[a - 45 lines; b - 36 lines]

1)[line 5] B'MATANOS SHEB'HEICHAL- [that our Mishnah is referring to] the sprinkling performed in the Heichal [but the goat was slaughtered in the proper order back during the sprinkling in the Kodesh ha'Kodashim]

2)[line 7]" , ; , ""V'CHIPER ES MIKDASH HA'KODESH V'ES OHEL MO'ED, V'ES HA'MIZBE'ACH YECHAPER; V'AL HA'KOHANIM V'AL KOL AM HA'KAHAL YECHAPER"- "And he shall atone for the holy Mikdash and for the Tent of Meeting, and for the Mizbe'ach he shall atone; and for the Kohanim and for all of the congregation he shall atone" (Vayikra 16:33). This verse, written toward the end of the Parshah dealing with the Avodah of Yom ha'Kipurim, recaps the atonement rendered through the Avodah of the Kohen Gadol.

3)[line 8] ZEH LI'FNAI VELI'FNIM- this refers [to the atonement for one who entered] the Kodesh ha'Kodashim [after having forgotten that he was Tamei (Tum'as Mikdash; see below, entry #9)]

4)[line 9] MIZBE'ACH K'MASHMA'O- the word "Mizbe'ach" refers to what it implies; i.e., a) the Mizbe'ach in the Azarah (RASHI); (b) the Mizbe'ach in the Heichal (RASHI Shevuos 13b)

5)[line 9]AZAROS- the rest of the Beis ha'Mikdash

6)[line 11] HUSHVU KULAN- The latter half of the verse refers to an atonement in which all members of Klal Yisrael are equal. Clearly, this cannot be Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav, as the Kohanim receive their atonement for this sin through the bull of the Kohen Gadol, while the rest if the nation receives it through the Sa'ir la'Shem.

7)[line 12] SA'IR HA'MISHTALE'ACH

(a)On Yom ha'Kipurim, two goats identical in every way are led in front of the Kohen Gadol. As part of the service of the day, he casts a Goral (lot) to determine which of the goats will be the Sa'ir la'HaSh-m, and which the Sa'ir la'Azazel. The first is offered as a Korban, and its blood is sprinkled, in the Kodesh ha'Kodashim; the other is dispatched (Mishtale'ach) to Azazel (a rocky cliff), from which it is pushed off to its death. A length of combed wool dyed crimson is split into two, and half is tied between the horns of the Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach before it was led to Azazel. When Klal Yisrael are worthy, the two lengths turn white when the goat is pushed off the cliff as a symbol that HaSh-m has accepted their Avodah and forgiven them. He who takes the goat to Azazel becomes Tamei, and must subsequently immerse his body and clothing in a Mikvah (Vayikra 16:26).

(b)The Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach symbolically carried with it all of the sins of Klal Yisrael; they were forgiven when it was pushed over the cliff. A companion piece of crimson wool (see Insights to 41b) remained behind near the Beis ha'Mikdash. When Klal Yisrael merited it, the wool would turn white as the Sa'ir went over the cliff to symbolize that they had been forgiven.

8)[line 12] BI'SHE'AR AVEIROS- all sins other (than Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav. These include all Mitzvos Aseh, Lo Sa'aseh, Chayavei Kerisus, and Chayavei Misos Beis Din, whether transgressed intentionally or unintentionally [Shevuos 1:6])

9)[line 15] TUM'AS MIKDASH V'KODASHAV

(a)On may not enter the Mikdash (see Background to Tamid 27:27 for a definition of this term) if he has become Tamei due to contact with an Av ha'Tum'ah (Bamidbar 5:2; see Background to 14:14).

(b)One may not consume Kodshim in a state of Tum'ah even if he is outside of the Mikdash. This is derived from the verse which states, "b'Chol Kodesh Lo Siga" - "... she (a woman after childbirth) may not touch any consecrated item" (Vayikra 12:4). The Gemara (Yevamos 75a, Makos 14b) understands that this Pasuk forbids one who is Tamei to partake of Kodshim.

(c)If one transgresses these prohibitions b'Shogeg (unintentionally), then he must offer a Korban Oleh v'Yored. What the Korban Oleh v'Yored consists of varies depends upon the means of the penitent. If he is wealthy, he must offer a female sheep or goat as a Chatas (Korban Ashir). If he cannot afford a sheep, he must offer a pair of turtledoves or common doves, one as an Olah and one as a Chatas (Korban Oleh v'Yored b'Dalus; a Ken). If he cannot even afford a pair of birds, he may offer one-tenth of an Eifah of fine flour as a Minchas Chatas (Korban Oleh v'Yored b'Dalei Dalus) (Vayikra 5:6-13). If he transgresses willingly, then he is liable to Kares and lashes (Vayikra 12:4, 22:3-4, Bamidbar 5:3, 19:20).

(d)On Yom ha'Kipurim, atonement for a Kohen who had known that he was Tamei, forgot, and then consumed Kodshim or entered the Mikdash is provided through the bull of the Kohen Gadol (see below, entry #33). For a the rest of Klal Yisrael, it is provided through the Sa'ir la'Shem (see Background to 36:36)

10)[line 19]" , , ...""V'CHILAH MI'KAPER ES HA'KODESH, V'ES OHEL MO'ED, V'ES HA'MIZBE'ACH"- "And [when] he is finished atoning for the Kodesh, the Ohel Mo'ed, and the Mizbe'ach" (Vayikra 16:20). This verse refers to the places in or upon which the blood of the bull and goat are sprinkled or applied.

11)[line 32] LO ME'AKVEI- [the pouring of the remainder of the blood upon the Yesod of the Mizbe'ach] does not necessitate the slaughter of an additional Korban

12a)[line 34] CHATAS ACHAS- [all of the sprinkling in each place must be from] one Korban Chatas

b)[line 35] CHITUY ECHAD- one purification (i.e., sprinkling of the blood)

13)[line 36] ' LI CHILEK REBBI YAAKOV B'LUGIN - Rebbi Yakov taught me to make a distinction [between the Korbanos of Yom ha'Kippurim and] the Log [Shemen Shel Metzora] (METZORA: LOG SHEMEN SHEL METZORA)

(a)If one develops a white patch on his skin the size of a Gris (a Cilician bean, approximately the size of a dime) which appears to be Tzara'as, he must go to a Kohen, as the status of Tzara'as can only be determined by the pronouncement of a Kohen. If the Kohen ascertains that the whiteness of the patch is indeed the hue of a Nega Tzara'as, then the status of the individual depends on its appearance. If there are Simanei Tum'ah, which include the spreading of the patch, unaffected skin in the middle of the patch, or two white hairs growing in the patch, then the Kohen immediately declares him to be a Metzora. Such an individual is known as a Metzora Muchlat. If the Kohen does not find any Simanei Tum'ah, then he pronounces him Tamei for one week. At this point the person in question is known as a Metzora Musgar. After the week passes, the Kohen returns to see if the appearance of the patch has developed Simanei Tum'ah. If it has, the Kohen pronounces him a Metzora Muchlat. If it has not, the individual is once again a Metzora Musgar for the duration of a week. At the end of this second week, if no Simanei Tum'ah appear, the Metzora becomes Tahor. A Metzora Muchlat remains Tamei until his Simanei Tum'ah disappear. At that point - after a Kohen determines that the Tzara'as has indeed departed - he is Tahor once pronounced so by the Kohen.

(b)The four shades of white considered Tzara'as are:

1.Baheres, which is the color of snow;

2.Se'es, which is the color of clean, white newborn lamb's wool;

3.Sapachas of Baheres, which is the color of the plaster used to whitewash the Beis ha'Mikdash;

4.Sapachas of Se'es, which is the color of the white membrane found on the inside of an egg.

(c)No Metzora is allowed into "Machaneh Yisrael," i.e. any walled city in Eretz Yisrael.

(d)On the day that a Metzora is healed from his Tzara'as, he procures two kosher birds (Tziporei Metzora), a piece of cedar, some crimson wool and a hyssop branch. One of the birds is slaughtered over fresh spring water in a clay bowl. A Kohen dips the other bird, along with the other articles, into the spring water that is mixed with the blood and sprinkles it seven times on the Metzora. The living bird is sent away towards the fields. Both birds are Asur b'Hana'ah, but the Isur no longer applies to the living bird once it is sent off to the fields.

(e)The Metzora next shaves all places on his body that have a collection of hair and that are exposed, and immerses in a Mikvah. He is now considered Tahor to the extent that he may enter a settlement, but marital relations are forbidden (Moed Katan 7b). He waits seven days, and on the seventh day he once more shaves and immerses. He is now completely Tahor but is still a Mechusar Kaparah (see Background to Pesachim 59:5).

(f)On the eighth day, the Metzora must bring three Korbanos to complete his Taharah. These Korbanos consist of two male sheep and one female sheep. One of the male sheep is offered as an Olah, and the other is offered as an Asham. The female sheep is offered as a Chatas. If he cannot afford these animals, he is called a poor Metzora. The poor Metzora brings two turtledoves or two common doves as the Olah and the Chatas; however, a sheep is still necessary for his Asham.

(g)The Metzora also brings a Log of olive oil to the Beis ha'Mikdash as part of his purification process. A Kohen lifts up and waves (Tenufah) the live Korban Asham while the Log of oil rests upon it. After the Asham is slaughtered, some of its blood is placed upon the middle section of cartilage of the Metzora's right ear, some on his right thumb, and some on his right big toe. These parts of his body must be in the Azarah at the time that the Kohen applies the blood. For this purpose he stands in the gate of Nikanor (the eastern gate of the Azarah, named for he who donated the brass doors of the gate; see Yoma 38). Although all of the other gates of the Azarah have the status of the Azarah, Sha'ar Nikanor is only as Kadosh as Har ha'Bayis. The Chachamim arranged this so that a Metzora can put his head, right hand and right foot into the Azarah while standing under the awning of the gate.

(h)After all of the Korbanos of the Metzora are offered, a Kohen then pours some of the Log of oil into his left hand and sprinkles it with his right finger seven times towards the Kodesh ha'Kodashim, dipping his finger into the oil each time. Some oil is placed on the Metzora, in the same places where the blood of the Asham was placed. The remainder of the oil in the Kohen's hand is placed upon the head of the Metzora. The remainder of the Log is given to the Kohanim; it has the status of Kodshei Kodashim, and therefore must be consumed by male Kohanim in the Azarah (RAMBAM Hilchos Mechusrei Kaparah 4:2-3).

(i)Rebbi states in this Beraisa that Rebbi Yaakov differentiated between the Log of oil of the Metzora and the blood of the Par and Sa'ir on Yom ha'Kipurim. Although Rebbi Elazar and Rebbi Shimon maintain that should the blood spill then the Kohen Gadol should pick up where he left off, they agree with Rebbi Meir that should the Log of oil spill then the process must begin again from the beginning.

14)[line 36, 37] / MATANOS SHE'BI'FNIM/MATANOS SHEBA'HEICHAL- the sprinkling of seven drops of oil toward the Kodesh ha'Kodashim

15)[line 39]BEHONOS- [the right earlobe,] the right thumb, and the right big toe

16)[line 42] ' LI SHANAH REBBI YAAKOV B'LUGIN- Rebbi Yaakov taught me [that the disagreement of Rebbi Meir with Rebbi Elazar and Rebbi Shimon regarding the blood of the Par and Sa'ir] pertains to the Log [of oil of a Metzora as well]

17)[line 44] " ( ) []..."MI'SHUM DI'CHESIV, "VEHA'NOSAR (MIN HA') [BA']SHEMEN"- since the verse refers to it as "Nosar (leftover) from the oil" (Vayikra 14:18)

18)[line 44]" [ ]""V'HANOSERES MIN HA'MINCHAH" (KEMITZAH)

(a)Korbenos Minchah are offerings that contain flour. In all private Menachos, a Kometz of the offering is burned on the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon. The verse states, "And the remainder of the Minchah belong to Aharon and his sons" (Vayikra 2:3). From this it is understood that remainder of the Minchah (the Sheyarei ha'Minchah) is eaten by male Kohanim in the Azarah, since the Korban Minchah is in the category of Korbanos known as Kodshei Kodashim (see Background to Zevachim 104:29).

(b)A Kometz is defined as that which can be held between the middle three fingers and the palm. The Kohen places his hand in the mixture and removes one handful. He then wipes away the excess extending beyond his three middle fingers using his thumb and pinky until only the Kometz remains. This is described in the Torah as, "And he shall remove from it with his three-fingered fistful..." (Vayikra 6:8).

(c)The Kometz must be placed in a Kli Shares (sanctified vessel) in order to attain its status as a Kometz and allow the rest of the Korban Minchah to be eaten.

19)[last line] ?HACHI NAMI D'LO ME'AKVEI?- is it true that [even if there is no remainder of the Minchah,] this does not prevent [the Kometz from being offered upon the Mizbe'ach]? We know that this is not so (Menachos 9a)!]

20a)[last line]" [ , ...""UMI'YESER [HA'SHEMEN]"- "And from the remaining [oil in his hand, the Kohen shall place on his right earlobe]" (Vayikra 14:17).

b)[last line]" [ , ...]""V'HANOSAR [BA'SHEMEN]"- "And what remains [from the oil in the hand of the Kohen he should put on the head of he who has come to be purified] (Vayikra 14:18). The Gemara stresses that this oil is referred to as "the remainder" twice.

61b----------------------------------------61b

21)[line 1] ASHAM METZORA- see above, entry #13:f, and below, entry #35

22)[line 1] SHE'LO LISHMO- with the intent that it be offered as a different type of Korban (in which case it is a valid Korban, but not a valid Asham)

23)[line 6] EIN LO TAKANAH- Since the Korban is valid and attributed to its owner, it is not as if the Asham was never brought. It is impossible to pick up in the middle once it has been offered she'Lo Lishmah. Another Asham is not an option, since the Torah specifies only one Asham (Vayikra 14:21) (RASHI; see Insights).

24)[line 6] "" !V'HA OSO KSIV!- but [referring to the Asham Metzora,] the Torah states, ["And he shall offer] it [as an Asham]" (Vayikra 14:12). (The word "Oso" is extraneous and would seem to imply that no other animal may be offered as an Asham, even according to Rebbi Meir.)

25)[line 10]NESACHIM

Nesachim are wine libations offered along with a Korban Shelamim or Olah, whether these Korbanos are offered by the Tzibur (Bamidbar 28:11-15, 20-21) or an individual (Bamidbar 15:3-16). All Nesachim are offered along with a meal offering known as a Minchas Nesachim.

26)[line 11]L'HACHSHIRO- to allow him (to eat Kodshim and enter the Beis ha'Mikdash)

27)[line 13]VEHA'TANYA- This Beraisa is offered as proof that a Tana sometimes says "Tzarich" when the implication is that there is nothing that can be done.

28)[line 13] NAZIR MEMORAT

(a)If a person makes a vow to become a Nazir without stipulating a time period, his Nezirus lasts for a period of thirty days. During this period, the Nazir is not allowed to:

1.cut his hair;

2.become Tamei by touching or being in the same room as a corpse;

3.consume any products of the grapevine.

(b)When a Nazir completes his period of Nezirus, he must offer three sacrifices: a male sheep as an Olah, a female sheep as a Chatas, and a ram as a Shelamim. Together with the Shelamim he brings 6 and 2/3 Esronos of Soles (fine flour) which are made into 20 loaves of Matzah, 10 Chalos (unleavened loaves) and 10 Rekikin (flat Matzos). He then shaved his hair and burned it under the pot in which the Shelamim was cooked (Bamidbar 6:18).

(c)This Beraisa discusses a Nazir whose hair has fallen out (a Nazir Memorat), and who therefore cannot shave as required.

29)[line 14] HA'AVARAS TA'AR- lit. the passing of a razor; shaving

30)[line 19] EIN LO- if [a Metzora] does not have

31)[line 20] REBBI ELAZAR OMER NOSEN AL MEKOMO V'YOTZEI- Rebbi Elazar says that it is enough to place the blood of the Asham and the oil where the thumb or toe ought to be. Rebbi Pedas maintains that similarly, Beis Shamai maintains that a bald Nazir must move a razor over the area that hair generally grows from, and this is enough to fulfill his requirement.

32)[line 22]" [] ...""V'LAKACH [HA'KOHEN] MI'DAM HA'ASHAM" (ARBA AVODOS)

(a)The offering of a Korban consists of four primary actions. These four Avodos are Shechitah (slaughtering), Kabalas ha'Dam (collecting the lifeblood of the Korban in a vessel), Holachah (bringing the blood to the Mizbe'ach) and Zerikah (dashing the blood upon the Mizbe'ach).

(b)The "taking" referred to in this verse is that of Kabalas ha'Dam.

33)[line 25] AF L'MIZBE'ACH KEN- that the Zerikas ha'Dam should be performed with blood collected by hand

34)[line 25]"[ ,] ...""KI KA'CHATAS HA'ASHAM HU"- "[And he shall slaughter the Asham in the same place in which he would slaughter the Chatas ;] for the Asham is like a Chatas" (Vayikra 14:13).

35)[line 26]... CHATAS ASHAM

(a)KORBAN CHATAS - If a person transgresses a sin b'Shogeg (unintentionally) for which he is liable to receive the punishment of Kares (see Background to Pesachim 32:16) b'Mezid (intentionally), he must offer a Korban Chatas. This Korban consists of a female goat or sheep.

(b)One who offers a Korban Chatas first leans on the animal with all his might (Semichah) in the northern area of the Azarah. He then recites Viduy, confessing his sin and asking HaSh-m for forgiveness. The animal is then immediately slaughtered. The blood of the Chatas is applied to the Keranos (cubic Amah posts on the corners of the Mizbe'ach) beginning with the southeastern corner of the Mizbe'ach and continuing to the northeastern, northwestern, and southwestern corners. The remaining blood is then spilled onto the Yesod (base) of the Mizbe'ach. Certain parts of the Korban is eaten by Kohanim in the Azarah; it must be consumed before the day following its offering (Vayikra 27-31).

(c)KORBAN ASHAM VADAI - The Torah specifies five cases in which a Korban Asham Vadai must be offered. This Korban usually consists of a ram which is worth a minimum of two Sela'im. The first three cases involve transgressions:

1.ASHAM ME'ILOS: One who benefits from Hekdesh b'Shogeg must offer a Korban Asham, aside from that which he is obligated to repay 125% of the value of that which he benefited (Vayikra 5:14-16; see Background to Kidushin 55:5a).

2.ASHAM GEZEILOS: If one steals money from his fellow Jew, swears in Beis Din that he holds no such money, and later admits to his sin, then he must first repay 125% of the value of that which he stole, and then offer a Korban Asham in order to receive atonement (Vayikra 5:20-26).

3.ASHAM SHIFCHAH CHARUFAH: If one had relations with a Shifchah Charufah (see Background to Yevamos 55:5), then he must offer a Korban Asham whether he transgressed this sin b'Mezid or b'Shogeg (Vayikra 19:20-22).

4.ASHAM NAZIR: If a Nazir (see Background to 6:41) becomes Tamei during his period of Nezirus, he must offer a sheep within its first year as an Asham (Bamidbar 6:12; see also Background to Nazir 60:2).

5.ASHAM METZORA: When a Metzora completes his Taharah process (see above, entry #9), he must offer a sheep within its first year as an Asham (Vayikra 14:12).

(d)ASHAM TALUY - If one is in doubt as to whether or not he committed a transgression for which he must offer a Korban Chatas, he offers a ram worth two Sela'im as a Korban Asham Taluy (dependant; Vayikra 5:17-19). Should he later discover that he did indeed sin, he must then offer a proper Korban Chatas; the Asham Taluy provides only temporary atonement as long as he is unsure of his requirement (see Background to Nazir 23:2b).

(e)The offering of an Asham is mostly similar to that of a Chatas. The main distinction between them is that the blood of an Asham is applied to the northeastern and southwestern corners only, on the lower half of the Mizbe'ach, in such a way that there is Dam on all sides of the Mizbe'ach (Shenayim she'Hen Arba).

36)[line 31]V'CHULAN (PAR SHEL YOM HA'KIPURIM)

(a)Among the Korbanos offered by the Kohen Gadol on Yom ha'Kipurim is a bull purchased with his personal funds (Vayikra 16:3-6). The Kohen Gadol performs Semichah (the placement of both hands upon the head of the animal and leaning on it with all of one's might) on his bull while reciting Viduy (the confession of sins) on behalf of himself and his immediate household (Vayikra 1:4). After drawing the lots for the two identical goats, offering one as a Chatas, and sending the other to Azazel, he again recites Viduy on the bull - this time on behalf of all Kohanim. He then slaughters it, collects its blood, and sprinkles the blood in the Kodesh ha'Kodashim (Vayikra 16:14), and then again in the Heichal toward the Paroches (the curtain separating the Heichal from the Kodesh ha'Kodashim; ibid. 16:16). He then applies it to the Mizbach ha'Ketores in the Heichal (ibid. 16:18). The carcass of the bull is then burned in its entirety outside of Yerushalayim in the same place that the ashes removed from the Mizbe'ach are deposited (the Beis ha'Deshen). The clothing of those who are involved with the burning of the carcass become Tamei (Metamei Begadim). The remainder of its blood is then poured on the western Yesod (base) of the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon.

(c)The Mishnah (Shevu'os 2a) states that the service of this Par atones for sins of the Kohanim. The Tana'im disagree as to what sins are atoned for:

1.Rebbi Yehudah is of the opinion that the Par of the Kohen Gadol atones for sins of Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav (see Background to 18:19).

2.Rebbi Shimon maintains that atonement for Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav is provided by the sprinkling of the bull's blood. The Viduy of the Kohen Gadol atones for all other sins of the Kohanim.

(d)Our Gemara refers to the carcasses of all the bulls slaughtered in order to provide more blood if the blood of the original bull has spilled.

37)[line 35] ?KAMAH SE'IRIN MESHALE'ACH?- [if more than one Sa'ir is needed as a Chatas - in which case there are more than one companion goat (see above, entry #7) --] how many goats are sent [to Azazel]?

38)[last line] ?V'CHI EDRO MESHALE'ACH?- is an entire flock sent? [Clearly, only one goat is sent to Azazel!]

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