THE RIGHT HAND IS NEEDED FOR KEMITZAH
Question: Rava taught that each of the following pairs of words is a Gezerah Shavah (from Metzora) teaching that the right hand (or foot or ear) is required: "Yad-Yad" regarding Kemitzah, "Regel-Regel" regarding Chalitzah, and "Ozen-Ozen" regarding piercing the ear (of a slave who does not want to go free);
Why is a Gezerah Shavah necessary (for Kemitzah)? We can learn from Rabah bar bar Chanah's rule (whenever it says 'Etzba' or 'Kehunah'...)!
Answer: We need one source to teach about taking the Kometz, and one for putting the Kometz in a (second) Keli Shares.
Question: R. Shimon does not require putting it in a Keli Shares. What does he learn from "Yad-Yad"?
We can also ask according to the opinion that R. Shimon requires it, for he says that if it was done with the left hand it is Kosher!
We cannot say that it teaches about Kemitzah itself (even though R. Shimon does not learn from Rabah bar bar Chanah's rule here, since it says only 'Kehunah'), for we learn this from Rav Yehudah brei d'R. Chiya!
(Rav Yehudah brei d'R. Chiya): R. Shimon learns from "Kodesh Kodoshim Hi ka'Chatas veka'Asham." If the Kohen wants to throw the Kometz on the fire (on the Altar) with his hand, he must use his right hand, like he uses to throw the blood of Chatas;
If he wants to put the Kometz in a Keli Shares, he may take it to the Altar and throw it with his left hand, just like he may carry and throw blood of an Asham in a Keli Shares in his left hand.
Answer: He uses it to teach about the Kometz of a Minchas Chotei;
R. Shimon says that it does not require oil or frankincense, so a sinner's Korban will not be beautiful. One might have thought that similarly, Kemitzah is Kosher with the left hand. "Yad-Yad" teaches that this is not so.
KABALAH OF BLOOD DIRECTLY FROM THE ANIMAL
(Mishnah): If the blood spilled on the floor (it was never received in a Keli) and it was gathered, it is Pasul.
(Gemara - Beraisa): "Mi'Dam ha'Par" - from Dam ha'Nefesh (blood that exudes when the animal is dying), but not from blood of the skin, nor Dam Tamtzis (blood that exudes before or after the animal dies);
"Mi'Dam ha'Par" - he must receive the blood from the bull.
Question: We should explain simply, from (i.e. part of) the blood!
Answer: Rav taught that one who slaughters must (try to) receive all the Dam (ha'Nefesh) - "v'Es Kol Dam ha'Par Yishpoch";
Rather, we must expound as if it said 'Dam meha'Par'.
Question: Rav's verse discusses the remaining blood (after throwing the blood in the Kodesh ha'Kodoshim). It does not discuss all the blood of the bull!
Answer: Since it cannot teach that all the blood received is spilled on the outer Mizbe'ach (since some is thrown in the Heichal), we use it to teach that he must receive all the blood.
(Rav Yehudah): One who slaughters must lift the knife (lest blood from the knife fall into the Mizrak, i.e. the Keli in which blood is received) - "v'Lakach mi'Dam ha'Par", but not blood coming from the bull and something else (the knife).
Question: What do we use to clean the blood off the knife?
Answer (Abaye): He wipes it on the outer edge of the Mizrak. The buckets are called "Keforei Zahav." ("Keforei" alludes to cleaning.)
(Rav Chisda and Rav Asi): One who slaughters must put the veins and arteries into the Mizrak.
THE AIRSPACE OF A KELI
Version #1 - Rav Yosef - Question (Rav Asi): If the bottom of the Mizrak fell off while the blood was falling to the Mizrak but did not yet reach the airspace (inside) of the Mizrak, what is the law?
Do we consider (blood in the) airspace in which it will not rest (i.e. because the bottom fell off) as if it already rested in the Keli (and therefore, it may later be collected from the floor), or not?
Answer (R. Yochanan - Beraisa): If a stream of water flowed from a pipe through the air and into a barrel, or even in its airspace (i.e. above the interior), it is Pasul for Mei Chatas. (One may not put a Keli there to collect water to be Mekudash with ashes of the Parah Adumah). (It is as if the water is in the barrel from the time it enters the airspace. It is not considered "Mayim Chayim" (running water));
If the pipe ended at the mouth of the barrel, water in the barrel is Pasul, but water in the airspace (i.e. in the pipe) is Kosher.
Objection: Rav Asi asked about water that will not come to rest (in the Keli), but R. Yochanan's answer discusses water that will come to rest!
Answer: Rav Asi asked two questions. If you will say that water that will not come to rest is not considered to be in the Keli, if water will come to rest, what is the law? (R. Yochanan answered only the latter question.)
Version #2 - Rav Kahana: Rav Asi asked the law of water flowing into a barrel (he did not know the Beraisa). R. Yochanan told him the Beraisa.
Version #3 - Rabah: Rav Asi asked the law of water flowing into a barrel, and R. Yochanan answered from blood collected in a Mizrak:
Since the blood must come directly from the animal to the Mizrak, we must consider the airspace to be like the Mizrak. (If not, the blood comes through an intermediary, i.e. the air.)
(Mishnah): If one put his hand or foot or vegetable leaves to divert a flow of water into a Keli, the water is Pasul for Mei Chatas. If he used shells of reeds or of nuts, it is Kosher;
The general rule is, if he uses something that receives Tum'ah, it is Pasul. If he uses something that does not receive Tum'ah, it is Kosher.
Question: What is the source of this?
Answer (R. Yochanan): "Ach Mayan u'Vor Mikve Mayim Yihyeh Tahor" - any collection of water for Taharah must be through things that are (always) Tahor.
(R. Chiya bar Aba): This teaches that the airspace above a Keli is considered like part of the Keli. (A hand disqualifies only if the water goes straight from the hand to the Keli. Here, the water goes from the hand to above the Keli. We must say that above the Keli is like in the Keli.)
Question (R. Zeira): Perhaps it goes directly from his hand to the interior of the barrel!
Answer (R. Chiya bar Aba): The Mishnah says 'to divert a flow.' This implies that it does not pass directly into the barrel.
(R. Chiya bar Aba): This Mishnah is like R. Eliezer bar Tzadok;
(Mishnah - R. Eliezer bar Tzadok): If flowing water was diverted by shells of reeds or of nuts, it is Kosher;
A case occurred, and the Great Sanhedrin in the Lishkas ha'Gazis ruled that it is Kosher.
A BLEMISH DURING THE AVODAH
(R. Zeira): If one nicked the ear of a Korban (this is a blemish) before Kabalah, it is Pasul. "V'Lakach... mi'Dam ha'Par" teaches that the bull must be intact.
Question: The verse discusses Kodshei Kodoshim. What is the source for Kodshim Kalim?
Answer (Rava - Beraisa): "Seh Samim Zachar Ben Shanah Yihyeh" - it must be Tam (unblemished) and (at most) one year old at the time of Shechitah.
Question: What is the source regarding the other Avodos?
Answer: "Yihyeh" - it must be Tam and one year old at the time of all its Avodos.
Question (Abaye - Beraisa - R. Yehoshua): If a k'Zayis (olive's worth) of the meat or Chelev of a Korban remains, we may throw the blood. (If only a k'Zayis remains, this is the ultimate blemish!)
Answer: We must say that "Yihyeh" teaches only that it must be one year old at the time of all its Avodos (but it may be blemished).
Question: If it was one year old at the time of Shechitah, how could it be two years old at the time of Zerikah (the last Avodah? Both must be the same day!)
Answer (Rava): This teaches that we calculate the age of Korbanos from hour to hour.