[19a - 42 lines; 19b - 32 lines]
We recommend using the Girsa'os of the Vilna Gaon printed in the margins of the Vilna Shas, and the commentary "Tiklin Chadtin" upon which they are based. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that conform to the commentary of the Tiklin Chadtin which are not noted in the Hagahos ha'Gra, and Girsa corrections in the text of the Tiklin Chadtin itself.
 גמרא יט: [שורה 12]
*איברי* נבילות וחתיכות מותרות
צ"ל איברים נבילות וחתיכות מותרות (כ"ה בראשונים)
1)[line 4]"וַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ, וַיַּעֲשׂוּ אֲרוֹן אֶחָד; וַיִתְּנֻהוּ בְּשַׁעַר בֵּית ה' חוּצָה""VA'YOMER HA'MELECH, VA'YA'ASU ARON ECHAD; VA'YITENUHU B'SHA'AR BEIS HASH-M CHUTZAH"- "And on the king's orders, they manufactured a box; which they placed outside the gate of the Beis ha'Mikdash" (Divrei ha'Yamim II 24:8) - The placement of the box described in this verse differs from that of the verse in Melachim (Melachim II 12:10), which was put "next to the Mizbe'ach," inside the Azarah, by Yehoyada the Kohen Gadol. Our Gemara offers this dichotomy as proof that there were indeed two different collections (for different purposes), in conformance with the opinion of Rebbi Shmuel bar Nachman[i].
2)[line 5]מפני הטמאיםMI'PNEI HA'TEME'IM- [King Yo'ash moved the Shofar from where Yehoyada had placed it, near the Mizbe'ach, to outside of the Beis ha'Mikdash] so that those who were Tamei [and therefore unable to enter the Beis ha'Mikdash, would be able to donate]
3)[line 5]"אַךְ לֹא יֵעָשֶׂה בֵּית ה' סִפּוֹת כֶּסֶף מְזַמְּרוֹת מִזְרָקוֹת חֲצֹצְרוֹת, כָּל כְּלִי זָהָב וּכְלִי כָסֶף, מִן הַכֶּסֶף הַמּוּבָא בֵית ה' ""ACH LO YE'ASEH BEIS HASH-M SIPOS KESEF MEZAMEROS MIZRAKOS CHATZOTZEROS, KOL KELI ZAHAV U'CHELI CHASEF, MIN HA'KESEF HA'MUVA VEIS HASH-M"- "However, from the money brought to the House of HaSh-m they did not manufacture silver bowls, Mezameros (musical instruments), basins, trumpets, or any golden or silver vessels" (Melachim II 12:14) - (a) Another support for the opinion of Rebbi Shmuel bar Nachman[i] is offered from this verse, as this verse clearly states that the donations did not go toward the purchase of Klei Shares, whereas the first verse quoted in our Gemara (Divrei ha'Yamim II 24:14) describes how they did go toward the purchase of Klei Shares; (b) according to the Girsa of the VILNA GA'ON, this verse belongs earlier in the Gemara as part of the first question; see Background to 18:58.
PEREK #7 MA'OS SHE'NIMTZE'U
4)[line 8]בין שקלים לנדבהBEIN SHEKALIM LI'NEDAVAH- between [the Shofar designated for] Shekalim and [that designated for] Kayitz Mizbe'ach
5)[line 12]יפלו ללבונהYIPELU LI'LEVONAH- Since the Levonah is itself offered upon the Mizbe'ach, it is more stringent than firewood, which is merely necessary in order to burn Korbanos (Machshirei Korban).
6)[line 15]יפלו לגוזלי עולהYIPELU L'GOZALEI OLAH- Our Mishnah follows the view of the Rabanan quoted in the previous Mishnah, who maintain that the Shofar for Kinim was for those who were required to offer them. Since one of them was therefore offered as a Chatas, which is eaten by the Kohanim, the Shofar for voluntary Olos — which are completely burned upon the Mizbe'ach — is more stringent.
7)[line 15]מעשר שניMA'ASER SHENI
(a)Once Terumah Gedolah and Ma'aser Rishon have been separated from one's crop, it is time to separate the second tithe. In the third and sixth years of the seven-year Shemitah cycle this tithe is called Ma'aser Ani, and it is given to the poor (Devarim 14:28-29).
(b)During the first, second, fourth and fifth years of the seven-year Shemitah cycle, the second tithe is called Ma'aser Sheni. Ma'aser Sheni must be brought to Yerushalayim and eaten there while one is in a state of purity. The various laws of Ma'aser Sheni are learned from the verses which begin, "Aser Te'aser Eis Kol Tevu'as Zar'echa..." (Devarim 14:22-27).
(c)If it is impractical to bring the actual food to Yerushalayim, Ma'aser Sheni produce may be redeemed with money. This money receives the status of Ma'aser Sheni, and is then brought to Yerushalayim. In Yerushalayim the money may be used to buy food items only, which in turn receives the Kedushah of Ma'aser Sheni and must be eaten b'Taharah in Yerushalayim. Once Ma'aser Sheni enters Yerushalayim, it may no longer be redeemed. Our Mishnah describes the case of someone who mistakenly donated a coin upon which he had redeemed Ma'aser Sheni to fulfill his obligation of Machatzis ha'Shekel.
(d)If the owner of the Ma'aser Sheni redeems his own Ma'aser, he must add a fifth of the total value onto the money used; if someone else redeems it, he may do so with money equal to the value of the Ma'aser (Vayikra 27:30-31).
(e)One may not eat Ma'aser Sheni when he is in a state of mourning for one of the seven relatives upon whose death one sits Shiv'ah, as the verse clearly states, "Lo Achalti b'Oni Mimenu" (Devarim 26:14).
(f)This case of our Mishnah discusses two boxes in one's home, one designated for coins of Ma'aser Sheni and the other for Chulin. It is mentioned here in order that one not mistake the rule stated at the end of the Mishnah as one applicable to the Shofaros located in the Mikdash only.
8)[line 18]לא הוּצְרְכָה דְּלָא בין שקלים לקינים? (לא הכי הוה ליה למימר...?)LO HUTZRECHA D'LO BEIN SHEKALIM L'KINIM?- should the Mishnah not have stated, "Between [the Shofar designated for] Shekalim and [that designated for] Kinim [since it clear from the order in which the Shofaros are listed in the previous Mishnah that these two were next to each other]?
9)[line 20]כמין (בּוּכְלִייאַר) כּוּבְלַיִּים\קוּבְלַיִּיםK'MIN KUVLAYIM- in the shape of a circle [so that the last and first were next to each other]
10)[line 22]אית דבעי מֵימַר (יש אומרים)IS D'BA'I MEIMAR- there is [an Amora] who explains
11)[line 22]לשְׁיָרֵי הלשכהSHEYAREI HA'LISHKAH - funds left over [after all of the Korbanos have been purchased] (TERUMAS HA'LISHKAH)
See Background to 2:11.
12)[line 23]כמי שמתK'MI SHE'MES- as if he who had designated this Shekel had died. In such a situation, the Shekel falls to Kayitz ha'Mizbe'ach, as the Gemara goes on to explain. Just as such a Shekel has no owner and goes toward the purchase of Olos Nidvos Tzibur, so does this Shekel of undetermined status, which also has no owner (TIKLIN CHADTIN; see Insights for the ways in which other commentaries explain this stitch).
13a)[line 24]עד דאֲנָא תָּמָןAD DA'ANA TAMAN- while I was still there [in Bavel]
b)[line 24]שַמְעִית קָל רב יהודהSHAM'IS KOL RAV YEHUDAH- I heard the voice of Rav Yehudah
14)[line 26]עשירית האיפה שלוASIRIS HA'EIFAH SHELO (CHAVITEI KOHEN GADOL)
(a)The Kohen Gadol offers a daily Minchah (see Background to 6:34) consisting of one-tenth of an Eifah of wheat flour. The dough is formed into twelve rolls that are boiled, baked, and then fried in olive oil in a flat pan. Six of these rolls are burned on the Mizbe'ach in the morning, and the remaining half towards evening (Vayikra 6:12).
(b)Rav Yehudah asked Shmuel what should be done with the extra flour and oil of such a Korban, should there be more than the required amount. This teaching is mentioned in our Gemara since Rebbi Yosi heard it at the same time that he heard Rav Yehudah ask Shmuel about a Shekel whose owner has passed away.
15)[line 27]יוֹלִיכֵם לים המלחYOLICHEM L'YAM HA'MELACH- should be thrown into the Dead Sea. This is the law regarding any item of Hekdesh that one may not benefit from, although he does not transgress the Isur of Me'ilah if he does so. It is not necessary to actually throw them into the Dead Sea — any manner in which they are disposed of so that no one will come to inadvertently benefit from them is acceptable.
16)[line 28]ויש חטאת קריבה עולה?V'YESH CHATAS KEREIVAH OLAH?- [How could money which may have been designated for Kinim — one of which is a Chatas — be placed into the Shofar of Olos Nedavah?] Can a Chatas be offered as an Olah?
17)[line 29]המוֹתרותMOSAROS- left over [in the way described in our Mishnah, i.e., that they were found in between two Shofaros and are of undetermined origin]
18)[line 30]האשה הזאתHA'ISHAH HA'ZOS- that woman [who requires atonement, if indeed the money belongs to the Shofar of the Kinim]. This applies equally to a Zav, who is a man; since two out of the three people who may offer Kinim are women (a Zavah and a Yoledes), the Gemara refers to the theoretical person without Kaparah as "that woman."
19)[line 32]הַמְסַפֵּק את הקיניןHA'MESAPEK ES HA'KININ- he who supplies the birds for the Kinim
20)[line 33]וּתְנִיתָהּU'SENISAH- [the Gemara answers,] we learned it
21)[line 36]לפני סוֹחֲרֵי בהמהLIFNEI SOCHAREI BEHEMAH- in front of cattle merchants [in Yerushalayim]
22)[line 37]מעשרMA'ASER- this refers to Ma'asar Sheni (see above, entry #7). Since those who live outside of Yerushalayim bring their Ma'aser Sheni money with them to Yerushalayim only when they are Oleh l'Regel, they often do not have enough time to spend all of it on food while they are there. They therefore offer the remaining money with Kedushas Ma'aser Sheni to those who live year-round in Yerushalayim at a reduced rate. Since one should ideally purchase animals and offer them as a Korban Shelamim with such money, most of the money used to buy animals in Yerushalayim year-round has Kedushas Ma'aser Sheni.
23)[line 40]איברים עולותEVARIM, OLOS - whole limbs are [assumed to be from] an Olah (KORBAN OLAH)
(a)An Olah sacrifice is one that is burned in its entirety upon the Mizbe'ach. Under certain circumstances one is required to bring a specific animal as an Olah; voluntary Olos may be offered as well.
(b)After Shechitah of a Korban Olah, the animal is skinned and cut into limbs in a specific order (Hefshet v'Nituach). It must be burned on the same day that it is slaughtered.
(c)Our Mishnah teaches that entire limbs of undetermined origin found in the Azarah must be assumed to be from a Korban Olah.
24)[line 40]וחתיכות חטאותVA'CHATICHOS, CHATA'OS - sliced pieces are [assumed to be from] a Chatas (KORBAN CHATAS)
(a)If one transgresses a sin b'Shogeg (unintentionally) for which he is liable to receive the punishment of Kares (see Background to Pesachim 32:16) had he done so b'Mezid (intentionally), he must offer a Korban Chatas.
(b)A Korban Chatas consists of a female goat or sheep, and is consumed in the Azarah by Kohanim.
(c)Our Mishnah teaches that meat of undetermined origin, found in the Azarah cut into pieces suitable for eating, must be assumed to be from a Korban Chatas.
25)[line 40]זבחי שלמיםZIVCHEI SHELAMIM (KORBAN SHELAMIM)
(a)A person may offer a Korban in the Beis ha'Mikdash as a voluntary sacrifice, as the Torah states in Vayikra 1:2. Voluntary Korbanos may be Olos (which are burned entirely on the Mizbe'ach, see Vayikra 1:2-17, 6:1-6), Shelamim (parts of which are eaten, see Vayikra 3:1-17, 7:11-21, 7:28-37) or Menachos (flour offerings, see Vayikra 2:1-13, 6:7-11, 7:9-10).
(b)Korbenos Shelamim offered by an individual may be brought from male or female sheep, cows or goats. They are Kodshim Kalim, and may therefore be slaughtered anywhere in the Azarah (and are not limited to the northern part). Before slaughtering his Korban, the owner places his hands on the head of his animal and leans on it with all of his might (Semichah). The blood of the Shelamim is sprinkled on the lower half of the Mizbe'ach at the northeastern and southwestern corners only (Shetayim she'Hen Arba). Nesachim (meal offerings consisting of flour, oil, and a wine libation) are brought along with the Korban (Bamidbar 15:3-12). The meal offering is completely burned on the Mizbe'ach, and the wine is poured into one of the Sefalim (the silver libation pipes located at the top of the southwest corner of the Mizbe'ach) (RAMBAM and RA'AVAD Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 2:1). The amount of flour, oil and wine required depends upon the animal offered (see Bamidbar ibid.).
(c)The Chazeh (breast) and Shok (thigh) of the Shelamim are given to the Kohen (Vayikra 7:34). Certain fats and other parts of the Korban are offered on the Mizbe'ach (Vayikra 3:3-4, 9-10, 14-15). The owner and his guests (men or women) eat the rest of the Korban within the borders of Yerushalayim. The meat may be cooked in any fashion, and may be eaten for two days and the intervening night.
26)[line 41]תעובר צורתוTE'UBAR TZURASO (IBUR TZURAH)
(a)When a Korban or part of a Korban receives an extrinsic Pesul (i.e., one that has occurred to the owner or the blood of the Korban, as opposed to a Pesul b'Guf ha'Korban), it must remain overnight so that Ibur Tzurah will occur. This literally means that the appearance of the Korban should become disfigured. After this happens, the parts of the Korban are burned.
(b)There is a Machlokes Rishonim as to how to understand what the implications of Ibur Tzurah are. RASHI (Pesachim 73b) explains that it must be left until the following morning at which point it will be Nosar (see below, entry #31), and therefore ineligible to be offered upon the Mizbe'ach. RABEINU CHANANEL (ibid. 73b and 34b) and the RAMBAM (Peirush ha'Mishnayos 7:9) understand that the intention of leaving it overnight is that it must be left until it has begun to decay somewhat.
27)[last line]נבילותNEVEILOS (NEVEILAH)
(a)A Neveilah is the carcass of a Kosher animal that expired from any cause other Halachically acceptable slaughter. The Torah states, "Lo Sochlu Chol Neveilah, la'Ger Asher bi'Sh'arecha Titnenah va'Achalah, O Machor l'Nochri, Ki Am Kadosh Atah La'Sh-m E-lokecha" - "Do not eat any Neveilah; give it to the stranger in your gates that he may eat it, or sell it to a Nochri, for you are a holy nation to HaSh-m your E-lokim" (Devarim 14:21).
(b)One who consumes a k'Zayis of Neveilah receives Malkus (RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'achalos Asuros 4:1). A piece of Neveilah which is at least the size a k'Zayis causes a person or vessel to become Tamei through Maga (contact). It will also cause a Kli Cheres (an earthenware utensil) to become Tamei if it enters the vessel's airspace. If a person carries such a piece of Neveilah, he will become Tamei (Tum'as Masa), which in turn will be Metamei the clothes he is wearing (RAMBAM Hilchos She'ar Avos ha'Tum'ah 1:1).
28)[line 1]שהבשר מרובהSHE'HA'BASAR MERUBEH- that there is so much meat [that it is too difficult to carve it all properly]
29)[line 2]לא צוּרְכָה דְּלָא בהר הבית קודש?LO TZURCHA D'LO B'HAR HA'BAYIS KODESH?- Should the Mishnah not teach that money found on Har ha'Bayis is Kodesh? Terumas ha'Lishkah funds are regularly brought out to purchase Korbanos and other needs of the Tzibur; and it is also unlikely that Chulin money was brought in from outside, since visitors may not enter Har ha'Bayis wearing a money-belt, due to the Mitzvah of Mora Mikdash (Berachos 54a) (TIKLIN CHADTIN, KORBAN HA'EDAH)
30)[line 5](הסיע דעת) [הֵיסֶח הדעת פסול ו]טָעוּן עִיבּוּר צוּרָהHESECH HA'DA'AS PASUL, V'TA'UN IBUR TZURAH - if one removed one's attention from an item of Kodshim, it becomes invalid, [but] it must remain overnight [before being burned — this is the Girsa of the GR"A] (HESECH HA'DA'AS)
(a)Hesech ha'Da'as — the removal of one's attention — invalidates Kodshim. The Amora'im disagree as to whether this Pesul is a Pesul ha'Guf or a Pesul Tum'ah (Pesachim 34a).
(b)RASHI (ibid.) explains that "Pesul ha'Guf" means that Hesech ha'Da'as is a disqualification in its own right, and is in no way related to the possibility that the item of Kodesh became Tamei. "Pesul Tum'ah" means that Hesech ha'Da'as is a disqualification based on the possibility that the Kodshim came into contact with an item which was Tamei. The ARUCH explains that "Pesul ha'Guf" means that the Pesul of Hesech ha'Da'as is an intrinsic Pesul similar to that of a non-kosher piece of meat. "Pesul Tum'ah" means that the Pesul of Hesech ha'Da'as is an extrinsic Pesul.
(c)Rebbi Elazar of our Sugya, who requires Ibur Tzurah, agrees with the opinion that maintains that Hesech ha'Da'as is a Pesul Tum'ah.
31)[line 8]וְיָאוּתV'YA'US?- Is this correct? - The reason of the Mishnah may not be because of Hesach ha'Da'as and suspicion of Tum'ah; but rather because this piece may already be forbidden as Nosar when found (KORBAN HA'EDAH).
32)[line 8]שמא נתקלקל צוּרָתוֹSHE'MA NISKALKEL TZURASO (NOSAR)
(a)Any meat of a Korban which remains after the time within which it may be eaten must be burned, as the Torah states, "b'Yom Zivchachem Ye'achel umi'Macharas; veha'Nosar Ad Yom ha'Shelishi ba'Esh Yisaref" - "It shall be eaten on the day that you slaughter it and on the next; and that which remains until the third day shall be burned in fire" (Vayikra 19:6).
(b)If someone eats at a k'Zayis of Nosar intentionally he is Chayav Kares, as the Torah states, "... v'Ochlav Avono Yisa... v'Nichresah ha'Nefesh ha'Hi me'Ameha" - "... and one who eats it shall bear his sin... and that soul will be cut off from its nation" (ibid. 19:8). If he eats it unintentionally, he must bring a Korban Chatas (Sefer ha'Chinuch Mitzvah 215).
33)[line 11]לוקין עליהן משום נבילהLOKIN ALEIHEN MI'SHUM NEVEILAH- that is, it is not merely likely that it is a Neveilah; it so clearly has this status that one who eats it in front of witnesses and with the proper warning will receive lashes.
34)[line 13]''חתיכות מותרות'', לא ממש?''CHATICHOS MUTAROS,'' LO MAMASH?- [when our Mishnah rules that] "the pieces are permitted", [does it] not [mean they are] actually [permitted to be eaten]?
35)[line 16]מַחֲרוֹזוֹתMACHAROZOS- strung on strings (only Chulin meat prepared for eating — not Neveilos or Korbanos — are bundled in this manner)
36)[line 18]נִתְחַלְּפוּ לו, חוששNIS'CHALEFU LO, CHOSHESH- if one became confused [as to which store he purchased a certain piece of meat from,] he must suspect [that it came from the single one]
37)[line 18]וּלְנִמְצֵאת הולכין אחר הרובUL'NIMTZEIS, HOLECHIN ACHAR HA'ROV - regarding a piece found [lying on the ground, outside of the stores], we follow the majority (ROV: KOL D'PARISH V'KAVU'A)
(a)When the nature of an item is in doubt, it is assumed to have come from the Rov (majority), and one may therefore consider that item to have the same Halachic status as the majority of such items found in that place. This is known as Kol d'Parish me'Ruba Parish. For instance, if a piece of meat is found lying in a street (or in the hands of a non-Jew in a street), and most of the meat in that town is Kosher, one may assume that the meat is Kosher. This is learned from the verse which states, "Acharei Rabim l'Hatos" (Shemos 23:2), which means that a court should rule according to the majority opinion amongst its members.
(b)If, however, the doubt concerning the item in question arises while that object is Kavu'a (still in its place; i.e. it was not separated from other items of its kind), one may not follow the Rov. Rather, the status of the item remains in doubt. This is known as Kol Kavu'a k'Mechtzah Al Mechtzah Dami. For instance, if a person buys meat and cannot remember whether he bought it at a Kosher or non-Kosher store, he may not assume that the meat is Kosher even if most of the stores in that town sell only Kosher meat. Since the status of the meat is unclear from the time that it was in the place where it originated (the store), one may not assume that it came from the Rov.
38)[line 21]הנמצאHA'NIMTZA- [meat] that is found
39)[line 22]בפְּלַטְיָאPELATYA- a wide, open plaza wherein people gather for business purposes
40)[line 22]הוה מַסְמִךְHAVAH MASMICH- was supporting (as they were walking)
41)[line 23]חֲמָאCHAMA- he saw
42)[line 23]אֲרַמָּאִיARAMA'I- a Nochri
43)[line 23]מְקַטֵעַ מן סוּסְיֵהּMEKATE'A MIN SUSEYEI- cutting off [a piece of meat] from his horse
44)[line 23]וּמַפִּיק לְבָרָאU'MAPIK L'BARA- and taking it outside [to sell as meat]
45)[line 24][לית] הדא היאLEIS HADA HI- this disproves
46)[line 26]ממַקּוּלִין של ישראלMAKULIN SHEL YISRAEL- a Jewish butcher shop
47)[line 26]שראו אותו יוצא ממקולין של ישראלSHE'RA'U OSO YOTZEI MI'MAKULIN SHEL YISRAEL- that is, the Rabanan prohibited any meat that was Nis'alem Min ha'Ayin — out of one's sight — even if it would otherwise be permitted due to Rov.
48)[line 26]חד בר נשCHAD BAR NASH- a certain person
49)[line 27]קוּפַּדKUPAD- meat
50)[line 27]ולא יהב ליהV'LO YAHAV LEI- and he would not sell him [any meat, due to the fact that they did not get along]
51)[line 28]רוֹמִיִיROMI'YI- Roman
52)[line 28]ואַיְיתִי ליהAYSI LEI- and he brought it to him
53)[line 28]לא נַסְבִית על כָּרְחֵיהּ?LO NASVIS AL KORCHEI?- did I not buy [meat from you] against your will?
54)[line 31]לא כולא מיניה (לאו כל כמיניה)LO KOLA MINEI- it is not up to him [i.e. he is not believed]
55)[line 31]מֵיסַר (לאסור)MEISAR- to forbid
56)[line 31]נָחַת לְתָמָןNACHAS L'SAMAN- went down to there (to Bavel)
57)[last line]חַמְתּוּן מֵקִילִיןCHAMTUN MEKILIN- he saw them being lenient [with regard to Basar she'Nis'alem Min ha'Ayin]
58)[last line]וחֲמַר (והחמיר) עליהןVA'CHAMAR ALEIHEN- and he ruled that they should be strict [with regard to Basar she'Nis'alem Min ha'Ayin]