[121a - 12 lines; 121b - 4 lines]

*********************GIRSA SECTION*********************

We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.

[1] Rashbam 121a DH Hachi Garsinan lecheshe'Timtza Lomar ... ד"ה הכי גרסינן לכשתמצי לומר:

The words "v'Sham'is Lei b'Masnisin d'Amar b'Birkas ha'Pesach Hu Niftar mi'Birkas ha'Zevach" ושמעית ליה במתניתין דאמר בברכת הפסח הוא נפטר מברכת הזבח

should be "v'Sham'is Lei b'Masnisin d'Man d'Amar Birkas ha'Pesach Hu Niftar mi'Birkas ha'Zevach" ושמעית ליה במתניתין דמאן דאמר ברכת הפסח הוא נפטר מברכת הזבח


1)[line 5]כטומאתוK'TUM'ASO (TUM'AS OCHLIN U'MASHKIN)

(a)Food becomes Tamei when it comes into contact with a source of Tum'ah — but only if it first comes into contact with one of the seven liquids which enable food to become Tamei. This is called Hechsher. From then on, even after it dries, it can still become Tamei. The seven liquids which enable food to become Tamei are water, dew, oil, wine, milk, blood, and bee's honey.

(b)In order for something edible to receive Tum'as Ochlin, it must be considered food. If a person intends to eat the item and he treats it as food, this gives it the status of food in terms of its ability to receive Tum'as Ochlin.

(c)The minimum amount of food which can become Tamei is the equivalent of the volume of an egg — a k'Beitzah. This is why either Rav Chisda or Rav Huna ruled that the minimum amount of either Nosar or Pigul which will be Metamei one's hands is equal to a k'Beitzah. The modern equivalent of a Beitzah is 0.05, 0.0576 or 0.1 liter, depending on the differing Halachic opinions.

(d)Once food becomes Tamei, it cannot become Tahor by being immersed it in a Mikvah.

2a)[line 5]ברכת הפסחBIRKAS HA'PESACH- the blessing recited upon eating the Korban Pesach: "Baruch Atah... v'Tzivanu le'Echol ha'Pesach"

b)[line 6]ברכת הזבחBIRKAS HA'ZEVACH- the blessing recited upon eating the Korban that is eaten with the Korban Pesach (see next entry): "Baruch Atah... v'Tzivanu le'Echol ha'Zevach"

3)[line 6]זבחZEVACH- a Korban one eats along with the Korban Pesach. The RASHBAM offers two possible explanations for what kind of Korban this is:


(a) The Torah requires that the Korban Pesach be eaten upon a full stomach (Al ha'Sova; see Insights to Pesachim 70:1, 121:1). If so many people share a Korban Pesach that there is not enough meat to provide a full meal for each of them, they offer a Korban Chagigah along with their Pesach. The members of the group then satiate themselves with the Korban Chagigah prior to eating their Korban Pesach.

(b) This Korban Chagigah is not the same as the Korban Chagigah which every Jew must offer during each of the three festivals of Pesach, Shavuos, and Sukos (see Background to Pesachim 70:1).


(a) The Torah allows one to offer a voluntary sacrifice in the Beis ha'Mikdash (Vayikra 1:2). Such Korbanos may be Olos (which are burned entirely on the Mizbe'ach, see Vayikra 1:2-17, 6:1-6), Shelamim (parts of which are eaten, see Vayikra 3:1-17, 7:11-21, 7:28-37), or Menachos (flour offerings, see Vayikra 2:1-13, 6:7-11, 7:9-10).

(b) There are two categories of voluntary Korbanos: general and specific. If one states, "I pledge an Olah" (for example), without singling out any specific animal, then his pledge is called a Neder. Even after he subsequently designates a specific animal with which to fulfill his pledge, he must replace it should that animal get lost or die. If one singles out an animal to offer as his pledge, then it is known as a Nedavah. If this animal is lost or dies, then he has no obligation to offer another in its place.

(c) The Zevach referred to in our Mishnah may be a Neder or Nedavah one offered on Erev Pesach and is now eating at his Seder.

4)[line 9]כשתמצא לומרKISHE'TIMTZA LOMAR- (lit. when you find to say) the bottom line is

5)[line 10]זריקה בכלל שפיכהZERIKAH BI'CHLAL SHEFICHAH- According to both Rebbi Yishmael and Rebbi Akiva, the Kohen pours the blood of the Korban Pesach onto the base (Yesod) of the Mizbe'ach while he stands on that Yesod (Shefichah), whereas the blood of most other sacrifices is sprinkled against the wall of the Mizbe'ach from a distance (Zerikah). Rebbi Yishmael rules in our Mishnah that a Berachah recited on the Korban Pesach frees one from his obligation to recite a Berachah on a different Korban — but not the other way around. The Gemara explains that from this law we may draw a parallel to the specific Avodos of these Korbanos; Rebbi Yishmael also rules that blood of other Korbanos, which should be sprinkled, is considered to have been offered in a valid manner if it was poured. Blood which should have been poured, however, is not considered to have been offered in a valid manner if it was sprinkled.


6)[line 26]פדיון הבןPIDYON HA'BEN

(a)The Torah requires every Yisrael to sanctify his own firstborn male child, as well as those born to his Kosher animals and donkeys. This is stated as, "Kadesh Li Kol Bechor, Peter Kol Rechem bi'Vnei Yisrael; ba'Adam uva'Behemah, Li Hu" — "Sanctify to Me every firstborn who opens the womb among the children of Yisrael; of both man and beast, he is Mine" (Shemos 13:2). Only a Yisrael must sanctify his firstborn son; this Mitzvah does not apply to a Kohen or a Levi.

(b)A boy who is first-born to his mother must be redeemed by his father. The Mitzvah to redeem one's son is called "Pidyon ha'Ben," and is derived from the verse which states, "v'Chol Bechor Adam b'Vanecha Tifdeh" (Shemos 13:13). A Bechor is redeemed when he is one month old. Five silver Shekalim, each of which weighs 22.8 grams / 0.8 ounces, are given to a Kohen (Bamidbar 18:16). If one's mother is not the daughter of a Kohen or a Levi, if she had a stillbirth prior to his birth, or if he was delivered through Caesarian section, the Mitzvah of Pidyon ha'Ben does not apply to him (Sefer ha'Chinuch #392).

(c)A number of reasons are offered in explanation of this Mitzvah. One is that performing a Mitzvah with the first efforts of one's toil, which are generally particularly dear to him, helps him come to the realization that everything in the world belongs to HaSh-m. (This idea is expressed in the Mitzvah of Bikurim (see Background to Pesachim 53:17) as well.) Another reason given for this Mitzvah is that it serves as a remembrance of the great miracle that HaSh-m performed on our behalf when he killed every firstborn male in Egypt (Sefer ha'Chinuch #18).

7)[line 3]לא הוה בידיהLO HAVAH B'YADEI- lit. he did not have it in his hand; i.e., he did not know