THE KOHEN MUST BE ON THE FLOOR
(Mishnah): If he was standing on top of Kelim or an animal or another person's feet, his Avodah is Pasul.
Question: What is the source of this?
Version #1 - Rashi - Answer (Tana d'Vei R. Yishmael): The floor of the Azarah is Kodesh, and Klei Shares are Kodoshim;
Version #2 - Tosfos - Answer (Tana d'Vei R. Yishmael): The floor of the Azarah is Mekadesh one who stands on it to serve, and Klei Shares (i.e. Bigdei Kehunah) are Mekadesh the Kohen to serve; (end of Version #2)
Just like a Chatzitzah between the Kohen and the Klei Shares disqualifies, also between him and the floor.
The Mishnah needed to teach the latter cases.
Had it taught only standing on top of Kelim, one might have thought that this is Chotzetz because Kelim are not flesh, but an animal is not a Chatzitzah;
Had it taught only standing on animals, one might have thought that this is Chotzetz, but standing on a person is not.
(Beraisa - R. Eliezer): If one foot was on the floor and the other was on top of a Keli or rock, if the Keli or rock could be removed and he could stand on the other foot, the Avodah is Kosher. If not, it is Pasul.
Version #1 Question (R. Ami): If a stone of the floor came loose and one stood on it, what is the law?
If he does not intend to reattach it, surely it is a Chatzitzah;
The question is when he intends to reattach it:
Since he intends to reattach it, it is as if it is attached;
Or, since it is now detached, it is a Chatzitzah?
Version #2 - Rabah Zuti - Question (R. Ami): If a stone of the floor was uprooted and he stood in its place, what is the law?
Question: What is he unsure about?
Answer #1: He is unsure whether David ha'Melech was Mekadesh only the floor, or also underneath it (down to the depths).
Objection: If so, he should have asked about if the entire floor was uprooted!
Answer #2: Rather, surely David was Mekadesh also underneath the floor;
The question is whether standing where a rock is missing is a proper way to do Avodah.
This question is not resolved.
AVODAH WITH THE LEFT HAND
(Mishnah): If he received the blood with his left hand, it is Pasul;
R. Shimon says, it is Kosher.
(Beraisa): "V'Lakach... b'Etzba'o" teaches that Kabalah must be with the right hand.
"B'Etzba'o v'Nasan" teaches that Zerikah must be with the right hand.
R. Shimon: It does not say 'Yad' regarding Kabalah;
It does say "b'Etzba'o v'Nasan" (therefore, the right hand must be used for Zerikah).
Since it does not say 'Yad' regarding Kabalah, it may be done with the left hand.
Question: What is R. Shimon's reason?
If he learns a Gezerah Shavah (from Metzora), he should require the right hand for Kabalah, even if it does not say 'Yad'!
If he does not learn a Gezerah Shavah, he should not require the right hand for Kabalah, even if it would say 'Yad'!
Answer #1 (Rav Yehudah): Really, he does not learn a Gezerah Shavah;
He said, since it does not say 'Yad Yamin' regarding Kabalah, if he received with his left hand it is Kosher.
Question #1 (Rabah): If so, he should say the same about Zerikah!
Question #2 (Rabah): R. Shimon does learn a Gezerah Shavah!
(Beraisa - R. Shimon): Wherever it says 'Yad' or 'Etzba', it refers to the right hand or finger.
Answer #2 (Rava): Really, he learns a Gezerah Shavah;
He said that since it does not say 'Yad' regarding Kabalah, rather 'Etzba', and one cannot receive the blood with his finger, (we learn that the right hand is required only for Zerikah, which is possible with the finger, but) Kabalah with the left hand is Kosher.
Objection (Rav Sama brei d'Rav Ashi): If there is a handle on the Keli, one can receive the blood (by holding the Keli) with his finger!
Answer #3 (Abaye): They argue about whether we expound "b'Etzba'o" to teach about what comes earlier (Kabalah) and/or later (Zerikah) in the verse.
(Chachamim hold that it teaches about both. R. Shimon holds that it only teaches about Zerikah, which comes later.)
(Abaye): R. Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon argues with his father and with Chachamim.
(Beraisa - R. Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon): Wherever it says 'Etzba' regarding Kabalah (but not Zerikah, e.g. in the above verse, of an individual's Chatas), if he deviated (e.g. used his left hand) in Kabalah it is Pasul. If he deviated in Zerikah, it is Kosher;
Wherever it says 'Etzba' regarding Zerikah (but not Kabalah), if he deviated in Zerikah it is Pasul. If he deviated in Kabalah, it is Kosher.
Question: Where does it says 'Etzba' regarding Zerikah?
Answer: "V'Lakachta... v'Nasata... b'Etzba'echa" (regarding the bull of the inauguration of the Mishkan).
He expounds it to teach about what comes earlier (Zerikah), but not what comes before that (Kabalah), and not what comes later (Zerikah, in the above verse "v'Lakach b'Etzba'o v'Nasan").
WHICH AVODAH REQUIRES THE RIGHT HAND?
(Rabah bar bar Chanah): 'Etzba' and 'Kehunah' always teach that the right hand is required.
We are thinking that this is only when it says both of them, e.g. "v'Lakach ha'Kohen... b'Etzba'o v'Nasan";
We learn from Metzora, about which it says "v'Taval ha'Kohen Es Etzba'o ha'Ymanis."
Question: Regarding Kemitzah, it only says 'Kohen';
(Mishnah): If Kemitzah was done with the left hand, it is Pasul.
Answer (Rabah): 'Etzba' or 'Kehunah' by itself teaches that the right hand is required.
Question (Abaye): Regarding Holachah of limbs to the Altar, it says Kohen - "v'Hikriv ha'Kohen..."
This refers to bringing the limbs to the ramp.
(Mishnah): (One Kohen carries) the right leg in his left hand. The place where it was cut faces himself.
Answer: 'Etzba' or 'Kehunah' mandates using the right hand regarding something that is Me'akev Kaparah, similar to (sprinkling on a) Metzora (from which we learned).
Question: It says 'Kehunah' regarding Kabalah, and it is Me'akev Kaparah (and R. Shimon is Machshir with the left hand)!
(Mishnah): If Kabalah was done with the left hand, it is Pasul;
R. Shimon is Machshir.
Answer: R. Shimon holds that it must say both 'Etzba' and 'Kehunah'.
Question: R. Shimon does not require both!
(Beraisa - R. Shimon): Wherever it says 'Yad', this refers to the right hand. 'Etzba' always refers to the right finger.
Answer: (He holds that) 'Etzba' by itself mandates using the right hand, but 'Kehunah' does not teach this unless it says also 'Etzba'.
Question: (Since it depends only on 'Etzba',) what do we learn from 'Kehunah'?
Answer: He must be (wearing Bigdei Kehunah) like a Kohen.
Question: Regarding Zerikah it only says 'Kehunah';
(Mishnah): If Zerikah was done with the left hand, it is Pasul;
R. Shimon does not argue!
Answer: A Beraisa teaches that he does argue.
(Beraisa): If Kabalah was done with the left hand, it is Pasul;
R. Shimon says, it is Kosher.
If Zerikah was done with the left hand, it is Pasul;
R. Shimon says, it is Kosher.