[a - 35 lines; b - 46 lines]
1)[line 1]וכי עדרו שורף?V'CHI EDRO SOREF?- is an entire flock burned? (i.e., the Torah instructs that only one goat be offered as a Chatas as well!)
2)[line 2]הכא כתיב "אתו"HACHA KSIV "OSO"- here [regarding the Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach,] the verse says, "[... to send it] (Oso) [to Azazel, to the desert" (Vayikra 16:10).] The word "Oso" is not necessary; it implies that one and only one goat is sent.
3)[line 10]קופותKUPOS (TERUMAS HA'LISHKAH)
(a)Every year, each Jew must contribute one half-Shekel toward the purchase of the Korbenos Tzibur offered in the Beis ha'Mikdash (see Background to 55:21). Beis Din then places the collected Shekalim into a Lishkah — a room in the Beis ha'Mikdash — reserved for that purpose.
(b)Fifteen days prior to each of the three festivals, a representative of Beis Din enters the Lishkah and fills three boxes with Shekalim. Each box holds three Se'in (approximately 25 or 43.2 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions). That which was removed in the boxes is called the "Terumas ha'Lishkah," while those Shekalim remaining are called the "Sheyarei ha'Lishkah" (Shekalim 7b, 8a). (The Rambam has a different understanding of this process, see Hilchos Shekalim 2:4. See also Insights to Shekalim 9:2 for more on the process of the Terumas ha'Lishkah.)
(c)Why was the Terumas ha'Lishkah performed three times a year, rather than only once? One opinion is that this is necessary in order to publicize the Terumas ha'Lishkah. Others maintain that the reason for the division of this process into three was so that even those whose Shekalim arrived later in the year should have a share in the Korbenos Tzibur (Yerushalmi 2b; see above, entry #2:b. See also Insights 2b).
(d)The Shekalim of the Terumas ha'Lishkah go toward purchasing animals sacrificed as public sacrifices, while the Shekalim of the Sheyarei ha'Lishkah are designated for the upkeep of the Mikdash and the city of Yerushalayim (Shekalim 4a-b).
4)[line 14]בעידנא דאיתחזאי קמייתא לא איתחזאי בתרייתאB'IDNA D'ISCHAZA'I KAMAISA LO ISCHAZA'I BASRAISA- [the reason that the first Kupah should be used first is that] at the time that the first [Kupah] is ready (i.e., filled), the last [two Kupos] are not ready. (However, none of the Se'irim are ready to be sent off to Azazel until all of the Avodah — including the sprinkling of the blood — is finished.)
5)[line 16]פסחPESACH (KORBAN PESACH)
(a)In the times of the Beis ha'Mikdash, every adult Jew is obligated to offer a Korban Pesach on the fourteenth of Nisan in the afternoon, as the Torah commands, "And the whole assembly of the congregation of Yisrael shall slaughter it towards evening" (Shemos 12:6). A Korban Pesach must be an unblemished male lamb or goat within its first year. The Korban may be slaughtered in any part of the Azarah (see Zevachim 56b).
(b)The body of the Korban is roasted in its entirety, and is eaten after nightfall together with Matzah and Maror. The Korban must be eaten within the walls of Yerushalayim (Zevachim 56b).
(c)In order to eat from the Korban Pesach, one must be "appointed" to the Korban before it is slaughtered, as the Torah states, " And if the household is too small to be [appointed to] a [whole] sheep, then he and a neighbor who lives nearby should purchase a lamb together according to the number of people. Each individuals shall be appointed to the lamb according to how much he can consume" (Shemos 12:4). This appointment is called "Minuy." A person may be granted or may withdraw his share from a Korban Pesach as long as it has not been slaughtered (Pesachim 89a).
6)[line 19]מצוה בראשוןMITZVAH B'RISHON- The case of the two Korbenos Pesach is similar to that of the Se'irim, since no Korban Pesach is fit to be offered until Chatzos of Erev Pesach.
7)[line 20]מובחרMUVCHAR- choice[r]
PEREK #6 SHNEI SE'IREI
8)[line 22]שני שעירי יום הכפוריםSHNEI SE'IREI YOM HA'KIPURIM
(a)On Yom ha'Kipurim, two goats identical in every way are led in front of the Kohen Gadol. As part of the service of the day, he casts a Goral (lot) to determine which of the goats will be the Sa'ir La'Sh-m, and which the Sa'ir la'Azazel. The first is offered as a Korban, and its blood is sprinkled, in the Kodesh ha'Kodashim; the other is dispatched (Mishtale'ach) to Azazel (a rocky cliff), from which it is pushed off to its death. A length of combed wool dyed crimson is split into two, and half is tied between the horns of the Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach before it was led to Azazel. When Klal Yisrael are worthy, the two lengths turn white when the goat is pushed off the cliff as a symbol that Hash-m has accepted their Avodah and forgiven them. He who takes the goat to Azazel becomes Tamei, and must subsequently immerse his body and clothing in a Mikvah (Vayikra 16:26).
(b)The Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach symbolically carried with it all of the sins of Klal Yisrael; they were forgiven when it was pushed over the cliff. A companion piece of crimson wool (see Insights to 41b) remained behind near the Beis ha'Mikdash. When Klal Yisrael merited it, the wool would turn white as the Sa'ir went over the cliff to symbolize that they had been forgiven.
(c)The blood of the Sa'ir La'Sh-m is sprinkled seven times inside the Kodesh ha'Kodashim, as well as in the Heichal toward the Paroches. It is also applied to the corners of the Mizbach ha'Ketores (Vayikra 16:16, 18-19). The carcass of the goat is then burned in its entirety, along with its excrement, outside Yerushalayim in the same place that the ashes emptied from the Mizbe'ach are deposited (Vayikra 16:27).
(d)The Mishnah (Shevu'os 2a) states that the Sa'ir La'Sh-m provides atonement in conjunction with the day of Yom ha'Kipurim for one who sinned with Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav (see Background to 18:19). This atonement is provided for one who was initially aware of the Tum'ah and subsequently forgot, as well as for one who committed this sin intentionally (Shevu'os 2b).
9a)[line 23]מראהMAR'EH- appearance
b)[line 23]קומהKOMAH- height
c)[line 23]דמיםDAMIM- value
d)[line 24]לקיחתן כאחדLEKICHASAN K'ECHAD- that they should be purchased together
10)[line 26]זוגZUG- lit. a pair; here, a partner
11)[line 28]ויאמר אם של שם מתV'YOMAR, IM SHEL SHEM MES- and if the Sa'ir that had been designated La'Sh-m dies, the Kohen Gadol should say
12)[line 31]ירעה עד שיסתאבYIR'EH AD SHE'YISTA'EV- should be left to graze until it develops a Mum (a blemish that disqualifies it from being offered on the Mizbe'ach)
(a)There were six Shofaros (coffers; see Background to 5:14) kept in the Mikdash, the contents of which are used to purchase Korbanos for "Kayitz ha'Mizbe'ach." Kayitz ha'Mizbe'ach consists of Korbanos Olah that are offered upon the Mizbe'ach when it is not otherwise in use. These Korbanos are Korbenos Tzibur (communal offerings).
(b)Rashi to Sukah 56a DH Kayitz explains that these offerings are called Kayitz since they are a "dessert" for the Mizbe'ach. Kayitz refers to cut figs, a common dessert food. Another explanation is that these offerings are offered upon the Mizbe'ach during the long days of the summer (Kayitz) months.
14)[line 32]שאין חטאת צבור מתהSHE'EIN CHATAS TZIBOR MESAH - a communal Chatas is not left to die (CHATA'OS HA'MESOS)
(a)There are five categories of Korbenos Chatas which are left locked up without food or water until they expire, as per Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai. These are:
1.The offspring of a Chatas (which also has the Kedushah of a Chatas)
2.The Temurah (see Background to Pesachim 96:17) of a Chatas
3.A Chatas whose owner has passed away
4.A sheep or goat designated as a Korban Chatas which is now older than one year (and therefore invalidated as a Korban Chatas)
5.A Chatas which was lost and later found with a Mum, whose owner has in the interim offered a different Chatas to atone for his sin (Temurah 21b)
(b)Certain of these categories can never apply to a communal Korban Chatas. Since all such Korbanos are male, there is never an offspring of a public Chatas. Only a privately-owned Korban can make a Temurah. And the whole Tzibur cannot die, as whomever is alive is considered a continuation of the Tzibur. There is, however, a Machlokes Tana'im regarding the remaining categories. The Chachamim rule that "Ein Chatas Tzibur Mesah." Although such a private Korban must be left to die, a communal Korban is left to graze until it develops a blemish that invalidates it from the Mizbe'ach, and is then sold to fund Kayitz ha'Mizbe'ach (see previous entry). Rebbi Yehudah maintains that when applicable, there is no difference between private and public Chata'os.
15)[line 34]נשפך הדםNISHPACH HA'DAM- if the blood [of the Sa'ir La'Sh-m] spilled
16)[line 4]"שעיר" "שעיר" ריבה"SA'IR" "SA'IR" RIBAH- [The Torah refers to the goats as "the] Sa'ir [which the lot of La'Sh-m fell upon" and "the] Sa'ir [which the lot of Azazel fell upon" (Vayikra 16:9-10). Since the Torah was already discussing the Se'irim, the word "Sa'ir in these instances is] unnecessary.
17)[line 7]"שני" "שני" "שני" כתיב"SHNEI" "SHNEI" "SHNEI" KSIV- [The Torah refers to the two goats with the phrase] "Shnei [Se'irei" or "Shnei ha'Se'irim"] three times.
18)[line 10]כבשי מצורעKIVSEI METZORA- The sheep offered by a rich Metzora, one as an Olah and one as a Chatas; see Background to 61:13:f
19)[line 16]"תהיה" כתיב"TIHEYEH" KSIV- the Torah writes, ["v'Zeh] Tiheyeh [Toras ha'Metzora b'Yom Taharaso…" — "And this shall be the law of the Metzora on the day of his purification…" (Vayikra 14:2). The word "Tiheyeh," which is extraneous, implies that every detail mentioned in the Parshah must be performed exactly as stated or else it is invalid.]
20)[line 18]לשאר הויתו של מצורעLI'SHE'AR HAVAYASO SHEL METZORA- for the other details of the purification of a Metzora (e.g. that there be a cedar branch, hyssop branches, crimson wool, certain Korbanos etc.)
21)[line 19]מצורעMETZORA (NIG'EI BATIM)
(a)If a streak or spot that is a stark green or red color is found upon the stones of a house, it may be Tzara'as (a spiritual malady). A Kohen is called to determine the status of the marks; if they are found to indeed have the status of Tzara'as, the house is placed into quarantine for a week. Since any utensil or clothing that is in the house when it is pronounced Tamei with Nega'im become Tamei as well, they are all removed before the Kohen checks the house.
(b)The Kohen returns after seven days to review the markings. If the Tzara'as has spread, one must remove the stones (Choletz) that have the Tzara'as, scrape off the surrounding plaster (Tach), insert new stones, and re-plaster the entire house. The house is then placed into quarantine for a second week. Should the Tzara'as return to the house during that week, then the owner is required to dismantle his house (Notetz). The stones from the house must be removed to a place outside of the city; they remain Asur b'Hana'ah forever (Vayikra 14:45).
(c)If, on the other hand, the Tzara'as remained unchanged after the first week, then the Kohen leaves the house in quarantine for an additional week. If after the second week the Tzara'as has spread — or even if it has remained as is — then one must remove the stones (Choletz) that have the Tzara'as, scrape off the surrounding plaster (Tach), insert new stones, and re-plaster the entire house. The house is then placed into quarantine for an additional week (Vayikra 14:40). Should the Tzara'as return to the house during that week, then the procedure for dismantling the house described above must be followed.
(d)If the Kohen finds during one of his inspections that the Tzara'as has disappeared or diminished in intensity such that it is no longer a Nega, then the spot alone is scraped away and the house is declared Tahor (RAMBAM Hilchos Tum'as Tzara'as 15:2).
(e)On the day that the house is declared by the Kohen to be free of Nega'im, its owner procures two kosher birds (Tziporei Metzora), a piece of cedar, some crimson wool and a hyssop branch. One of the birds is slaughtered over fresh spring water in a clay bowl. A Kohen dips the other bird, along with the other articles, into the spring water that is mixed with the blood and sprinkles it seven times toward the lintel on the house. The living bird is sent away towards the fields. Both birds are Asur b'Hana'ah, but the Isur no longer applies to the living bird once it is sent off to the fields. This completes the purification of the house (Vayikra 14:49-53).
22)[line 27]תמידיןTEMIDIN (KORBAN TAMID)
(a)The Korban Tamid consists of two male sheep which are less than one year old. One sheep is offered in the morning, known as the Tamid Shel Shachar, and the second — called the Tamid Shel Bein ha'Arbayim — is offered in the afternoon. One tenth of an Eifah (approx. two quarts) of flour, mixed with one quarter of a Hin (approx. one quart) of hand pressed olive oil, is offered with each sheep as a Minchah (meal offering). One quarter of a Hin of wine is offered with each sheep as a wine libation. (Bamidbar 28:5).
23)[line 30]ולמצוה הכי נמי דבעינןUL'MITZVAH HACHI NAMI D'BE'INAN- but ideally the Temidim should be identical. (This cannot be the case, as no Mishnah or Beraisa in Tamid mentions this Halachah.)
24a)[line 32]כנגד היוםKENEGED HA'YOM- opposite the rising or setting sun (the Gemara will soon quote a Beraisa explaining this idea further)
b)[line 33]חובת היוםCHOVAS HA'YOM- that which there is an obligation to offer two Korbenos Tamid every day
25)[line 36]על קרן צפונית מערביתAL KEREN TZEFONIS MIZRACHIS- on the [slaughtering ring (TY #46) close to] the northwestern corner of the Mizbe'ach. This is because the sun rises in the east. In order for the sun to shine over the high walls of the Beis ha'Mikdash and upon the slaughter of the Tamid as soon as possible, it was slaughtered on the western side of the Azarah. It was slaughtered to the north of the Mizbe'ach since, as Kodshei Kodshim, it must be slaughtered in the north of the Azarah.
26)[line 36]טבעת שניהTABA'AS SHENIYAH- the second-closest ring to the Mizbe'ach. This was so that the legs of the animal could be held by the northwestern-most ring (RASHI).
27)[line 37]מוספין של שבתMUSAFIN SHEL SHABBOS (KORBAN MUSAF)
(a)Following the Korban Tamid, The Torah requires additional (Musaf) animals to be offered as public offerings on Shabbos, Rosh Chodesh, and the festivals. These are purchased with public funds, and are generally Korbenos Olah. Many of them atone for specific sins.
(b)The Korban Musaf specified by the Torah to be offered on Shabbos consists of two sheep offered as Korbenos Olah.
(d)The Tana'im disagree as to whether a Korban Musaf may be offered at any time of day, or whether it may be offered only through the seventh hour of the day (see Berachos 26b). It is generally offered during the sixth hour (see Rashi to Pesachim 58a DH Rebbi Yishmael).
28)[line 38]ששחטן בחוץSHE'SHACHATAN BA'CHUTZ (SHECHITAS CHUTZ)
(a)Any Korban fit to be offered as a sacrifice inside of the Beis ha'Mikdash (Ra'uy l'Fesach Ohel Mo'ed) must be slaughtered there only (Vayikra 17:1-7). This is the subject of both a positive Mitzvah (Mitzvas Aseh) and a prohibition (Lav), which prohibits the slaughter of such Korbanos outside of the Azarah. One who sins in this manner is punished with Kares (SEFER HA'CHINUCH Mitzvah #186).
29)[line 41]שעיר הנעשה בחוץSA'IR HA'NA'ASEH B'CHUTZ- The male goat that is offered upon the outer Mizbe'ach [as a Korban Chatas on Yom ha'Kipurim (Bamidbar 29:11)]
30)[line 42]דמחוסר הגרלהD'MECHUSAR HAGRALAH- that it is lacking designation through the lots [and is therefore not yet Ra'uy l'Fesach Ohel Mo'ed]
31)[line 43]אין מחוסר זמן לבו ביוםEIN MECHUSAR ZEMAN L'VO VA'YOM
(a)A Korban that is offered prior to its designated time (Mechusar Zman) or before certain actions that the Torah requires to be performed prior to its offering (Mechusar Ma'aseh) is invalid. Consequently, one who slaughters such a Korban outside of the Azarah does not incur Kares for doing do, since it is not yet "Ra'uy l'Fesach Ohel Mo'ed" (fit to be offered as a sacrifice inside of the Beis ha'Mikdash).
(b)If a Korban is to be sacrificed later on that day, however, then it is considered Ra'uy l'Fesach Ohel Mo'ed even before its time has arrived. Therefore, one who slaughters such a Korban outside of the Azarah is Chayav Kares. This is termed "Ein Mechusar Zeman l'Vo va'Yom."
(c)The same concept applies to a Korban that is Mechusar Ma'aseh l'Vo va'Yom (missing an action that will be performed later that same day). Since the action will be performed on that day, the Korban is considered Ra'uy l'Fesach Ohel Mo'ed. This is only true, however, if the following two conditions are met: 1. The required action is one that must be performed with other objects, not the Korban itself (e.g. certain other Korbanos must be offered before this one), and 2. The required missing action is not specifically connected to this Korban (such as the Hagralah of the Sa'ir La'Sh-m or the opening the doors of the Heichal prior to slaughtering a Korban Shelamim). If either of these conditions are met, then one who slaughters the Korban outside of the Azarah will not be Chayav Kares, since the Korban is Mechusar Ma'aseh and is therefore not yet Ra'uy l'Fesach Ohel Mo'ed.
32)[line 45]שלמיםSHELAMIM (KORBAN SHELAMIM)
(a)A person may offer a Korban in the Beis ha'Mikdash as a voluntary sacrifice, as the Torah states in Vayikra 1:2. Voluntary Korbanos may be Olos (which are burned entirely on the Mizbe'ach, see Vayikra 1:2-17, 6:1-6), Shelamim (parts of which are eaten, see Vayikra 3:1-17, 7:11-21, 7:28-37) or Menachos (flour offerings, see Vayikra 2:1-13, 6:7-11, 7:9-10).
(b)Korbenos Shelamim which are offered by an individual may be brought from male or female sheep, cows or goats. They are Kodshim Kalim, and may therefore be slaughtered anywhere in the Azarah (and are not limited to the northern part). Before its slaughter, the owner places his hands on the head of his animal and leans on it with all of his might (Semichah). The blood of the Shelamim is sprinkled on the lower half of the Mizbe'ach at the northeastern and southwestern corners only (Shetayim she'Hen Arba). Nesachim (meal offerings consisting of flour, oil, and a wine libation) are brought along with the Korban (Bamidbar 15:3-12). The meal offering is completely burned on the Mizbe'ach, and the wine is poured into one of the Sefalim (the silver libation pipes located at the top of the southwest corner of the Mizbe'ach) (RAMBAM and RA'AVAD Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 2:1). The amount of flour, oil and wine required depends upon the animal offered (see Bamidbar ibid.).
(c)The Chazeh (breast) and Shok (thigh) of the Shelamim are given to the Kohen (Vayikra 7:34). Certain fats and other parts of the Korban are offered on the Mizbe'ach (Vayikra 3:3-4, 9-10, 14-15). The owner and his guests (men or women) eat the rest of the Korban within the borders of Yerushalayim. The meat may be cooked in any fashion, and may be eaten for two days and the intervening night. The Beraisa brought in our Gemara details the source for the prohibition to eat it on the second night.
33)[line 45]קודם שנפתחו דלתות ההיכלKODEM SHE'NIFTECHU DELASOS HA'HEICHAL- before the doors of the Heichal are opened. (This was one of the first things done every morning in the Beis ha'Mikdash.)