifies a Korban (Erchin 29a, based on Devarim 15:19). He must then give it to a Kohen; it may not be redeemed.

(b)If the animal is unblemished, the Kohen must offer it as a Korban during its first year of life. After its blood and Emurim (see Background to Yevamos 7:8 and 100:9) are offered on the Mizbe'ach, it may be eaten in Yerushalayim over the following two days and intervening night.

(c)An unblemished Bechor may not be redeemed by the Kohen with money. If the animal was born with or developed a Mum (a blemish that invalidates it as a Korban; see Background to Sanhedrin 5:c), then it becomes the personal property of the Kohen, who must slaughter and eat it within its first year of life. If it developed a Mum after its first year, then it must be slaughtered and eaten within thirty days. A Kohen may give away or sell a Bechor with a Mum, even to a non-Kohen. He may not, however, sell it in a meat market nor weigh it in a standard manner.

54)[line 48]MA'ASER (MA'ASER BEHEMAH)

(a)Once a year, one must designate every tenth Kosher animal that had been born into his herd/flock over the course of the previous year as Ma'aser Behemah (Vayikra 27:32). First one gathers all of the yearling animals of that species into a corral. They are then driven out of the corral through an opening narrow enough to allow only one to pass through at a time. One then stands by and counts them, marking every tenth one.

(b)Animals designated as Ma'aser Behemah are eaten by their owner. If they are unblemished, they are offered as a Korban Shelamim (see Background to Kidushin 55:4) and eaten by their owner in Yerushalayim. If they have a Mum, their owner may slaughter and eat them as he would any Kosher animal.

(c)The Chachamim designated three dates by which a person must tithe his flock. After these times, no animal may not be eaten or sold until they have been tithed.

(d)Animals born in different years may not be counted together for Ma'aser Behemah.

55)[line 48]PESACH (KORBAN PESACH)

(a)When the Beis ha'Mikdash stands, every adult Jew is obligated to offer a Korban Pesach on the afternoon of the fourteenth of Nisan (Shemos 12:6). The Korban Pesach consists of an unblemished male lamb or goat within its first year. Since it has the status of Kodshim Kalim (the lesser of two degrees of sanctity; see Background to Kidushin 52:32), it may be slaughtered anywhere in the Azarah (as opposed to Kodshei Kodshim, which are limited to the northern part) (see Zevachim 56b).

(b)The body of the Korban is roasted in its entirety, and is eaten after nightfall together with Matzah and Maror. The Korban must be eaten within the walls of Yerushalayim (Zevachim 56b).

(c)One who is able to offer the Korban Pesach and neglects to do so receives the punishment of Kares (see Background to Gitin 55:42). The Mitzvah of Korban Pesach is one of only two positive commandments that are punishable by Kares.

56)[line 48] HIKISHU HA'KASUV LA'SHELAMIM (HEKESH)

(a)One of the methods employed by Chazal when determining Halachah from the verses of the Torah is "Hekesh." A Hekesh entails comparing two subjects that are mentioned together in one verse or neighboring verses.

(b)A Hekesh is a powerful way of determining Halachah. When two subjects are compared through a Hekesh, all possible parallels are drawn between them, unless a different Derashah teaches us otherwise ("Ein Hekesh l'Mechetzah"). Additionally, Pirchos (logical differences) that would impede a Kal va'Chomer (see Background to Bava Kama 24:43) or a Gezeirah Shavah (see Background to Bava Kama 40:9a) do not stand in the way of learning one subject from another through a Hekesh ("Ein Meshivin Al ha'Hekesh").

(c)In our Gemara, Rav Ashi maintains that there is a Hekesh connecting a Korban Pesach to a Korban Shelamim.

57)[line 53] LO TACHALOK BO BEIN ZEVICHAH L'SHA'AR AVODOS L'AKEV- do not differentiate between slaughter and other parts of the service in that they all preclude one from fulfilling the Mitzvah. Once we know from this Hekesh that the preferred way of offering a Korban Pesach is when it is offered as a Pesach and for its owner, we can derive from the verses quoted earlier (see above, entries #42-43) that it is Me'akev as well. At that point the Hekesh once again teaches us that this should apply to all parts of the Avodah of a Korban Pesach.

58)[line 58]ASHAM (KORBAN ASHAM)

(a)The Torah specifies five cases in which a Korban Asham must be offered. This Korban usually consists of a ram which is worth a minimum of two Sela'im. The first three cases involve transgressions, whereas the latter two do not. The five are:

1.ASHAM ME'ILOS: One who benefits from Hekdesh b'Shogeg must offer a Korban Asham, aside from that which he is obligated to repay 125% of the value of that which he benefited (Vayikra 5:14-16; see Background to Kidushin 55:5a).

2.ASHAM GEZEILOS: If one steals money from his fellow Jew, swears falsely in Beis Din that he holds no such money, and later admits to his sin, then he must first repay 125% of the value of that which he stole, and then offer a Korban Asham in order to receive atonement (Vayikra 5:20-26).

3.ASHAM SHIFCHAH CHARUFAH: If one had relations with a Shifchah Charufah (see Background to Yevamos 55:5), then he must offer a Korban Asham whether he transgressed this sin b'Mezid or b'Shogeg (Vayikra 19:20-22).

4.ASHAM NAZIR: If a Nazir (see Background to Beitzah 35:23) becomes Tamei during his period of Nezirus, he must offer a sheep within its first year as an Asham (Bamidbar 6:12; see also Background to Nazir 60:2).

5.ASHAM METZORA: When a Metzora completes his Taharah process (see Background to Sukah 13:10:a:III), he must offer a sheep within its first year as an Asham (Vayikra 14:12).

(b)If one is in doubt as to whether or not he committed a transgression for which he must offer a Korban Chatas (see Background to Sanhedrin 4:14), then he offers a ram worth two Sela'im as a Korban Asham Taluy (a dependant Asham sacrifice; Vayikra 5:17-19). Should he later discover that he did indeed sin, he must then offer a proper Korban Chatas; the Asham Taluy provides only temporary atonement as long as he is unsure of his requirement (see Background to Nazir 23:2b).

(c)A Korban Asham is slaughtered in the northern part of the Azarah (inner courtyard of the Beis ha'Mikdash). The blood of an Asham is applied to the northeastern and southwestern sides of the Mizbe'ach, below the Chut ha'Sikra (red line that horizontally divides the Mizbe'ach in half), in such a way that there is blood on all sides of the Mizbe'ach (Shetayim she'Hen Arba). The remaining blood is then spilled onto the Yesod (base) of the Mizbe'ach. The Emurim (innards and certain fats; see below, entry #60)) of the Asham are offered on the Mizbe'ach. Certain parts of the Korban are eaten by Kohanim in the Azarah; they must be consumed before the day following its offering (Vayikra 7:7; see also ibid. 4:27-31).

59)[line 58] ...LO NE'EMAR BO HU...- Our Gemara answers that the word "Hu" written regarding a Korban Pesach does not teach anything about a Pesach; rather, it teaches us that the word "Hu" written regarding a Korban Asham (Vayikra 7:5) should not be interpreted to mean that an Asham offered as a different Korban is invalid (see 10b).

60)[line 58] HAKTARAS EIMURIN - burning the fats of a Korban on the Mizbe'ach (HEKTER CHALAVIM V'EVARIM)

(a)All parts of a Korban burned upon the Mizbe'ach are collectively termed "Eimurim." These include limbs (Evarim) and certain fats (Chalavim). Which limbs are burned upon the Mizbe'ach depends upon the type of Korban offered. The fats burned include the layer of fat covering the stomachs as well as all other fat attached to the stomachs, the two kidneys, the fat on the kidneys, and the Yoseres, which is either the diaphragm (RASHI, RADAK) or a certain lobe of the liver (RAV HAI GA'ON) (Vayikra 3:3-4).

(b)All of the service (Avodah) that takes place in the Beis ha'Mikdash must be performed during the day. This includes the slaughter of the Korban and all of the subsequent Avodos up to and including the application or dashing of its blood upon the Mizbe'ach. If there was no time to burn its Chalavim and Pedarim (certain fats) or Evarim (limbs) during the day, however, then they may be placed on the fire atop the Mizbe'ach for the entire following night. As long as the Zerikas ha'Dam (see above, entry #2) was performed before nightfall, then the Korban is kosher.

(c)The word "Hu" written regarding a Korban Asham is written after the Torah mentions the burning of its fats and limbs. Since this in contrast to a Korban Pesach, when the word "Hu" is written earlier, we derive not that an Asham must be offered Lishmo, but rather that it remains valid even if its fats and limbs were not burned upon the Mizbe'ach.

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