[14a - 46 lines; 14b - 30 lines]

1)[line 1] KOL HA'YOM- the entire day [during which he is an Onen mid'Oraisa. At night, however - even if he is still an Onen mid'Rabanan - he may burn the fats and innards of those Korbanos offered during the day upon the Mizbe'ach]

2)[line 11] !V'HA MIGARSHA!- but he has divorced her [by triggering her Get retroactively through entering a synagogue on Yom Kipur]!

3)[line 12] ?ITRUDEI MI LO MITRID?- is he not distracted by grief? This emotional state is also reason enough not to partake of Kodshim, as they must be eaten in a state of happiness (Chulin 132b).

4)[line 13] ZOREK ES HA'DAM - he dashes the blood [of the Korban Tamid on the Mizbe'ach] (ZERIKAS DAM)

(a)The blood which exits the body of every Korbanos following its slaughter is collected in a bowl (Kabalas ha'Dam). It is then either dashed onto the sides of the Mizbe'ach, or applied to the sides of the Keranos (cubic Amah posts on the four corners of the Mizbe'ach). When the blood is applied to the corners of the lower half of the Mizbe'ach, it is done so in a manner known as "Shenayim she'Hen Arba" - "two that are four." This means that the blood is twice applied, but in four directions. First the Kohen walks to the northeastern corner of the Mizbe'ach and applies the blood along the eastern and northern sides of the Keren, and then he walks west and then south until he reaches the southwestern Keren, at which point he applies the blood along the western and southern sides.

(b)When a sacrifice achieves atonement for he who offers it, it is through this service that atonement is gained. This is stated clearly in the Torah: "Ki ha'Dam Hu, ba'Nefesh Yechaper" - "for it is the blood that will atone for the soul" (Vayikra 17:11).

5)[line 13] MAKTIR ES HA'KETORES - he burns the incense (HA'KETORES)

(a)Ketores is the incense offered on the golden Mizbe'ach in the Heichal of the Beis ha'Mikdash. It was offered twice each day; in the morning when the Kohen cleaned out the lamps of the Menorah, and before evening when the Kohen lit the Menorah. It consisted of the following eleven ingredients:

1.70 Maneh (350 pounds) of TZARI ("Sraf ha'Notef me'Atzei ha'Ketaf") - sap of the balsam tree

2.70 Maneh (350 pounds) of TZIPOREN ("Shecheles") - a kind of root/annual plant. Some identify this plant with a species of rock-rose, Cistus ladaniferus, which has fingernail-like petals. Alternatively, Tziporen may be onycha, a type of flower.

3.70 Maneh (350 pounds) of CHELBENAH - (a) galbanum; a yellow-brown gum resin obtained from a plant in Persia; (b) According to some, Chelbenah is the gum of the common storax tree

4.70 Maneh (350 pounds) of LEVONAH - frankincense or oliban; a gum resin from trees of Arabia and India. The gum is yellowish and semi-transparent, with a bitter, nauseating taste. It is hard and capable of being pulverized, producing a strong aromatic odor when burned

5.16 Maneh (80 pounds) of MOR - myrrh

6.16 Maneh (80 pounds) KETZI'AH - cassia

7.16 Maneh (80 pounds) SHIBOLES NERD - spikenard

8.16 Maneh (80 pounds) KARKOM - saffron

9.12 Maneh (60 pounds) KOSHT - costus

10.3 Maneh (15 pounds) KILUFAH - cinnamon bark

11.9 Maneh (45 pounds) KINAMON - cinnamon

(b)In addition, the following ingredients were added as incinerating agents:

1.9 Kav (9 quarts) of BORIS KARSHINAH - vetch lye

2.3 Se'ah and 3 Kavim (21 quarts) of YEIN KAFRISIN - (a) the fermented juice of the caper-berry; (b) alt., wine made from grapes that grow in Cyprus. If Yein Kafrisin was not available the Ketores was compounded instead with CHAMAR CHIVARYAN ATIK - ancient strong white wine

3.One quarter Kav (1 cup) of MELACH SEDOMIS - Sodomite salt

4.A small amount of MA'ALEH ASHAN - probably Leptadenia Pyrotechnica, which caused the smoke to rise straight up (due to the nitric acid it contains)

(c)Rebbi Nasan ha'Bavli says that a small amount of Kipas ha'Yarden (probably cyclamen) was added as well.

6)[line 14] MEITIV ES HA'NEROS - he prepares the lamps (of the Menorah) (HATAVAS HA'NEROS)

(a)Every evening a Kohen kindles the Menorah in the Beis ha'Mikdash (Hadlakas ha'Neros). The Kohen places enough oil into the lamps of the Menorah for it to burn throughout the entire night.

(b)In the morning, a Kohen cleans out the charred wicks and any oil that remain in the Menorah's lamps, and replaces them with fresh wicks and oil (Hatavas ha'Neros, or Dishun ha'Menorah). The spent wicks are placed in the pile of ashes next to the ramp of the Mizbe'ach formed by the Terumas ha'Deshen (see Background to 12:28).

(c)The Hatavas ha'Neros is accomplished in two stages. First the Kohen cleans out five of the lamps. He then waits for a certain other Avodah to be performed, and only afterwards does he clean out the remaining two lamps of the Menorah. What Avodah was performed in between is the subject of a disagreement between Tana'im. The Rabanan understand that it is the burning of the Ketores, while Aba Sha'ul maintains that it is the application of the blood of the Korban Tamid to the Keranos of the Mizbe'ach. There are Rishonim who are of the opinion that all seven lamps of the Menorah are cleaned at once, according to certain Tana'im.

(d)Some Rishonim assert that some or all of the lamps were lit in the morning as well as the evening. Also, the process described above is altered slightly if some of the lamps are still burning at the time of the Hatavas ha'Neros.

7)[line 14] MAKRIV ES HA'ROSH V'ES HA'REGEL - he offers the head and leg (of the Korban Tamid) (KORBAN TAMID: HAKRAVAS KORBAN TAMID)

(a)The Korban Tamid is a communal offering (Korban Tzibor), consisting of two male sheep which are less than one year old. One sheep, known as the Tamid Shel Shachar, is offered at dawn, and the second - called the Tamid Shel Bein ha'Arbayim - is offered in the afternoon, ideally two and a half Sha'os Zemaniyos (each of which is equal to 1/12 of the period of daylight that day) before sunset. One tenth of an Eifah (approx. two quarts) of flour, mixed with one quarter of a Hin (approx. one quart) of hand pressed olive oil, is offered with each sheep as a Minchah (meal offering). One quarter of a Hin of wine is offered with each sheep as a wine libation (Bamidbar 28:5).

(b)The Korbenos Tamid are Korbenos Olah, and are therefore dismembered and offered in their entirety on the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon. The Mishnah (Tamid 31a-b) states that thirteen Kohanim were employed in the offering of the Korban Tamid (see below, entry #28). Kohanim not included in this number would throw the limbs of the Tamid from the ramp leading up to the Mizbe'ach (the Kevesh) onto the bonfire atop the Mizbe'ach. Including as many Kohanim as possible in the offering of the Korban is a fulfillment of the verse, "b'Rov Am Hadras Melech" - "With a multitude of people is the glory of the King" (Mishlei 14:28).

(c)The Kohen Gadol would offer the head and right hind leg of the Korban Tamid on every one of the seven days prior to Yom ha'Kipurim, as part of the process that readied him for the day upon which he performed all of the Avodah.

8)[line 15] IM RATZAH L'HAKRIV- if he wishes to perform any part of the service in the Beis ha'Mikdash

9)[line 16] MAKRIV CHELEK BA'ROSH- has the right to offer any sacrifice before [any other Kohen, even those belonging to the current Mishmar (see Background to 6:23)]

10)[line 20]HAZA'AH (MEI CHATAS)

(a)If a person or utensil becomes Tamei by touching a Mes or being in the same room as a Mes (or a part of a Mes which is Metamei b'Ohel), he/it must wait seven days before he/it is able to go to the Mikvah in order to become Tahor. On the third and seventh days, Mei Chatas is sprinkled on the person or utensil. Mei Chatas is a mixture of ashes of a Parah Adumah (see Background to 2:6) and spring water. A person who is Tahor dips three Ezov (hyssop) branches which have been bound together into the mixture, and sprinkles them on the person or utensil which is Tamei. After this process is complete, the person or utensil is immersed in a Mikvah. Once night falls, the purification process is complete (Bamidbar 19:17-19).

(b)No work, such as using the water as a counterweight, may be performed with Mei Chatas. The Rabanan derive from the verse (Bamidbar 19:19) that if Mei Chatas is sprinkled upon any object that cannot receive Tum'ah, then work is considered to have been done with it and those drops remaining on the Ezov branches are invalidated.

(c)Mei Chatas have the status of an Av ha'Tum'ah (Kelim 1:1). Therefore, one who touches Mei Chatas becomes a Rishon l'Tum'ah.

(d)If one moves enough Mei Chatas to dip an Ezov bundle into and sprinkle it upon a person, then even he moves does not come into direct contact with the water he is Tamei. This is known as Tum'as Masa - the Tum'ah caused by carrying. Any garment or vessel in contact with he who moves the Mei Chatas becomes Tamei as well.

(e)Both one who comes into contact with Mei Chatas and one who moves it (along with his clothing) must immerse themselves in a Mikvah. They then have the status of a Tevul Yom (see below, entry #25) until the evening, when they become fully Tahor.

11)[line 20]TIM'ATU- it causes him to become Tamei

12)[line 20] ?HEICHI AVID AVODAH?- [since the Kohen Gadol is sprinkled with Mei Chatas on every one of his seven days of separation (4a),] how can he perform the service in the Beis ha'Mikdash [according to the opinion of Rebbi Akiva]?

13)[line 23] EIN HA'DEVARIM HALALU AMURIN- [the purpose of this verse is to teach that] that which is stated [regarding Mei Chatas] is only applicable

14)[line 24] DEVARIM HA'MEKABLIM TUM'AH

(a)All objects belong to one of three categories:

1.Sources of Tum'ah

2.Objects that can become Tamei

3.Objects that cannot become Tamei

(b)A source of Tum'ah is called an Av ha'Tum'ah. The exception to this is a corpse, which is referred to as the "Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah," due to the fact that it can generate more Tum'ah than any other object. When an object becomes Tamei from coming into contact with an object which is Tamei, that object does not receive the same Tum'ah as that of the first object, but rather a level of Tum'ah one degree weaker than the first. If an object came into contact with an Av ha'Tum'ah, it is called a Rishon l'Tum'ah, or Vlad ha'Tum'ah. Tum'ah received from a Rishon creates a Sheni l'Tum'ah, and that from a Sheni creates a Shelishi (in certain cases), etc.

(c)A metal utensil can become an Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah, an Av ha'Tum'ah, or a Rishon l'Tum'ah (see Insights to Pesachim 14b); a person and all utensils other than earthenware can become an Av ha'Tum'ah or Rishon l'Tum'ah (although Chazal decreed that one's hands sometimes have the status of a Sheni l'Tum'ah); Earthenware utensils can only become a Rishon l'Tum'ah; food and liquids which are Chulin can become a Rishon l'Tum'ah or a Sheni l'Tum'ah; Terumah can become a Shelishi l'Tum'ah as well; and Hekdesh can receive the status of a Revi'i l'Tum'ah.

15a)[line 26] IM YESH B'EZOV- if there is [any Mei Chatas left over] in the Ezov bundle

b)[line 26]YESHANEH- a) he may [sprinkle it upon a Temei Mes] a second time [since whether or not Melachah was performed with Mei Chatas depends upon what object it actually landed upon] (RASHI); b) he must [dip the Ezov bundle into Mei Chatas] a second time [since whether or not Melachah was performed with Mei Chatas depends upon what object the sprinkle intended to sprinkle] (RAMBAM in Peirush ha'Mishnayos to Parah 12:3)

16)[line 34]"[ ;] , ""AMARTI ECHKAMA, V'HI RECHOKAH MIMENI"- "[All of this I attempted through wisdom;] I thought to become wise, but it is distant from me" (Koheles 7:23). Both Rebbi Akiva and the Rabanan understand that Shlomo ha'Melech in this verse is referring to a seemingly irreconcilable contradiction in the laws of Parah Adumah.

17)[line 35]... L'MAZEI... TAHOR- the one who sprinkles... remains Tahor. This seems to blatantly contradict what is written in the Torah (see next entry). The Rabanan, however, understood that the Pasuk must be taken out of context, since they derive from the words "v'Hizah ha'Tahor" - "and the Tahor shall sprinkle" (Bamidbar 19:19) - that he who sprinkles remains Tahor (RASHI).

18)[line 36]"[ ;] , [ , ]""[V'HAYESA LAHEM L'CHUKAS OLAM;] U'MAZEI MEI HA'NIDAH YECHABES BEGADAV, [VEHA'NOGE'A B'MEI HA'NIDAH, YITMA AD HA'AREV]"- "[And it shall be an eternal statute for them;] that he who sprinkles Mei Chatas must immerse his clothing, [and that he who comes into contact with Mei Chatas shall be Tamei until evening]" (Bamidbar 19:21).

19a)[line 37] , !VEHA'CHESIV MAZEH, V'HA KESIV NOGE'A!- [How can one suggest that the "Mazeh" is one who comes into contact with Mei Chatas?] They are each mentioned separately!

b)[line 38], , !V'OD, MAZEH BA'I KIBUS BEGADIM, NOGE'A LO BA'I KIBUS BEGADIM!- furthermore, [even if somehow one would suggest that the Torah listed the same Halachah twice, this cannot be;] the laws applicable to the "Mazei" and the "Noge'a" differ!

20)[line 40]NOSEI- lit. one who carries; one who moves

21)[line 42] HAZA'AH TZERICHAH SHI'UR

(a)The Gemara (Zevachim 80a) records a disagreement regarding a mixture of regular water and Mei Chatas (see above, entry #10). One opinion rules that a Temei Mes sprinkled with such a mixture will become Tahor. Although not all of the water sprinkled is Mei Chatas, "Ein Tzerichah Shi'ur" - there is no minimal amount of Mei Chatas necessary in order for its purifying abilities to take effect. The other opinion maintains that "Haza'ah Tzerichah Shi'ur" - the minimal amount of Mei Chatas necessary for it to be Metaher is that amount which is normally sprinkled. Since in this situation it has been diluted, only some of the droplets actually sprinkled are Mei Chatas, and it is therefore not a valid Taharah.

22a)[line 44] A'GABA D'GAVRA- [regarding the amount of Mei Chatas that is sprinkled] on the person [who is Tamei]

b)[line 45]B'MANA- in the utensil [holding the Mei Chatas]

14b----------------------------------------14b

23)[line 1] ROSHEI GIV'OLIN- the tips of the seedcases [at the end of the Ezov stalks]

24)[line 2]UL'FANYA- and toward evening

25)[line 2] MADU ALEI- they sprinkle [Mei Chatas] upon him

26)[line 3] HE'EREV SHEMESH (TEVUL YOM)

(a)A Tevul Yom is a person or vessel that has immersed in a Mikvah, but requires night to fall (He'erev Shemesh) before becoming completely Tahor. The Tum'ah level of a Tevul Yom is minimal; he or it is only considered a Sheni l'Tum'ah. This means that if he or it touches Terumah or Kodesh, the Terumah or Kodesh become Pasul and must be burned. Chulin that he or it touches does not become Tamei at all.

27)[line 5]U'REMINHU- Our Gemara now poses a contradiction to the implied order of the Avodah in our Mishnah from a series of Mishnayos in Maseches Tamid. The implication of the order in which these three Mishnayos are listed is that the Menorah was cleaned out prior to the burning of the Ketores.

28)[line 5] MI SHE'ZACHAH - he who won (PAYIS)

(a)Four times every morning, the Kohanim gather in the Beis ha'Mikdash for a selection process known as a Payis. Each Payis designated a Kohen or Kohanim to perform a certain part or parts of the daily service. All Kohanim present stand in a circle and extend a finger. The officiating Kohen then arbitrarily chooses a number higher than that of the Kohanim present, and begins counting with any of the extended fingers. When he reaches the chosen number, that Kohen is selected to perform the Avodah.

(b)The first Payis determined which Kohen cleared the outer Mizbe'ach of ash. Originally this was determined by the winner of a foot race up the thirty-two Amah ramp of the Mizbe'ach. After an incident in which a Kohen fell off of the Kevesh and broke his leg, the Payis system was instituted.

(c)The second Payis determined the thirteen Kohanim employed in the offering of the Korban Tamid. These are:

1.The Kohen who slaughters the sheep

2.The Kohen who collects its blood in a Kli Shares (sanctified utensil) and performs Zerikas ha'Dam (placing the blood upon the Keranos of the Mizbe'ach)

3.The Kohen who cleans out the ashes of the Mizbe'ach ha'Penimi

4.The Kohen who cleans out the ashes of the Menorah

5.The Kohen who carries the head (with the cut neck covered by the Peder, the fatty membrane that divides the intestines from the stomachs) in his right hand and the right hind leg in his left hand and places them on the Kevesh

6.The Kohen who carries the right foreleg in his right hand and the left foreleg in his left hand and places them on the Kevesh

7.The Kohen who carries the hindquarters (including the fatty tail, the gall bladder and the kidneys) in his right hand and the left hind leg in his left hand and places them on the Kevesh

8.The Kohen who carries the Chazeh (chest) in his right hand and the Geirah (neck) in his left hand and places them on the Kevesh

9.The Kohen who carries the Dofen Yemin (the right flank with the upper ribs) in his right hand and the Dofen Semol (the left side with the upper ribs) in his left hand and places them on the Kevesh

10.The Kohen who carries the Kirbayim (innards) in a pan, with the Kera'ayim (feet) on top and places them on the Kevesh

11.The Kohen who carries the Minchas Nesachim (see Background to Shekalim 14:78)

12.The Kohen who carries the Minchas Chavitin (see Background to Shekalim 19:14)

13.The Kohen who carries the wine libation (see Background to Shekalim 14:78).

(d)The third Payis determined which Kohen would burn the Ketores upon the inner Mizbe'ach. Since the performance of this Avodah leads to wealth, only Kohanim who had never before done so were eligible for this Payis.

(e)The fourth and final Payis was available to all Kohanim. It determined which Kohanim carried the limbs of the Tamid previously left on the Kevesh up to the top of the ramp, from where they were thrown onto the fire atop the Mizbe'ach (Yoma second Perek, Tamid first Perek).

29)[line 6] DISHUN MIZBE'ACH HA'PENIMI- the clearing of the inner Mizbe'ach from ash

30)[line 8] RAV SHIMON ISH HA'MITZPAH HU- Rav Huna suggests that the author of the Mishnayos in Tamid is Rav Shimon Ish ha'Mitzpah, since he is mentioned in a Beraisa discussing the laws dealt with in Maseches Tamid.

31)[line 9] BA LO- the Kohen [performing the Avodah of Zerikas ha'Dam (see above, entry #4)] came

32)[line 12] MESHANEH B'TAMID- understands that a procedure that differed [from that followed for other Korbenos Olah] was followed for the Korban Tamid

33)[line 17] PAYIS HA'SHENI- the second Payis; see above, entry #28

34)[line 19] MA'ALEH EVARIM L'KEVESH- bring the limbs of the Korban Tamid to the ramp of the Mizbe'ach; see above, entry #28:c

35)[line 20]" , !""CHADASHIM L'KETORES, BO'U V'HAFISU!"- "Those Kohanim who have never offered the Ketores, come and join the Payis!" (see above, entry #28:d)

36a)[line 21] KAN B'HATAVAS SHTEI NEROS- that [which our Mishnah implies that the Ketores was burned prior to the cleaning of the lamps of the Menorah] refers to the cleaning of the last two Neros (see above, entry #6)

b)[line 21] KAN B'HATAVAS CHAMESH NEROS- that [which the Mishnah (25a) implies that the Ketores was burned after the cleaning of the lamps of the Menorah] refers to the cleaning of the first five Neros (see above, entry #6)

37)[line 23] MESADER MA'ARACHAH- taught the order of the service of the Mizbe'ach

38)[line 23] MI'SHMEI D'GEMARA- according to tradition

39)[line 29]"[ ;] , ""[V'HIKTIR ALAV AHARON KETORES SAMIM;] BABOKER BABOKER, B'HEITIVO ES HA'NEROS YAKTIRENA"- "[And Aharon shall burn the Ketores of incense upon it;] every morning, when he cleaned the lamps he shall burn it" (Shemos 30:7).

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