[6a - 34 lines; 6b - 23 lines]
1)[line 1]אבנטו של כהן גדול, לא זה הוא אבנטו של כהן הדיוטAVNETO SHEL KOHEN GADOL, LO ZEHU AVNETO SHEL KOHEN HEDYOT
(a)The Torah tells us that the Avnet (belt) worn by the Kohen Gadol when he performs the special Yom ha'Kipurim Avodah consists of 100% linen, and that the belt worn by the Kohen Gadol when he dons his usual eight garments contains Kil'ayim (a normally forbidden mixture of linen and wool). Nowhere, however, does the Torah specify of what material(s) the Avnet of a Kohen Hedyot is woven from.
(b)There is a disagreement between two Amora'im as to what material is used to make the belt of a Kohen Hedyot. One of them maintains that a Kohen Hedyot wears a belt of linen, similar to that of the Kohen Gadol on Yom Kipur. The other argues that the Avnet of a Kohen Hedyot contains Kil'ayim, similar to the belt worn by the Kohen Gadol during the rest of the year.
(c)These two opinions are expressed as either the Avnet of the Kohen Gadol equaling that of the Kohen Hedyot, or not equaling it. Rashi to our Gemara explains that the first opinion maintains that the belt worn by the Kohen Gadol during the year is similar to that of a Kohen Hedyot; they are both Kil'ayim. The other contends that the Kohen Hedyot wears a belt that is not Kil'ayim. According to Rashi in Chulin (138a), the opposite is true. The opinion that maintains that the two Avnetim are similar is comparing that of the Kohan Hedyot to the belt worn by the Kohen Gadol on Yom Kipur; they are both entirely linen. It is the other opinion who says that a Kohen Hedyot wears a belt made with Kil'ayim.
2a)[line 7]ובבת אחת מי משכחת לה?UB'VAS ACHAS MI MISHKACHAS LAH?- was it possible [for Moshe Rabeinu to place belts on Aharon and his four sons] simultaneously?
b)[line 8]דאקדיםD'AKDIM- he first [dressed Aharon in his Michnasayim, Kutones, and Mitznefes, then each of his sons in their respective Michnasayim, Kutones, and Migba'as, and then lined them up and placed an Avnet upon each, one after another] (see RITVA)
3a)[line 10]אי לר' יוחנן כדאית ליהIY L'REBBI YOCHANAN KED'IS LEI- If it is Rebbi Yochanan, according to his opinion [that the separation period is derived from the Shiv'as Yemei ha'Milu'im, in which case no other reason is necessary]
b)[line 10]אי לריש לקיש כדאית ליהIY L'REISH LAKISH KED'IS LEI- If it is Reish Lakish, according to his opinion [that the separation period is derived from the Matan Torah, in which case no other reason is necessary]
4)[line 11]מביתוMI'BEISO- from his wife
5)[line 13]ויבא עליהVA'YAVO ALEHA (BO'EL NIDAH)
(a)One who has intimate relations with a Nidah (see Background to Pesachim 112:62) becomes Tamei for seven days, similar to the Nidah herself. His Tum'ah, however, is less stringent. Any object which comes into contact with him (Maga'o), as well as any object underneath him (Tachtono), gain the same status of an object which lies above a Nidah (Elyonah); namely, that of a Rishon l'Tum'ah (Vayikra 15:24; see Nidah 33a, and Charts to Nidah 33:8b). After seven days, he immerses in a Mikvah during the daytime in order to complete his purification process.
(b)Although the Chachamim decreed that any Taharos (food known to be in a pure state) touched by a woman within 24 hours of when she begins her period are Tamei, the law is different when it comes to one who had relations with her. Even if a woman finds that she has begun to bleed soon following relations, as long as it is possible that she began to do so only afterwards, then her husband may be presumed Tahor. Rebbi Akiva, however, maintains that similar to Taharos, he too is Tamei if he had relations within 24 hours of the bleeding (Nidah 14a).
6a)[line 20]באחר אחרB'ACHAR ACHAR- lit. in the after after; during the period following that classified as "after" until 24 hours after the end of relations
b)[line 20]בחד אחרB'CHAD ACHAR- in the [period] after. If a woman finds blood *immediately* following relations such that it must have been there during relations, all agree that both she and her husband are Tamei mid'Oraisa. The period following is termed "Achar," and it lasts for as long as it takes for her to a) get up and wash herself off (RASHI); b) take a cloth from within arm's reach and perform a Bedikah (internal examination; RITVA). It is within this time that our Gemara says the Rabanan agree with Rebbi Akiva that he is Tamei mid'Rabanan if blood is found.
(a)By Torah law, a woman who has her period is a Nidah for the following seven days, whether she sees blood only that one time or for the entire seven days.
(b)Although following the Tum'ah period for most Tum'os one may immerse in a Mikvah upon the day that his Tum'ah ends since once part of the day has passed it is considered as if all of it has (Miktzas ha'Yom k'Kulo), a Nidah must wait until after nightfall on the seventh day, and only then immerse herself to become Tehorah. This is because the Torah states that "she shall be in her Nidah state for seven days" (Vayikra 15:19) - and the seven days do not end before night falls on the seventh of them.
8)[line 24]הערב השמשHE'EREV HA'SHEMESH (TEVILAH)
(a)A Tevul Yom is a person or vessel that were Tamei and then immersed in a Mikvah. This is the first stage in the process of purification from any Tum'ah. The second stage requires waiting for the following night to fall, at which point the person or utensil will become completely Tahor. The Tum'ah level of a Tevul Yom is minimal; he or it is only considered a Sheni l'Tum'ah. This means that if he or it touches Terumah or Kodesh, the Terumah or Kodesh become Pasul and must be burned. Chulin that he or it touches does not become Tamei whatsoever.
9)[line 27]שעה אחת סמוך לשקיעת החמהSHA'AH ACHAS SAMUCH L'SHKI'AS HA'CHAMAH- just before sunset [on the eighth day prior to Yom ha'Kipurim. Although this more than seven days before Yom Kipur, the added amount is so small it is considered too trivial to mention in our Mishnah.]
(a)In discussing the laws of Tum'ah and Taharah, the Torah (Vayikra 12:1-8) states that a woman may not enter the Beis ha'Mikdash nor eat Kodshim immediately childbirth. How long she must wait is divided into two terms. 1. During the initial term, she has the status of a Nidah (even if she had not seen any blood during the process). If she gave birth to a boy, this term lasts for seven days. If a girl was born, this term lasts for two weeks. At the end of this term, she may go to the Mikvah. Although following the Tum'ah period for most Tum'os one may immerse in a Mikvah upon the day that her Tum'ah ends since once part of the day has passed it is considered as if all of it has (Miktzas ha'Yom k'Kulo), a Yoledes must wait to immerse until after nightfall. This is because the Torah compares her to a Nidah (Vayikra 7:2), and a Nidah may only immerse herself in a Mikvah following nightfall of her final day of Tum'ah. 2. During the second stage, any blood that she sees does not cause her to have the status of a Nidah as it normally would. The blood that she sees during this period is called "Dam Tohar". (The current practice is to consider a woman a Nidah even during the period of Dam Tohar - see Insights to Nidah 25a.) She still may not eat Kodshim nor enter the Beis ha'Mikdash, however. This term lasts for thirty-three days following the first seven after birth of a boy, and sixty-six days following the first fourteen after the birth of a girl. Thus, the total waiting period following the birth of a boy is forty days, and following the birth of a girl, eighty days.
(b)At the end of this period, any blood that the Yoledes sees is no longer considered Tahor, and will cause her to have the status of a Nidah. At this point she must bring a Korban Yoledes, after which she may eat Kodshim and enter the Beis ha'Mikdash. The Korban consists of a male sheep as a Korban Olah, and a dove or a turtledove as a Korban Chatas. If she can not afford the sheep, she may bring two doves or two turtledoves, one as an Olah and one as a Chatas.
(c)A woman who miscarries his child must follow the above procedure as well.
11)[line 31]וכל דאתי מרבוייאV'CHOL D'ASI ME'RIBUYA- and any [Tamei] whose [Tum'ah] comes from her
12)[line 32]בעל קריBA'AL KERI
(a)One who has emitted Keri (semen) becomes a Rishon l'Tum'ah. He may not enter Machaneh Leviyah (the temple mount), nor may he eat Ma'aser, Terumah or Kodshim. He becomes Tahor upon immersing in a Mikvah and may immediately enter Machaneh Leviyah and eat Ma'aser. Until nightfall he remains a "Tevul Yom" (see above, entry #8), after which he may once again eat Terumah or Kodshim. Mid'Rabanan he may not enter the Ezras Nashim of the Beis ha'Mikdash until nightfall.
13)[line 32]מגע שרץMAGA SHERETZ
(a)All objects belong to one of three categories:
1.Sources of Tum'ah
2.Objects that can become Tamei
3.Objects that cannot become Tamei
(b)A source of Tum'ah is called an Av ha'Tum'ah. The exception to this is a corpse, which is referred to as the "Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah," due to the fact that it can generate more Tum'ah than any other object. When an object becomes Tamei from coming into contact with an object which is Tamei, that object does not receive the same Tum'ah as that of the first object, but rather a level of Tum'ah one degree weaker than the first. If an object came into contact with an Av ha'Tum'ah, it is called a Rishon l'Tum'ah, or Vlad ha'Tum'ah. Tum'ah received from a Rishon creates a Sheni l'Tum'ah, and that from a Sheni creates a Shelishi (in certain cases), etc.
(c)A metal utensil can become an Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah, an Av ha'Tum'ah, or a Rishon l'Tum'ah (see Insights to Pesachim 14b); a person and all utensils other than earthenware can become an Av ha'Tum'ah or Rishon l'Tum'ah (although Chazal decreed that one's hands sometimes have the status of a Sheni l'Tum'ah); Earthenware utensils can only become a Rishon l'Tum'ah; food and liquids which are Chulin can become a Rishon l'Tum'ah or a Sheni l'Tum'ah; Terumah can become a Shelishi l'Tum'ah as well; and Hekdesh can receive the status of a Revi'i l'Tum'ah.
(d)There are eight Sheratzim - scampering animals - described by the Torah as sources of Tum'ah (Vayikra 11:29-38). A dead Sheretz or part of a dead Sheretz the size of an Adashah (lentil bean) is an Av ha'Tum'ah (Chagigah 11a). If a person or object makes either willing or unwilling contact with a Sheretz, he/it becomes Tamei; this is known as Tum'as Maga. The eight Sheratzim (Based upon Rabbi Aryeh Kaplan's "The Living Torah" and other sources) are:
1.CHOLED - a weasel [alt., a martin or an ermine (ARUCH), a rat (TARGUM, TOSFOS YOM TOV), a mole or mole-rat (ARUCH), or a field mouse (TARGUM YONASAN)]. The Gemara describes a Choled as a predatory animal which tunnels under the ground, potentially weakening the foundation of houses.
2.ACHBAR - a mouse; some sources appear to include a rat in the definition of Achbar as well
3.TZAV - a toad (RASHI Vayikra 11:29, Nidah 56a; this is also evident from the Mishnah in Taharos 5:1 which implies that it is easily confused with a frog - see Rishonim there). Alternatively, a turtle (ME'AM LOEZ, TIFERES YISRAEL to Taharos ibid.). According to the Septuagint it is a land crocodile (perhaps the monitor, see KO'ACH; this would fit with the Gemara (Chulin 127a) which associates it with the salamander and snake). Others identify it as a ferret.
4.ANAKAH - a hedgehog or porcupine; alternatively, a beaver (RADAK). [The Septuagint identifies the Anakah as a mole, shrew mouse or field mouse.] Rabeinu Sa'adya Ga'on identifies it as a gecko, a type of lizard with a soft speckled hide which may grow to five inches in length; "Anachah" means to groan, and the gecko makes a groaning sound.
5.KO'ACH - a lizard (RADAK quoting RASHI) [chameleon, according to the Septuagint.] According to some translations the Ko'ach would appear to be the monitor or monitor lizard. This is the largest reptile living in the Holy Land, growing to be as long as four feet. Found on the coast, in the Negev, and in the Aravah, it feeds upon rodents and other reptiles (RADAK, RABEINU SA'ADYA GAON).
6.LETA'AH - a lizard; alt., a white lizard, otherwise known as the great gecko.
7.CHOMET - a snail or slug (RASHI) [alt., a lizard; or a skink, a short-legged lizard of which four varieties are found in Eretz Yisrael]
8.TINSHEMES - a mole (Rashi Chulin 63a) [alt., a large-headed lizard which burrows underground, most probably a species of gecko]
(e)One who becomes Tamei through direct contact with a Sheretz may not eat Terumah or Kodshim, nor enter the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash. He need not wait before immersing in a Mikvah. After doing so, he must wait until nightfall to become Tahor; after that time he may once again eat Terumah and Kodshim and enter the Azarah.
14)[line 32]טמא מתTEMEI MES
(a)(See previous entry, a-c.) A k'Zayis of the flesh of a Mes (corpse) is an "Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah" and causes other people or objects to become Tamei through Maga (contact), Masa (carrying it), or Ohel (being in the same covered area as it; see Background to Pesachim 9:3).
(b)If a person or utensil becomes Tamei through touching or being in the same room as a Mes (or a part of a Mes which is Metamei b'Ohel), he/it must wait seven days before he/it is able to go to the Mikvah in order to become Tahor. On the third and seventh days, Mei Chatas (ashes of the Parah Adumah mixed in spring water - see Background to 2:6) is sprinkled on the person or utensil. A person who is Tahor dips three Ezov (hyssop) branches which have been bound together into the mixture, and sprinkles them on the person or utensil which is Tamei. After this process is complete, the person or utensil is immersed in a Mikvah to complete the purification process (Bamidbar 19:17-19).
15)[line 3]משכב ומושבMISHKAV U'MOSHAV
(a)A Zav, Zavah, Nidah, or Yoledes cause objects underneath them to become Avos ha'Tum'ah whether or not they come into contact with them. The status of such an object is that of a Tamei Midras (lit. that which is treaded upon), also known as a Mishkav or Moshav ha'Zav/Zavah, or the "Tachton" of a Zav or Zavah. An object beneath a Zav or a Zavah becomes a Midras only if it is designed for lying, sitting, or leaning upon. Earthenware objects (Klei Cheres) cannot receive Tum'as Midras.
(b)A person or utensil that comes into contact with (Maga) or carries (Masa) a Mishkav or Moshav gains the status of a Rishon l'Tum'ah, as do the clothing he is wearing and any Kelim (other than earthenware utensils) that he is in contact with at the time.
16)[line 3]טומאה קלהTUM'AH KALAH- a lighter degree of Tum'ah
17)[line 4]לטמא אוכלין ומשקיןL'TAMEI OCHLIN U'MASHKIN- to transfer Tum'ah to food and drink; that is, he has the status of a Rishon l'Tum'ah (see above, entry #13a-c)
(a)A man who emits Zov at least twice, whether this occurs over the course of one day or two or consecutive days, is called a Zav. Zov is a clear discharge with the appearance of the white of a sterile or spoiled egg (in contrast to semen, which has the consistency of fresh egg white). Zov also may be a pus-like discharge resembling the liquid component of barley dough or soft barley batter. A Zav has the status of an Av ha'Tum'ah and may not enter "Machaneh Leviyah" (see Background to Pesachim 67:6).
(b)A Zav must count seven "clean" days during which he experiences no discharge in order to start his purification process. On the seventh day or following, he immerses himself in a Mikvah during the daytime. At nightfall he becomes Tahor (assuming that he continue to experience no emissions; Zavim 2:2).
(c)If a Zav emits Zov only twice, he need not bring a Korban. If he has discharged Zov three times, however - whether over the course of one day or over two or three consecutive days - he must offer a Korban after completing his seven clean days in order to be able to enter the Beis ha'Mikdash or eat Korbanos.
(d)The Korban which a Zav must offer consists of a pair of turtle-doves or common doves, one as an Olah and one as a Chatas.
(a)The eleven days which follow the seven days of Nidah (see above, entry #7) are termed days of Zivah. If a woman experiences uterine bleeding during this time for either one day or two consecutive days, she is known as a Zavah Ketanah and is Teme'ah. As long as she does not bleed over the following night and day, she may immerse in a Mikvah to become Tehorah. She may even immerse the morning immediately following the bleeding, although whether or not she becomes Tehorah is contingent upon whether or not she sees blood later on that day. A woman in such a situation is called a Shomeres Yom Keneged Yom, for she must watch the following day in order to determine whether or not she has continued to bleed.
(b)If a woman has a show of blood for three consecutive days during her eleven days of Zivah, she attains the status of a Zavah Gedolah. In order to become Tehorah, she must count seven "clean days" during which she experiences no further bleeding. On the morning of the seventh clean day she may immerse in a Mikvah. As long as she experiences no further bleeding over the rest of that day she is Tehorah and no longer a Zavah. She must then offer a Korban Zavah in order to enter the Beis ha'Mikdash or partake of Kodshim. This Korban consists of a pair of turtle-doves or common doves, one as an Olah and one as a Chatas.
(a)If one develops a white patch on his skin the size of a Gris (a Cilician bean, approximately the size of a dime) which appears to be Tzara'as, he must go to a Kohen, as the status of Tzara'as can only be determined by the pronouncement of a Kohen. If the Kohen ascertains that the whiteness of the patch is indeed the hue of a Nega Tzara'as, then the status of the individual depends on its appearance. If there are Simanei Tum'ah, which include the spreading of the patch, unaffected skin in the middle of the patch, or two white hairs growing in the patch, then the Kohen immediately declares him to be a Metzora. Such an individual is known as a Metzora Muchlat. If the Kohen does not find any Simanei Tum'ah, then he pronounces him Tamei for one week. At this point the person in question is known as a Metzora Musgar. After the week passes, the Kohen returns to see if the appearance of the patch has developed Simanei Tum'ah. If it has, the Kohen pronounces him a Metzora Muchlat. If it has not, the individual is once again a Metzora Musgar for the duration of a week. At the end of this second week, if no Simanei Tum'ah appear, the Metzora becomes Tahor. A Metzora Muchlat remains Tamei until his Simanei Tum'ah disappear. At that point - after a Kohen determines that the Tzara'as has indeed departed - he is Tahor once pronounced so by the Kohen.
(b)The four shades of white considered Tzara'as are: 1. Baheres, which is the color of snow; 2. Se'es, which is the color of clean, white newborn lamb's wool; 3. Sapachas of Baheres, which is the color of the plaster used to whitewash the Beis ha'Mikdash; 4. Sapachas of Se'es, which is the color of the white membrane found on the inside of an egg.
(c)No Metzora is allowed into "Machaneh Yisrael," i.e. any walled city in Eretz Yisrael.
(d)On the day that a Metzora is healed from his Tzara'as, he procures two kosher birds (Tziporei Metzora), a piece of cedar, some crimson wool and a hyssop branch. One of the birds is slaughtered over fresh spring water in a clay bowl. A Kohen dips the other bird, along with the other articles, into the spring water that is mixed with the blood and sprinkles it seven times on the Metzora. The living bird is sent away towards the fields. Both birds are Asur b'Hana'ah, but the Isur no longer applies to the living bird once it is sent off to the fields.
(e)The Metzora next shaves all places on his body that have a collection of hair and that are exposed, and immerses in a Mikvah. He is now considered Tahor to the extent that he may enter a settlement, but marital relations are forbidden (Moed Katan 7b). He waits seven days, and on the seventh day he once more shaves and immerses. He is now completely Tahor but is still a Mechusar Kaparah (see Background to Pesachim 59:5).
(f)On the eighth day, the Metzora must bring three Korbanos to complete his Taharah. These Korbanos consist of two male sheep and one female sheep. One of the male sheep is offered as an Olah, and the other is offered as an Asham. The female sheep is offered as a Chatas. If he cannot afford these animals, he is called a poor Metzora. The poor Metzora brings two turtledoves or two common doves as the Olah and the Chatas; however, a sheep is still necessary for his Asham.
(g)The Metzora also brings a Log of olive oil to the Beis ha'Mikdash as part of his purification process. A Kohen lifts up and waves (Tenufah) the live Korban Asham while the Log of oil rests upon it. After the Asham is slaughtered, some of its blood is placed upon the middle section of cartilage of the Metzora's right ear, some on his right thumb, and some on his right big toe. These parts of his body must be in the Azarah at the time that the Kohen applies the blood. For this purpose he stands in the gate of Nikanor (the eastern gate of the Azarah, named for he who donated the brass doors of the gate; see Yoma 38). Although all of the other gates of the Azarah have the status of the Azarah, Sha'ar Nikanor is only as Kadosh as Har ha'Bayis. The Chachamim arranged this so that a Metzora can put his head, right hand and right foot into the Azarah while standing under the awning of the gate.
(h)After all of the Metzora's Korbanos are offered, a Kohen pours some of the oil into his left hand and sprinkles it seven times towards the Kodesh ha'Kodashim. He must dip his right finger in the oil each time. Oil is also placed upon the body of the Metzora, in all of the same places where the blood of the Asham had been previously placed. The remainder of the oil in the Kohen's hand is placed upon the head of the Metzora. The rest of the Log (which was not poured into the Kohen's hand) is given to the Kohanim; it must be consumed by male Kohanim in the Azarah, as it has the status of Kodshei Kodashim (RAMBAM Hilchos Mechusrei Kaparah 4:2-3).
21)[line 8]הפרישהו מטומאת המת!HAFRISHEHU MI'TUM'AS HA'MES!- you should guard him from Tum'as Mes [by isolating him from all human company, lest they die while with him in the room]!
22)[line 9]טומאת המת הותרה היא בציבור... טומאת המת דחויה היא בצבורTUM'AS HA'MES HUTRAH HI B'TZIBOR/ DECHUYAH HI B'TZIBOR
(a)The Torah permits the offering of communal sacrifices "b'Tum'ah". This means that if the Kohanim, the Klei Shares (vessels in the Beis ha'Mikdash), or the meat or blood of the Korban itself have become Tamei, the Korban may still be offered. Included in this category are the Korbenos Temidim and Musafim of Shabbos and Yom Tov, communal Menachos such as the Minchas ha'Omer and the Shtei ha'Lechem, and all of the Korbanos offered along with these Menachos (see Background to Pesachim 76:28:b and 29:b).
(b)The Amora'im disagree as to whether the Tum'ah is Hutrah - permitted - or merely Dechuyah - pushed aside - b'Tzibor (Pesachim 77a, Yoma 7b). Our Gemara at first explains that this Machlokes does not apply to a case in which some Kohanim in the Mikdash are Temei'im and others are Tehorim; all opinions maintain that only the Tehorim may perform the Avodah. The dispute only exists when all of the Kohanim in the Beis Av (see next entry) are Temei'im. Rav Nachman maintains that there is no prohibition whatsoever against offering Korbenos Tzibor b'Tum'ah ("Hutrah"), and therefore the Kohanim who are Tamei may perform the Avodah. Rav Sheshes rules that if there are Kohanim from other Batei Avos who are Tahor, they should be sought for the Avodah. Since the prohibition against offering Korbenos Tzibor b'Tum'ah is pushed aside ("Dechuyah") only when necessary, it is still in force when other solutions are possible. Some say that Rav Nachman does not even require one to search for a Kohen who is Tahor within a given Beis Av.
(d)Another practical difference arising from this dispute is whether or not a Korban Tzibor whose blood, meat or fats have become Tamei may only be offered in conjunction with the added appeasement of the Tzitz ("Tzitz Meratzeh"; see Background to 7:11). According to the opinion of Tum'ah Dechuyah Hi b'Tzibor, the Korban may not be offered unless the Tzitz is there to offset the effects of the Tum'ah (see Insights to Pesachim 77a).
23)[line 17]בית אבBEIS AV (MISHMAROS)
(a)Every family of Kohanim belongs to one of 24 shifts (Mishmaros). Each Mishmar serves in the Mikdash for one week at a time, meaning that each one performs the Avodah for at least two weeks out of the year. The Mishmaros change on Shabbos, when the outgoing Mishmar performs the Avodah in the morning and the incoming Mishmar performs the Avodah in the afternoon.
(b)Every Mishmar is further divided into six Batei Avos. Each Beis Av serves on a different day of the week. On Shabbos, the Kohanim of all of the Batei Avos perform the Avodah together (RASHI Menachos 107b). Some contend that the Mishmaros are divided into seven groups, and only one group serves on Shabbos (RASHI Ta'anis 26a; see Insights to Shekalim 18:1).
(c)On the Shalosh Regalim (the holidays of Pesach, Shavu'os and Sukos) all the Mishmaros Kehunah come to Yerushalayim to fulfill the Mitzvah of Aliyah l'Regel. At those times, Kohanim from any Mishmar are permitted to perform the Avodah of the Regel.
24)[line 19]לאהדוריL'AHADUREI- to search after