[25a - 31 lines; 25b - 34 lines]
1)[line 1]ולר"ש דלא בעי קידוש קומץUL'REBBI SHIMON D'LO BA'I KIDUSH KOMETZ- and according to Rebbi Shimon who does not require sanctification of the Kometz in a Kli Shares
2)[line 6]"[לא תאפה חמץ חלקם נתתי אותה מאשי;] קדש קדשים היא כחטאת וכאשם""[LO SE'AFEH CHAMETZ CHELKAM NASATI OSAH ME'ISHAI;] KODESH KODASHIM HI KA'CHATAS VECHA'ASHAM"- "[It shall not be baked with leaven, I have given it to them for their portion of my fire offerings;] it is most holy, like the sin offering and the guilt offering" (Vayikra 6:10).
3)[line 9]מנחת חוטאMINCHAS CHOTEI (KORBAN OLEH V'YORED B'DALEI DALUS)
(a)A person brings a Korban Oleh v'Yored to atone for sins in three specific cases:
1.Shevu'as ha'Edus (see Background to Shevuos 30:1),
2.Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav (see Background to Shevuos 2:2),
3.Shevu'as Bituy (see Background to Shevuos 2:1).
(b)What constitutes a Korban Oleh v'Yored varies based on the means of the penitent:
1.If he is wealthy, he brings a female sheep or goat as a Chatas (Korban Ashir).
2.If he cannot afford this, he brings two Torim or two Benei Yonah, one as an Olah and one as a Chatas (Korban Oleh v'Yored b'Dalus).
3.If he cannot even afford the birds, he brings one tenth of an Eifah of fine flour as a Minchas Chotei (Korban Oleh v'Yored b'Dalei Dalus) (Vayikra 5:6-13).
(c)The Minchas Chotei is not mixed with oil, and Levonah (frankincense) is not sprinkled on top of it (Vayikra 5:11). When a non-Kohen brings a Minchas Chotei, a Kometz of the flour alone is burned on the Mizbe'ach and the Kohanim receive the Shirayim (the rest of the flour, which they must eat before the following sunrise - RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 10:7).
4)[line 10]שלא יהא קרבן מהודרSHE'LO YEHEI KORBAN MEHUDAR- [the reason why, according to Rebbi Shimon, a Minchas Chotei does not include oil and frankincense is] so that the Korban should not be elegant
5)[line 12]נשפך הדם על הרצפהNISHPACH HA'DAM AL HA'RITZPAH- if the blood spilled on the floor (from the incision in the animal's neck)
6)[line 14]מדם הנפשMI'DAM HA'NEFESH- from the lifeblood of the animal, the blood which spurts out upon its slaughter
7a)[line 15]מדם העורMI'DAM HA'OR- from the blood collected under the skin
b)[line 15]מדם התמציתMI'DAM HA'TAMTZIS- from the blood which drips out following the Dam ha'Nefesh
8)[line 20]דם מהפר יקבלוDAM MEHA'PAR YEKABLENU- he must receive the blood directly from the bull's neck
9)[line 20]גורעין ומוספין ודורשיןGOR'IN U'MOSIFIN V'DORSHIN
(a)When deriving Halachos from verses, sometimes the principle of Gor'in u'Mosifin v'Dorshin applies. If the simple implication of what is written cannot be true due to that which is stated elsewhere, a letter written as part of one word may be viewed as if it is written as part of an adjacent word, and then the Halachah is derived from the new implication.
(b)This principle is utilized here as follows. The letter Mem is "removed" (Gor'in) from the word "mi'Dam" and "added" (Mosifin) to the word "ha'Par" to form the words "Dam meha'Par."
10)[line 28]במאי מקנח ליהB'MAI MEKANE'ACH LEI- with what do you wipe it off (the blood from the knife, since the blood has become Kadosh as a result of contact with the knife)
11)[line 29]בשפת מזרקB'SEFAS MIZRAK- with the edge of a bowl (used to receive the blood of the Korban)
12)[line 30]"כפורי זהב שלושים, כפורי כסף משנים ארבע מאות ועשרה; כלים אחרים אלף""KEFOREI ZAHAV SHELOSHIM KEFOREI CHESEF MISHNIM ARBA ME'OS VA'ASARAH KELIM ACHERIM ALEF" - "Thirty bowls of gold, silver bowls of a second sort four hundred and ten, and other vessels one thousand" (Ezra 1:10) (THE TEMPLE VESSELS THAT KORESH RETURNED)
(a)Nevuchadnetzar took with him to Bavel the vessels of the first Beis-ha'Mikdash and placed them in his temple.
(b)When Koresh, the King of Persia, conquered Nevuchadnetzar, he took them out and had them counted. He then handed them over to Sheshbatzar (a.k.a. Daniel or Zerubavel), Prince of Yehudah, to take to Yerushalayim for use in the second Beis-ha'Mikdash, which Koresh had granted permission to rebuild.
13)[line 1]וורידיןVERIDIN- the main blood vessels of the neck, located on either side of the trachea (RASHI Chulin 27a DH Veridin)
14)[line 4]ונפחתו שולי מזרקV'NIFCHASU SHULEI MIZRAK- (O.F. fonz) the bottom of the bowl gave way [before the blood reached the airspace]
15)[line 5]אויר שאין סופו לנוח כמונח דמיAVIR SHE'EIN SOF LANU'ACH K'MUNACH DAMI
In the laws of Kinyanim, the airspace of a Chatzer is capable of acquiring for its owner (through Kinyan Chatzer, see Background to Bava Metzia 9:10) things that pass through it without eventually landing in it, just as the ground of a Chatzer is capable of acquiring for its owner what rests on it. Here, the Gemara discusses a case in which the Veridin are held over the vessel as required, but before the blood enters the vessel the bottom gives way. Is the blood considered to have been received in the vessel by virtue of having been in the airspace above the vessel?
16)[line 7]הזינוק מיםHA'ZINUK MAYIM- a jet stream of water
17)[line 8]צירף פיה לזינוקTZIREF PIHA LA'ZINUK- if he lifted the jug and held its mouth over the mouth of the pipe so that there is no airspace between them, [only the water that emerges from the pipe and enters the jug becomes Pasul]
18)[line 18]עלי ירקותALEI YERAKOS- vegetable leaves
19)[line 18]עלי קניםALEI KANIM- leaves of bulrushes; alt. leaves of the sugar cane
20)[line 18]ועלי אגוזיםV'ALEI EGOZIM- and walnut leaves
21)[line 20]"אך מעין ובור מקוה מים יהיה טהור; ונגע בנבלתם יטמא""ACH MA'AYAN U'VOR MIKVEH MAYIM YIHEYEH TAHOR; V'NOGE'A B'NIVLASAM YITMA"- "However, a fountain or pit of a collection of water, shall be Tahor; but that which touches their carcass shall be Tamei" (Vayikra 11:36).
22)[line 21]הוייתן על ידי טהרהHAVAYASAN AL YEDEI TAHARAH- the gathering of the Mikveh water must come into being through means of Taharah; i.e. water must be channeled into the Mikveh by means of a material that is unsusceptible to Tum'ah. This requirement applies to anything which effects Taharah, such as water of a Mikveh and water used with the ashes of the Parah Adumah.
23)[line 23]בשותתB'SHOSES- flowing
24)[line 23]תרדאTARDA- fool (see Insights)
25)[line 25]הזוחלין שקילחןHA'ZOCHALIN SHE'KILCHAN- flowing water which was diverted
26)[line 25]באוהלייאB'OHALAYA- this case occurred in Ohalaya
27)[line 26]לשכת הגזיתLISHKAS HA'GAZIS
The Chamber of Hewn Stone was the seat of the Jewish Supreme Court, known as the Great Sanhedrin of 71 judges. The Lishkas ha'Gazis was partially built in the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash. The Great Sanhedrin was the highest Halachic authority before which the most difficult cases were brought (Devarim 17:8).
28)[line 27]הצורם אזןHA'TZOREM OZEN - (O.F. encrener) one who makes a notch in the ear. [A notch in the ear of an animal is considered a Mum (blemish) that invalidates the animal from being brought as a Korban] (MUMIN: MUMEI BEHEMAH)
(a)There are three types of blemishes (Bechoros 43a):
1.blemishes that invalidate a Kohen from doing the Avodah or invalidate an animal from being offered as a sacrifice on the Mizbe'ach;
2.blemishes that only invalidate a Kohen but not an animal;
3.blemishes that invalidate a Kohen and also an animal but only because of Mar'is ha'Ayin (for appearance's sake).
(b)The following is a list of blemishes that invalidate an animal from being offered as a sacrifice (Vayikra 22:22-24, based partially on Rav Aryeh Kaplan's "The Living Torah"). Although there is a dispute as to the precise meaning of the names of the Mumim, all of the blemishes are known through tradition (RAMBAM, Perush ha'Mishnah to Bechoros 7:2).
1.AVERES - blind (even in one eye)
2.SHAVUR - broken-limbed
3.CHARUTZ - gashed; this includes a perforated or split eyelid, nose or lip, or a gash anyplace where there is a bone
4.YABELES - warts
5.GARAV - mange, the animal equivalent of eczema
6.YALEFES - ringworm
7.SARU'A - an extra limb or an overgrown limb
8.KALUT - a missing limb or un-split hooves
9.MA'UCH - testicles crushed by hand
10.KATUS - testicles crushed by an implement
11.NATUK - testicles that are pulled loose
12.KARUS - severed testicles
(c)The Torah expresses the prohibition to offer a blemished animal as a Korban in three different verses: (Vayikra 22:20; 22:22, and 22:24). The Torah adds (ibid. 22:25) that we do not accept a Ba'al Mum even from a Nochri. The Gemara here discusses why this prohibition is repeated so many times.
29)[line 28]קדשי קדשים(KODSHEI KODASHIM)
(a)The term Kodshei Kodashim refers to the Korbenos Olah, Chatas and Asham (and Menachos), which have a greater degree of sanctity. They may be slaughtered only in the northern part of the Azarah and those parts that may be eaten may only be eaten in the Azarah by male Kohanim.
(b)Kodshei Kodashim that become Pesulim (invalid), where the Pesul occurred before the Zerikas ha'Dam, are burned in the Beis ha'Deshen in the Azarah. This includes the meat and the Eimurim of Kodshei Kodashim, and the Parim and Se'irim ha'Nisrafim (the bulls and goats, the remains of which were burned).
30)[line 29]בהולכהB'HOLACHAH- bringing the blood of a Korban to the Mizbe'ach, one of the four primary components of a sacrificial offering.
(a)Chelev refers to those fats of a Korban that are offered upon the Mizbe'ach. This includes the layer of fat covering the stomachs of the animal, all other fat attached to the stomachs, and the fat lining the kidneys along its flanks (Vayikra 3:4).
(b)One may not consume the Chelev of a kosher Behemah (domesticated animal), although one may derive any other benefit from it. "Shuman" is the term for all other fats of a Behemah that are permitted for consumption. Both Chelev and Shuman of a Chayah (non-domesticated animal) may be eaten.
(c)If one consumes Chelev intentionally, he is liable to receive Kares (see Background to Sukah 25:25); if he did so unintentionally, then he must offer a Korban Chatas (see Background to Yoma 61:35). If one is in doubt as to whether the fat that he ate was Chelev or Shuman, then he must offer a Korban Asham Taluy (see Background ibid.).
32)[line 32]תרגומא אבן שנהTARGUMA A'BEN SHANAH- explain it as referring only to "Ben Shanah." When the Beraisa says, "b'Kabalah, b'Holachah, bi'Zerikah Minayin," it refers to "Ben Shanah" (which immediately precedes "Yiheyeh" in the verse), but not to the requirement that it be "Tamim" (unblemished).
33)[line 33]שעות פוסלות בקדשיםSHA'OS POSLOS B'KODSHIM- hours beyond the year invalidate Kodshim. If an animal was born on the fourteenth of Nisan at the ninth hour of the day, it will enter its second year at the ninth hour on the fourteenth of Nisan the following year. If the animal is slaughtered during the ninth hour on the fourteenth of Nisan the year after it was born, the other Avodos may not be delayed until the beginning of the tenth hour, because the animal will no longer be one year old.