[120a - 41 lines; 120b - 37 lines]
1)[line 3]אכילה גסהACHILAH GASAH- a forced, gluttonous form of eating (eating after one is already full, when he has no appetite for his food). One who must force himself to eat is Halachically considered as though he has not eaten.
2)[line 24]לטמא ושהיה בדרך רחוקהL'TAMEI VESHE'HAYAH B'DERECH RECHOKAH (PESACH SHENI)
(a)The Torah states, "Any man who is Tamei Mes, or who is far away... [who wishes to] make a Pesach for Hash-m. In the second month, on the fourteenth day in the afternoon they shall make it; together with Matzah and Maror they shall eat it" (Bamidbar 9:10-11).
(b)The Gemara explains that this verse refers not only to one who was Tamei with Tum'as Mes, but also to one who cannot eat a Korban Pesach due to Tum'ah of any kind. The Gemara defines one who is "far away" as one who is more than fifteen Mil away from the walls of Yerushalayim on midday of Erev Pesach. The Gemara concludes that the Halachah of Pesach Sheni applies to almost anyone who is unable to offer the Korban Pesach on Pesach Rishon (the fourteenth of Nisan; see Pesachim 93a-b).
(c)If all of the Kohanim, the Klei Shares (vessels in the Beis ha'Mikdash), or the majority of the Jewish people are Teme'ei Mes on the fourteenth day of Nisan, then the Korban Pesach is offered in its proper time b'Tum'ah. If there are Kohanim Tehorim and vessels available and only a minority of Klal Yisrael are Tamei, then those who are Tahor offer it b'Taharah while those who are Tamei offer their Korban on Pesach Sheni.
(d)As the verse states, the Korban Pesach Sheni is offered on the fourteenth of Iyar. There is discussion among the commentaries whether the Pesach Sheni should be offered specifically after the afternoon Korban Tamid, or whether it may be offered even before the Korban Tamid. (See Tosfos to Yoma 29a, DH Ela, and Sha'ar ha'Melech 3:9).
3a)[line 28]ערלAREL- one who is not circumcised [due to the fact that he had two brothers who died from the procedure]
b)[line 28]ובן נכרBEN NECHAR- one whose actions are strange to his Father in heaven; one who transgresses some Aveiros, but not the entire Torah
4)[line 31]וצריכיU'TZRICHI- and they are both necessary. This is because we would not have understood that one who is Tamei, etc., must eat Matzah on the night of the fifteenth of Nisan from the law that an Arel and a Ben Nechar must, since he, unlike the Arel or Ben Nechar, has the opportunity to make up on the fifteenth of Iyar for not doing so on the fifteenth of Nisan. Furthermore, due to this very reasoning, if not for the extraneous word "Bo" in the verse referring to an Arel or Ben Nechar, we would have applied the teaching of "ba'Erev Tochlu Matzos" to an Arel and a Ben Nechar, and not to one eligible for Pesach Sheni.
5)[line 34]דבר שהיה בכלל, ויצא מן הכלל ללמדDAVAR SHE'HAYAH BI'CHLAL, V'YATZA MIN HA'KLAL L'LAMED
(a)In the Introduction to the Sifra (the Halachic Midrash to Vayikra), Rebbi Yishmael lists thirteen methods that Chazal use for extracting the Halachah from the verses of the Torah. One of them is "Kol Davar she'Hayah bi'Chlal v'Yatza Min ha'Klal l'Lamed, Lo l'Lamed Al Atzmo Yatza, Ela l'Lamed Al ha'Klal Kulo Yatza." Accordingly, if an action or object was included in a general category of Halachah and was then singled out by the verse in order to tell us that certain Halachos apply to it, the Halachos that apply to that object are applicable to everything in the general category. There are three applications of this rule:
1.When a new Halachah is explicitly written in the Parshah discussing the object that was singled out.
2.When there is no new Halachah written there, then we look for some new law that the Torah may be teaching us by the fact that it singled it out (for example, l'Chalek - to differentiate all of the actions so that each one will be Mechayav a separate Korban or a separate set of Malkus).
3.If we cannot say that the object was singled out to teach us l'Chalek, we say that it comes to limit the general category only to those members that are similar to and share the characteristics of the object that was singled out (this is similar to the rule of "Klal u'Frat u'Chlal" - see Background to Shevuos 4:13). (This rule should not be confused with "Davar she'Hayah bi'Chlal v'Yatzah li'Don b'Davar he'Chadash" (see Background to Temurah 13:6a), which refers to a case where the new law that is mentioned with regard to the object that was singled out is in contradiction to the general rule of the Klal.)
(b)The way in which this rule is applied in the Beraisa brought in our Gemara is that of b:1 above. The verse requires one to eat Matzah for seven days - "Shiv'as Yamim Tochlu Matzos" (Devarim 16:3). A different verse (16:8) implies that one need not eat Matzah on the seventh day, as the Beraisa describes. From this we may conclude that one need not eat Matzah at all on Pesach; rather, Matzah is his only option should he wish to eat bread made from a dough of flour and water.
6)[last line]ישנו מקצתן, יאכלוYASHNU MIKTZASAN, YOCHLU- if some [of the members of the Chaburah] fell asleep [while in the middle of eating the Korban Pesach], they may [continue] eating
7a)[line 1]נתנמנמו יאכלוNISNAMNEMU YOCHELU- (a) if some [of the members of the Chaburah] dozed lightly [while in the middle of eating the Korban Pesach], they may [continue to] eat (RASHBAM); (b) if all [of the members of the Chaburah] dozed lightly [while in the middle of eating the Korban Pesach], they may [continue to] eat (RAMBAM, RA'AVAD)
b)[line 1]נרדמוNIRDEMU- if they fell soundly asleep
(a)If one slaughters a sacrifice with the intention to offer or eat it after the time within which it must be offered or eaten, it is disqualified. Such a Korban may not be eaten, as the Torah states, "v'Im He'achol Ye'achel mi'Besar Zevach Shelamav ba'Yom ha'Shelishi Lo Yeratzeh, ha'Makriv Oso Lo Yechashev Lo, Pigul Yiheyeh" - "If [the person offering the Korban plans] to eat it on the third day, [the sacrifice] will not be accepted. It is considered Pigul (putrid; rejected), and it will not be counted in his favor" (Vayikra 7:18).
(b)If a person intentionally consumes at least a k'Zayis of Pigul, he is Chayav Kares. If he eats it unintentionally, he must bring a Korban Chatas. (Sefer ha'Chinuch Mitzvah 144)
(a)Any meat of a Korban which remains after the time within which it may be eaten must be burned, as the Torah states (Vayikra 19:6), "b'Yom Zivchachem Ye'achel umi'Macharas, veha'Nosar Ad Yom ha'Shelishi ba'Esh Yisaref" - "It shall be eaten on the day that you slaughter it and on the next, and that which remains until the third day shall be burned in fire."
(b)Regarding the Korban Pesach, the Torah writes, "v'Lo Sosiru Mimenu Ad Boker..." - "And do not leave over anything from it until the morning; anything left over from it until the morning must be burned in fire" (Shemos 12:10). If someone transgresses this prohibition, he also transgresses the Lav of "Lo Sosiru Mimenu Ad Boker" (Vayikra 22:30), which refers to all Korbanos (Pesulei ha'Mukdashin 18:9; Sefer ha'Chinuch #142 and Minchas Chinuch).
(c)If someone eats at a k'Zayis of Nosar intentionally, he is Chayav Kares, as the Torah states (ibid. 19:8), "... v'Ochlav Avono Yisa... v'Nichresah ha'Nefesh ha'Hi me'Ameha" - "... and one who eats it shall bear his sin... and that soul will be cut off from its nation." If he eats it unintentionally, he must bring a Korban Chatas. (Sefer ha'Chinuch Mitzvah 215)
10a)[line 5]נים ולא ניםNIM V'LO NIM- dozing, but not dozing
b)[line 6]תיר ולא תירTIR V'LO TIR- awake, but not awake
11)[line 7]לאהדורי סבראL'AHADUREI SEVARA- to give an answer which requires a logical thought progression
12)[line 7]מדכרו ליהMADKERU LEI- remind (i.e., prompt) him
13)[line 8]הוה יתיבHAVAH YASIV- was sitting [at the Pesach Seder]
14)[line 18]עד שעת חפזוןAD SHE'AS CHIPAZON- until the time that Bnei Yisrael in Mitzrayim hastened while leaving, which did not occur until the morning. Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah, however, contends that they began to hasten in preparation at midnight of the night before, when the plague of Makas Bechoros took place (Berachos 9a).
15)[line 23]קדשים קליםKODSHIM KALIM (KODSHIM KALIM / KODSHEI KODASHIM)
(a)The category of Kodshim Kalim - "light" Korbanos - includes Korbenos Shelamim, Todah, Ma'asar Behemah, Pesach and Bechor. These may be slaughtered anywhere in the Azarah, and may afterwards be eaten anywhere in Yerushalayim by any member of Klal Yisrael, men and women, as long as they are Tahor.
(b)The category of Kodshei Kodashim - especially consecrated Korbanos - includes Korbenos Olah, Chatas and Asham, as well as Menachos. These may be slaughtered only in the northern part of the Azarah, and those parts of these Korbanos which may be consumed may be eaten only in the Azarah, and only by Kohanim.
16)[line 32]שלמיםSHELAMIM (KORBAN SHELAMIM)
(a)A person may offer a Korban in the Beis ha'Mikdash as a voluntary sacrifice, as the Torah states in Vayikra 1:2. Voluntary Korbanos may be Olos (which are burned entirely on the Mizbe'ach, see Vayikra 1:2-17, 6:1-6), Shelamim (parts of which are eaten, see Vayikra 3:1-17, 7:11-21, 7:28-37), or Menachos (flour offerings, see Vayikra 2:1-13, 6:7-11, 7:9-10).
(b)Korbenos Shelamim which are offered by an individual may be brought from male or female sheep, cows, or goats. They are Kodshim Kalim, and therefore may be slaughtered anywhere in the Azarah (and are not limited to the northern part). Before its slaughter, the owner places his hands on the head of his animal and leans on it with all of his might (Semichah). The blood of the Shelamim is applied to the lower half of the Mizbe'ach at the northeastern and southwestern corners only (Shetayim she'Hen Arba). Nesachim (meal offerings consisting of flour, oil, and a wine libation) are brought along with the Korban (Bamidbar 15:3-12). The meal offering is completely burned on the Mizbe'ach, and the wine is poured into one of the Sefalim (the silver libation pipes located at the top of the southwest corner of the Mizbe'ach) (RAMBAM and RA'AVAD Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 2:1). The amount of flour, oil and wine required depends on the type of animal offered (see Bamidbar ibid.).
(c)The Chazeh (breast) and Shok (thigh) of the Shelamim are given to the Kohen (Vayikra 7:34). Certain fats and other parts of the Korban are offered on the Mizbe'ach (Vayikra 3:3-4, 9-10, 14-15). The owner and his guests (men or women) eat the rest of the Korban within the borders of Yerushalayim. The meat may be cooked in any fashion, and may be eaten for two days and the intervening night. The Beraisa brought in our Gemara details the source for the prohibition to eat it on the second night.
17)[line 25]ויהא נאכל לשני לילות ויום אחדV'YEHEI NE'ECHAL L'SHNEI LEILOS V'YOM ECHAD- (a) and it may be eaten over the course of two nights and [the intervening] one day (RASHBAM); (b) and it may be eaten over the course of two nights [only,] and [even though there is] one day [in between upon which one may not eat it, that intermission will not prevent one from eating it the second night] (RASHI to Berachos 9a)
18)[line 34]הא אפקיה קרא מהיקישא...HA AFKEI KRA ME'HEKEISHA...- the verse has removed Matzah from the Hekesh, etc.; this refers to the discussion of the Gemara earlier on 120a. For an in-depth treatment of the proper understanding of this Gemara, see Insights.
19a)[line 36]חשדי כהונהCHASHADEI KEHUNAH- Kohanim who are suspected [of intentionally making a Korban become Pigul due to their hatred of the owner of the Korban]
b)[last line]עצלי כהונהATZEILEI KEHUNAH- Kohanim (or, for that matter, he who offered the Korban) who are lazy [and therefore might not finish eating a Korban before it becomes Nosar]
20)[last line]כזיתK'ZAYIS- [the minimum amount of either Nosar or Pigul which will be Metamei one's hands is] a k'Zayis