The reference numbers below that appear in parentheses (e.g., TY #43) represent vessels or parts of the structure of the Beis ha'Mikdash. The labeling follows that of the diagram of the Tiferes Yisrael. This diagram, which has been included in a separate mailing and can also be found on our site (at http://www.dafyomi.co.il/midos/mids-charts.htm), is printed both in the Tiferes Yisrael Mishnayos (Midos Chapter 2 or following Midos) and in Rav P. Kahati's Mishnayos (page 290, at the beginning of Midos).
[27a - 52 lines; 27b - 42 lines]
1)[line 2]"òì áñîåê""AL B'SAMUCH"- [the word] "Al" (lit. on) [means] "next to"
2)[line 5]îéòåèå îòëá àú øåáåMI'UTO ME'AKEV ES RUBO- (lit. the minority of it prevents the majority of it [from being offered]) if the Kometz is missing even a small amount, it is invalidated (e.g. if some of it gets lost)
3)[line 6]òùøåïISARON- the amount of flour needed for most Menachos, approximately equal to 2.16, 2.49 or 4.32 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions
4)[line 6]äééïHA'YAYIN- the wine of Nesachim (see Background to Menachos 2:II:f)
5)[line 7]äùîïHA'SHEMEN- the oil of Nesachim (see Background ibid.) and the Log of oil needed for most Menachos, approximately equal to 0.3, 0.345 or 0.6 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions
6)[line 8]äñåìúHA'SOLES- the fine flour [of the Menachos]
7)[line 10]úøé æéîðéTREI ZIMNEI- two times (the fact that the words "Melo Kumtzo" appear twice in the verses - Vayikra 2:2 and Vayikra 5:12 - shows that the Kometz is invalidated if it is missing even the smallest amount, e.g. if some of it gets lost)
8)[line 13]"[ëÌÈì-äÈàÆæÀøÈç éÇòÂùÒÆä-]ëÌÈëÈä [àÆú-àÅìÌÆä, ìÀäÇ÷ÀøÄéá àÄùÌÑÅä øÅéçÇ-ðÄéçÉçÇ ìÇä'.]""... KACHAH..."- "[Every citizen shall do these Nesachim offerings] like this (the amounts mentioned in verses Bamidbar 15:4-9), [to bring a pleasing fire-offering to HaSh-m.]" (Bamidbar 15:13)
9)[line 17]"[åÆäÁáÄéàÈäÌ, àÆì-áÌÀðÅé àÇäÂøÉï, äÇëÌÉäÂðÄéí; åÀ÷ÈîÇõ îÄùÌÑÈí îÀìÉà ÷ËîÀöå]É îÄñÌÈìÀúÌÈäÌ åÌîÄùÌÑÇîÀðÈäÌ, [òÇì ëÌÈì-ìÀáÉðÈúÈäÌ; åÀäÄ÷ÀèÄéø äÇëÌÉäÅï àÆú-àÇæÀëÌÈøÈúÈäÌ äÇîÌÄæÀáÌÅçÈä, àÄùÌÑÅä øÅéçÇ ðÄéçÉçÇ ìÇä'.]""... MI'SOLTAH U'MISHAMNAH..."- "[And he shall bring it to the sons of Aharon, the Kohanim; and he shall take from it his handful] of its flour and of its oil, [with all its frankincense; and the Kohen shall burn the memorial part of it upon the altar, to be a pleasing fire-offering to HaSh-m.]" (Vayikra 2:2)
10)[line 17]"[åÀäÄ÷ÀèÄéø äÇëÌÉäÅï àÆú-àÇæÀëÌÈøÈúÈäÌ,] îÄâÌÄøÀùÒÈäÌ åÌîÄùÌÑÇîÀðÈäÌ, [òÇì ëÌÈì-ìÀáÉðÈúÈäÌ; àÄùÌÑÆä ìÇä'.]""... MI'GIRSAH UMI'SHAMNAH..."- "[And the Kohen shall burn the memorial part of it,] of its beaten grain and of its oil, [with all the frankincense; it is a fire-offering to HaSh-m.]" (Vayikra 2:16)
11)[line 20]ùòéøé éä"ëSE'IREI YOM HA'KIPURIM - the goats of Yom ha'Kipurim
(a)On Yom ha'Kipurim, a Goral (lot) is performed by the Kohen Gadol to choose between two identical goats (Vayikra 16:7-10). One (the Sa'ir la'Sh-m) is offered as a Korban Chatas ha'Nisraf and its blood is sprinkled in the Kodesh ha'Kodashim (Vayikra 16:15); the other (the Sa'ir la'Azazel) is dispatched ("Mishtale'ach") to Azazel (a hard rocky cliff), from which it is pushed off to its death (Vayikra 16:21-22).
(b)The blood of the Sa'ir la'Sh-m is also sprinkled on the Paroches and on the Mizbach ha'Ketores (Vayikra 16:16, 18-19). Its flesh is entirely burned in the place outside of the city where the ashes from the Mizbe'ach are deposited (Vayikra 16:27).
(c)The Mishnah (Shevuos 2a) states that the Sa'ir la'Sh-m works along with the actual day of Yom ha'Kipurim to Toleh (hold back) the impending punishment of a person who sinned with Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav (eating Kodshim or entering the Azarah while in a state of Tum'ah - see Background to Shevuos 2:2), when he initially knew about his Tum'ah (or the Kodshim or Mikdash) and subsequently forgot about it. (When he does find out about it, he brings a Korban Oleh v'Yored, as mentioned in Background to Shevuos ibid.) In addition, it works along with the actual day of Yom ha'Kipurim to provide atonement for people who sin b'Mezid (intentionally) with Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav (Shevuos 2b).
12)[line 20]ùðé ëáùé òöøúSHNEI KIVSEI ATZERES - the sheep of Shavu'os
The Torah commands to bring a Minchah offering on Shavu'os called the Shtei ha'Lechem (Vayikra 23:16-17, see next entry) that consists of two loaves of bread that are Chametz, made from two Esronim of fine wheat flour. In conjunction with the Shtei ha'Lechem, various Korbenos Olah, a goat as a Korban Chatas and two sheep (the Kivsei Atzeres) that are Zivchei Shelamim are offered (ibid. 23:18-19). (These sheep were the only Shelamim brought by the Tzibur, and the only Shelamim that were Kodshei Kodashim.)
13)[line 21]á' çìåúSHTEI CHALOS
The Shtei ha'Lechem Minchah brought on Shavuos (Vayikra 23:16-17) consists of two loaves of bread made from two Esronim of fine wheat flour (approximately 4.32, 4.98 or 8.64 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) mixed with Se'or (sourdough), which causes them to rise and become Chametz. Each loaf is seven Tefachim long (approximately 53.2, 56 or 67.2 cm) and four Tefachim wide (30.4, 32 or 38.4 cm); the corners of the loaves project upward to a height of four Etzba'os (Menachos 96a, RAMBAM Hilchos Temidin u'Musafin 8:10). In conjunction with the Shtei ha'Lechem, the Kohanim offer in the name of the Tzibur various Korbenos Olah, a goat as a Korban Chatas and two sheep (the Kivsei Atzeres) that are Zivchei Shelamim (ibid. 23:18-19). Tenufah (waving portions of Korbanos, see Background to Sanhedrin 82:60) of the Shtei ha'Lechem is performed twice; once along with the live sheep and once with the Chaza'os and Shokim (chests and right hind legs) of the sheep.
14)[line 22]ùðé ñãøéïSHNEI SEDARIN - the two stacks [of Lechem ha'Panim] (LECHEM HA'PANIM)
The Lechem ha'Panim (showbread) is an offering of 12 loaves (that are Matzah), which are arranged in two Sedarim (stacks), six loaves to each Seder, on the Golden Table of the Mishkan or Beis ha'Mikdash. Fresh loaves were arranged on the Table every Shabbos and are left there until the following Shabbos. The Kohanim eat the loaves that are removed (Vayikra 24:5-9), half being given to the Kohen Gadol (learned from the word "l'Aharon") and half to the other Kohanim (from "l'Vanav"). A Kometz of Levonah is placed alongside each stack in a Bazach (bowl). After the loaves are removed, the Levonah is salted and burned on the Mizbe'ach. The offering of the Levonah permits the loaves to be eaten.
15)[line 23]áæéëéïBAZICHIN- bowls [of Levonah] (see previous entry)
16)[line 24]á' îéðéí ùáðæéøSHNEI MININ SHEB'NAZIR - the two types [of loaves] of a Nazir (NAZIR)
(a)If a person makes a vow to become a Nazir without stipulating a time period, his or her Nezirus lasts for a period of thirty days. If the person stipulates a time period, his or her Nezirus lasts for whatever amount of time he stipulated. During this period, the Nazir is not allowed to 1. cut his hair; 2. become Tamei by touching or being in the same room as a corpse; or 3. consume any products of the grapevine (Bamidbar 6:1-21, SEFER HA'CHINUCH #377). Transgressing any one of these prohibitions makes the Nazir liable to Malkus, as long as he was warned beforehand.
(b)When a Nazir completes his period of Nezirus, he must offer three sacrifices: a male sheep as an Olah, a female sheep as a Chatas, and a ram as a Shelamim. Together with the Shelamim he brings 6 and 2/3 Esronos of Soles (fine flour), which are made into 20 loaves of Matzah, 10 Chalos (unleavened loaves) and 10 Rekikin (flat Matzos). He then shaves off his hair and burns it under the pot in which the Zero'a (right hind leg) of the Shelamim is cooked (Bamidbar 6:18). (Sefer ha'Chinuch #377)
17)[line 24]â' ùáôøäSHALOSH SHEB'PARAH - the three [objects used in the burning] of the Parah Adumah] (PARAH ADUMAH)
(a)The Parah Adumah, an exclusively red-haired cow, is burned on Har ha'Zeisim and its ashes are used for making a person Tahor if he is Tamei Mes. Only a cow that has not had a yoke placed upon it and has had no other work done with it is fit to be used as a Parah Adumah. A place is prepared for its slaughter on Har ha'Zeisim, opposite the gate to the Azarah (the courtyard of the Beis ha'Mikdash). After it is slaughtered, its blood is sprinkled in the direction of the Beis ha'Mikdash seven times. Three objects, a cedar branch, some Ezov branches and a piece of crimson wool, are thrown into the carcass of the cow while it is burning (Bamidbar 19:1-22).
(b)If a person (or utensil) became Tamei through touching Tum'as Mes or being in the same room as a corpse or something that is Metamei b'Ohel, he must wait seven days to become Tahor. On the third and seventh days he must have spring water mixed with the ashes of the Parah Adumah (Mei Chatas) sprinkled on him. A person who is Tahor dips three Ezov branches that have been bound together into the mixture, and sprinkles them on the person who is Tamei. On the seventh day, he immerses in a Mikvah after the mixture is sprinkled on him in order to complete his Taharah (Bamidbar 19:17-19).
18)[line 25]ã' ùáúåãäARBA SHEB'TODAH - four [types of loaves] of the Korban Todah (KORBAN TODAH: 4 MINEI LECHEM)
(a)The Todah (thanksgiving offering) is a form of Shelamim that is eaten for only one day and one night (Vayikra 7:15). Korbenos Shelamim that are offered by an individual may be brought from male or female sheep, cows or goats. They are Kodshim Kalim, and may therefore be slaughtered in the entire Azarah (and not only in its northern part). Before its slaughter, the owner presses his hands on the head of the animal (Semichah). The blood of the Todah is cast on the northeastern and southwestern corners of the Mizbe'ach (Shenayim she'Hen Arba). Nesachim (a meal offering consisting of flour and oil and a wine libation) are brought as part of the Korban (Bamidbar 15:3-12). The meal offering is completely burned on the Mizbe'ach and the wine is poured into one of the Sefalim (the silver libation pipes located at the top of the southwest corner of the Mizbe'ach) (RAMBAM and RA'AVAD Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 2:1). The amount of flour, oil and wine needed depends upon the animal
ed, as specified in Bamidbar (ibid.).
(b)An animal that was sacrificed as a Todah was brought together with forty loaves of bread, ten each of the following:
1.Chalos Matzos - Matzos mixed with oil;
2.Rekikin - flat Matzos saturated with oil;
3.Soles Murbeches - Matzos made of boiled flour mixed with oil;
4.Loaves of leavened bread. (Vayikra 7:12-13)
(c)One loaf of each type of bread was given to the Kohen who performed the Zerikas ha'Dam of the Todah (Vayikra 7:14). (These four loaves were known as Terumas Lachmei Todah.) The Chazeh (breast) and Shok (thigh) of the Shelamim were given to the Kohen (Vayikra 7:34). Certain fats and other parts of the Korban were offered on the Mizbe'ach (Vayikra 3:3-4, 9-10, 14-15). The owner and his guests (men or women) eat the rest of the Korban inside the borders of the city of Yerushalayim. The meat may be cooked in any fashion and is eaten on the day that it is slaughtered and the following night.
19)[line 25]ã' ùáìåìáARBA SHEB'LULAV - the four [species taken on Sukos to fulfill the Mitzvah] of Lulav
(a)There is a Mitzvah to take four species on Sukos, as it states in the Torah (Vayikra 23:40). Chazal explained that the four species are the Pri Etz Hadar (one Esrog, citron), Kapos Temarim (one Lulav, closed palm branch), Anaf Etz Avos (three Hadasim, myrtle branches) and Arvei Nachal (two Aravos, willow branches).
(b)There is an argument among the Tana'im as to whether three of the species (the Lulav, Hadasim and Aravos) must be tied together in an Eged (a bunch) in order to fulfill the Mitzvah. Those who rule that "Lulav Tzarich Eged," learn this Halachah through a Gezeirah Shavah between the verse of the four species and the verse of the Agudas Ezov (see Background to Sukah 33:10), using the word "u'Lekachtem" as the linking word. All opinions agree that l'Chatchilah the three species should be tied, since they look nicer that way (Sukah 11b).
20)[line 25]àøáò ùáîöåøòARBA SHEB'METZORA - the four [items used in the purification process] of the Metzora (METZORA)
(a)THE PROCESS BY WHICH A METZORA BECOMES TAHOR - On the day that a Metzora (see Background to Zevachim 102:3) is healed from his Tzara'as, he takes four items, two kosher birds (Tziporei Metzora), a piece of cedar, some crimson wool and a hyssop branch. One of the birds is slaughtered over fresh spring water in a clay bowl. A Kohen dips the other bird, along with the other articles, into the spring water that is mixed with the blood and sprinkles it seven times on the Metzora. The living bird is sent away towards the fields. Both birds are Asur b'Hana'ah, but the Isur is removed from the living bird after it is sent off to the fields.
(b)The Metzora next shaves with a razor all places on his body that have a collection of hair and that are exposed, and immerses in a Mikvah. He is now considered Tahor to the extent that he may enter a settlement, but marital relations are forbidden (Mo'ed Katan 7b). He counts seven days ("Yemei Sefiro"), and on the seventh day he once more shaves and immerses. He is now completely Tahor but is still a Mechusar Kaparah (see below, entry #34).
(c)On the eighth day, the Metzora must bring Korbanos to complete his Taharah. The animal Korbanos are two male sheep and one female sheep. One of the male sheep is offered as an Olah, the other as an Asham. The female sheep is offered as a Chatas. If he could not afford to buy all these animals, he is called a poor Metzora. The poor Metzora brings two Torim (turtledoves) or two Benei Yonah (common doves) as the Olah and the Chatas; however, a sheep is still brought as his Asham. An ordinary Metzora or a poor Metzora brings Nesachim with all of his animal Korbanos (Menachos 91a).
(d)The Metzora also brings a Log of olive oil to the Beis ha'Mikdash as part of his purification process. A Kohen lifts up and waves (Tenufah) the live Korban Asham with the Log of oil resting upon it. After the Asham is slaughtered, some of the blood is placed on the body of the Metzora: on the middle section of cartilage of the Metzora's right ear, on his right thumb and on his right big toe. These parts of his body must be in the Azarah at the time that the Kohen applies the blood. For this purpose he stands in the gate of Nikanor (TY #18; the eastern gate of the Azarah, named for the man who donated the brass doors of the gate (see Yoma 38). Although all of the other gates of the Azarah had the Kedushah of the Azarah, Sha'ar Nikanor only had the Kedushah of Har ha'Bayis. The Chachamim arranged this so that the Metzora could stick his head, right hand and right foot into the Azarah while standing under the archway of the gate.
(e)After all of the Korbanos were offered, a Kohen pours some of the oil in his left hand and sprinkles it seven times towards the Kodesh ha'Kodashim. He must dip his right finger in the oil each time. Oil is also put on the body of the Metzora, on the places where the blood of the Asham was placed. The remainder of the oil in the Kohen's hand is placed on the Metzora's head. The rest of the Log which was not poured into the Kohen's hand was given to the Kohanim, and must be consumed by male Kohanim in the Azarah (it is one of the Kodshei ha'Kodashim). (RAMBAM Hilchos Mechusarei Kaparah 4:2-3)
21)[line 30]çå÷äCHUKAH- the word "l'Chukas," "as a statute," in the verse, "v'Hayesah Zos Lahem l'Chukas Olam, l'Chaper Al Benei Yisrael mi'Kol Chatosam Achas ba'Shanah..." - "And this shall be an everlasting statute to you, to make atonement for the people of Yisrael for all their sins once a year..." (Vayikra 16:34)
22)[line 31]äåéäHAVAYAH- the word "Yiheyu," "they shall be," in the verse, "v'Henif ha'Kohen Osam Al Lechem ha'Bikurim Tenufah Lifnei HaSh-m Al Shenei Kevasim, Kodesh Yiheyu la'Sh-m la'Kohen." - "And the Kohen shall wave them with the bread of the first fruits for a wave offering before HaSh-m with the two lambs; they shall be holy to HaSh-m for the Kohen." (Vayikra 23:20)
23)[line 38]ì÷éçä úîäLEKICHAH TAMAH- a complete Lekichah (holding, grasping)
24)[line 41]éäéå æ÷å÷éïYIHEYU ZEKUKIN- shall be connected, i.e. all four are required for the Mirtzvah (see Insights)
25)[line 43]áàâåãä àçúB'AGUDAH ACHAS- in one bunch, cluster
26)[line 43]éùøàì áäøöàäYISRAEL B'HARTZA'AH- [the people of] Yisrael [when they are trying] to gain favor [in the eyes of HaSh-m on a fast day, similarly need to gather together as one, the righteous, as well as the wicked who have repented from their evil deeds] (RASHI)
27)[line 44]"äÇáÌåÉðÆä áÇùÌÑÈîÇéÄí îÇòÂìåÉúÈå, åÇàÂâËãÌÈúåÉ òÇì-àÆøÆõ éÀñÈãÈäÌ; [äÇ÷ÌÉøÅà ìÀîÅé-äÇéÌÈí, åÇéÌÄùÑÀôÌÀëÅí òÇì-ôÌÀðÅé äÈàÈøÆõ; ä' ùÑÀîåÉ.]""HA'BONEH VA'SHAMAYIM MA'ALOSAV, VA'AGUDASO AL ERETZ YESADAH..."- "It is He Who builds His upper chambers in the heavens, and has founded His vault upon the earth; [it is He Who calls for the waters of the sea, and pours them out upon the face of the earth; HaSh-m is His name.]" (Amos 9:6)
28)[line 45]àâåãAGUD (LULAV: EGED)
See above, entry #19.
29)[line 46]àâåãú àæåáAGUDAS EZOV- a bunch of hyssop branches
30)[line 50]"... æÆä àÅìÄé åÀàÇðÀåÅäåÌ ..."ZEH KELI V'ANVEHU- "… this is my G-d and I will glorify Him …" (Shemos 15:2)
31)[last line]åÀòÈùÒÈä ìÇôÌÈø ëÌÇàÂùÑÆø òÈùÒÈä ìÀôÇø [äÇçÇèÌÈàú ëÌÅï éÇòÂùÒÆä-ìÌåÉ åÀëÄôÌÆø òÂìÅäÆí äÇëÌÉäÅï [åÀðÄñÀìÇç ìÈäÆí."V'ASAH LA'PAR KA'ASHER ASAH L'FAR [HA'CHATAS, KEN YA'ASEH LO...]"- "And he shall do with the bull as he did with the bull [of the sin offering [of the Kohen Gadol], so shall he do with this; and the Kohen shall make an atonement for them, and it shall be forgiven them.]" (Vayikra 4:20)
32)[last line]ìëôåì áäæàåúLICHPOL BA'HAZA'OS- to mention twice the sprinkling of the blood [of the Par He'elem Davar Shel Tzibur, once explicitly and once by stating that the actions performed upon this bull shall be exactly like the actions performed upon the bull of the sin offering of the Kohen Gadol (see previous entry)
33)[line 3]ùìà îëååðåúSHE'LO MECHUVANOS- not directed [towards the Kodesh ha'Kodashim of the Mishkan or the Beis ha'Mikdash]
34)[line 8]îçåñøé ëôøäMECHUSAREI KAPARAH
(a)There are three stages in the Taharah (purification) process of a Zav, Zavah, Yoledes, and Metzora: 1. Tevilah (immersing in a Ma'ayan for a Zav, or in a Mikvah for the others), 2. He'erev Shemesh (nightfall after the Tevilah) and 3. a Korban.
(b)The above Teme'im may not eat Terumah until nightfall after the Tevilah. They may not eat Kodshim or enter the Mikdash until they have brought their Korbanos the following morning. A Tamei who has only immersed is called a Tevul Yom (see next entry) until nightfall. After nightfall he is called a Mechusar Kaparah until he brings his Korban.
35)[line 10]èáåì éåíTEVUL YOM
A Tevul Yom is a person who has immersed in a Mikvah to become Tahor for Chulin, but is still waiting for nightfall to be completely Tahor with regard to Terumah, Kodshim and Bi'as Mikdash. The level of Tum'ah of a Tevul Yom is minimal; he is considered only a Sheni l'Tum'ah and if he touches Terumah or Kodesh, the Terumah or Kodesh becomes Pasul and must be burned. Chulin that he touches do not become Teme'im. If he enters the Mikdash, however, he is Chayav Kares (see Background to Makos 8:18b). After the following nightfall, he becomes completely Tahor with regard to Terumah. If he is a Mechusar Kaparah (see previous entry), he must wait until he brings his sacrifices to become completely Tahor with regard to Kodshim and Bi'as Mikdash.
36)[line 12]áàøáòéíB'ARBA'IM (MALKUS)
(a)It is a Mitzvah to administer the punishment of Malkus Arba'im (Torah lashes) to one who is liable to Malkus, as the Torah states, "v'Hipilo ha'Shofet v'Hikahu" - "and the judge shall cast him down and whip him" (Devarim 25:2). Malkus d'Oraisa are administered in Eretz Yisrael by a court of three judges who are Semuchin (Halachically ordained), whether the Beis ha'Mikdash stands or not (RAMBAM Hilchos Sanhedrin 16:2). Courts outside of Eretz Yisrael can administer only Makas Mardus (Rabbinic lashes, see Background to Kidushin 70:32).
(b)A person is only liable to Malkus Arba'im if he transgresses a Lav (a negative commandment) of the Torah that is not "modified," such as a Lav shebi'Chelalos (see Background to Bava Metzia 115:16), a Lav she'Nitak l'Aseh (see Background to Shevuos 3:13), etc. A prohibition that is implied by a positive commandment is never punishable by Malkus. In addition, in order to be liable he must transgress in front of witnesses after receiving a proper warning.
(c)Malkus are administered in numbers of three, with a maximum amount of thirty-nine for each transgression. The culprit is examined to determine how many lashes he can withstand. He stands leaning against a post and his clothes are ripped until his heart is revealed. The agent of Beis Din, a Torah scholar who is specifically weak, stands on a rock behind him, whipping one third of the lashes on his chest and two thirds on his back, one third on each shoulder (Makos 22b).
(d)During the whipping, the most distinguished judge of the court reads the verse "Im Lo Sishmor La'asos Es Kol Divrei ha'Torah ha'Zos... v'Hifla HaSh-m Es Makoscha..." - "If you will not be careful to perform all the words of this Torah... then HaSh-m will make your blows extraordinary..." (Devarim 28:58-59). For each blow, the deputy judge counts out loud the number of each lash and a third judge calls out "Hakehu!" - "Whip him!" If the culprit dies from the lashing, the agent of Beis Din is exempt from any punishment. However, if he administers an extra lash due to a mistake in the count, and the extra lash causes the culprit to die, he must go to Galus (exile, see Background to Makos 7:10).
37)[line 12]îáéú ìôøåëúMI'BEIS LA'PAROCHES- within [the room to which the entrance is covered by] the Paroches curtain (Vayikra 16:2)
38)[line 13]àì ôðé äëôåøúEL PENEI HA'KAPORES- in front of (lit. facing) the Kapores cover [of the Aron Kodesh] (Vayikra 16:2)
39)[line 13]áîéúäB'MISAH (KARES AND MISAH B'YEDEI SHAMAYIM: Heavenly Punishment of Untimely Death)
(a)Some sins are so severe that they are punished with untimely death. There are two types of untimely death that are used as heavenly punishments: Kares, and Misah b'Yedei Shamayim. Kares means "being severed" from the world and dying before one's time. Misah b'Yedei Shamayim means "death at the hands of heaven." These punishments are not administered by the courts, but through divinely administered justice.
(b)One who deliberately transgresses a commandment that is punishable with either Kares or Misah b'Yedei Shamayim is punished even if there are no witnesses to his act, and even if he was not warned at that time of his transgression that his violation will result in his untimely death.
(c)The Tif'eres Yisrael, in his commentary to Sanhedrin 9:6, lists a number of differences between Misah b'Yedei Shamayim and Kares:
1.One who is punished with Kares will die before age 60 (according to Moed Katan 28a, or before the age of 50, according to the Yerushalmi Bikurim 2:1). One punished with Misah b'Yedei Shamayim will die after the age of 60 but before his time has come (according to Moed Katan ibid., or before the age of 60, according to the Yerushalmi ibid.)
2.When one is punished with Kares, even his children (who are minors at the time of his sin) die, and he bears no further children. When one is punished with Misah b'Yedei Shamayim, only he is punished and not his children (Yevamos 55a and RASHI there; see, however, RIVA in Tosfos to Yevamos 2a DH Eshes, who maintains that Kares only involves the death of one's children in the two cases where the Torah adds the word "Ariri." However, he might be referring to the death of children who are not minors.)
4.In addition to the above, in certain instances a form Kares is prescribed in which the sinner not only dies before his time but is also 'severed' (Nichras) from receiving a portion in the World to Come (see Sanhedrin 64b, 90b).
(d)As stated in the Tosefta at the beginning of Kerisus (cited in Sanhedrin 83a), nine sins are punishable with Misah b'Yedei Shamayim:
1.A Kohen who serves in the Mikdash ...without washing his hands and feet
2....or without wearing the Priestly Garments
3....or while intoxicated
4....or with long hair
5....or while Tamei, or even after immersing in a Mikvah from his Tum'ah but before nightfall (or after nightfall but before bringing the Korbanos he is required to bring - Sanhedrin ibid; however Rambam Bi'as Mikdash 4:4 exempts from Misah in such a case.)
6.A Kohen who is Tamei and eats Terumah that is Tahor
7.A non-Kohen ...who serves in the Mikdash
8....or who eats Terumah (or Bikurim - Mishnah Bikurim 2:1).
9.A person who eats Tevel (food that has not been tithed properly).
10.Rebbi (ibid.) adds two more sins that are punishable with Misah b'Yedei Shamayim:
i.A Kohen who serves in the Mikdash with a Mum
ii.A person who intentionally exploits Hekdesh for personal use.
(e)Additional sins punishable with Misah b'Yedei Shamayim are:
1.One who does not heed - or does not transmit - a prophetic command (Sanhedrin 89a).
2.According to some, a Levi or a Kohen who performs service in the Mikdash that has not been assigned to him (Erchin 11a according to Abaye; however Rambam in Sefer ha'Mitzvos Lo Sa'aseh #72 and Klei ha'Mikdash 3:11 exempts a Kohen from Misah b'Yedei Shamayim).
40)[line 19]àì ä÷åãù áìà éáàEL HA'KODESH B'LO YAVO- going into the Kodesh section of the Beis ha'Mikdash is a Lav, transgressing the verse "v'Al Yavo v'Chol Es El ha'Kodesh" - "and he shall not come at all times into the Kodesh [section of the Beis ha'Mikdash]" (Vayikra 16:2), punishable by Malkus
41)[line 19]îáéú ìôøëú åàì ôðé äëôøú áìà éîåúMI'BEIS LA'PAROCHES V'EL PENEI HA'KAPORES B'LO YAMUS- going into the Kodesh ha'Kodashim section of the Beis ha'Mikdash and going in front of the Aron Kodesh is a sin that transgresses the verse "mi'Beis la'Paroches El Penei ha'Kapores Asher Al ha'Aron v'Lo Yamus" - within the Paroches curtain, in front of the Kapores cover that is on the Aron, and he shall not die" (Vayikra 16:2) - If he does enter, the verse implies that he will die Misah bi'Yedei Shamayim.
42)[line 25]äéëì îéçééáHEICHAL MICHAYEIV- going into the Heichal (the Kodesh section of the Beis ha'Mikdash) already makes the person liable [to the punishment of Malkus]
43)[line 25]îáòéà?MIBA'YA?- is necessary?
44)[line 29]ìàå ðîé ìàLAV NAMI LO- would not even transgress a Lav (a negative commandment punishable by Malkus)
45)[line 34]áàæäøäB'AZHARAH- is a sin that is punishable by Malkus (this is identical to the word "b'Lav")
46)[line 35]ãøê îùåôùDERECH MESHUPASH- (a) tunneling through the southern or northern wall (RASHI, 1st explanation); (b) walking sideways, avoiding facing the Aron Kodesh (RASHI, 2nd explanation)
47)[line 36]"[åÀìÈ÷Çç îÄãÌÇí äÇôÌÈø, åÀäÄæÌÈä áÀàÆöÀáÌÈòåÉ] òÇì-ôÌÀðÅé äÇëÌÇôÌÉøÆú ÷ÅãÀîÈä; [åÀìÄôÀðÅé äÇëÌÇôÌÉøÆú éÇæÌÆä ùÑÆáÇò-ôÌÀòÈîÄéí îÄï- äÇãÌÈí áÌÀàÆöÀáÌÈòåÉ.]""(EL) [AL] PENEI HA'KAPORES KEDMAH"- "[And he shall take of the blood of the bull, and sprinkle it with his finger] upon the Kapores cover eastward; [and before the Kapores cover shall he sprinkle of the blood with his finger seven times.]" (Vayikra 16:14)
48)[line 37]ôðé ÷ãéíPNEI KADIM- facing east
49)[last line]î÷åí äî÷åãù ì÷åãùMAKOM HA'MEKUDASH LA'KODESH- the holiest place of the Beis ha'Mikdash, i.e. the place upon which the Aron stood before it was hidden away