[33a - 45 lines; 33b - 41 lines]
1)[line 1]אסא מצראהASA MEITZRA'A- a) a Hadas that grew on the border of a field [that flourished due to its expansive surroundings]; b) alt. ASA MITZ'RA'A - an Egyptian Hadas
2)[line 2]פשוPASHU- remain
3)[line 4]שם לוויSHEM LEVAI- an accompanying modifier
4)[line 7]שלשה בדי עלין לחיןSHELOSHAH BADEI ALIN LACHIN- three branches [each of which has a set of three of three] fresh leaves (see Insights for alternative explanations)
5)[line 8]ובראש כל אחד ואחדUV'ROSH KOL ECHAD V'ECHAD- as long as [those leaves] are at the top of [each branch] (see Insights)
6)[line 10]עלתה בו תמרהALSAH BO TEMARAH- if a fruit-like protuberance developed atop the Hadas
7)[line 12]יש דחוי אצל מצות או לאYESH DICHUY ETZEL MITZVOS (YESH DICHUY ETZEL MITZVOS / EIN DICHUY ETZEL MITZVOS)
(a)"Dichuy" means "pushed off". This Halachic concept applies to certain cases in which a specific object is necessary for the fulfillment of a Mitzvah. If at one point that item is unfit for use as required, then Dichuy says that it may no longer be used even if it should then become fit. If, for example, one sanctifies an animal that has a Mum (blemish), Dichuy would not allow that animal to be offered upon the Mizbe'ach even after it has healed.
(b)There are two different scenarios in which Dichuy may apply. One, as in the previous example, is where the Dichuy was in existence from the beginning of the object's suitability for the Mitzvah. This is termed "Dichuy me'Ikara". If, however, the animal developed the Mum only after it was sanctified, this would be a question of "Nir'eh v'Nidcheh". This term refers to a situation in which the item was at first fit for use, end only afterward became unfit. Nir'eh v'Nidcheh is a more serious condition, as the object was actively deferred from the Mitzvah.
(c)In our Gemara, Rebbi Yirmeyahu raises the question of whether or not the concept of Dichuy applies to all Mitzvos, or only to specific Mitzvos in which we know Dichuy to apply. The application of Dichuy to our Sugya is with regard to a Hadas that was unfit for use in the Arba Minim at the onset of the Mitzvah of Arba Minim due to that which its tip was cut off. If a Temarah then developed afterward, is the Hadas valid, or is invalid due to Dichuy?
7)[line 13]כסהוKISAHU (KISUY HA'DAM)
(a)It is a Mitzvah to cover the blood of slaughtered birds and Chayos (non-domesticated Kosher animals) (Vayikra 17:13). The blood must be surrounded from above and below with earth or any other granular substance.
8)[line 20]מיפשיט פשיט ליה ...?MIFSHIT PASHIT LEI ...?- was it clear to him ...?
9a)[line 21]לקולאL'KULA- [if it results in] a leniency [such as with Kisuy ha'Dam, when one would not need to re-cover the blood if it is uncovered after having been covered by the wind]
b)[line 21]לחומראL'CHUMRA- [if it results in] a stringency [such as with a Hadas that developed a protuberance only once Yom Tov has begun, when one would not be able to use it for the Mitzvah of Arba Minim]
10)[line 23]עבר ולקטןAVAR V'LIKTAN- if one transgressed and plucked [the berries on a Hadas that outnumbered its leaves on Yom Tov]
11)[line 25]סברוהSAVRUHA- [those members of the Yeshivah who suggested that "Dichuy Etzel Mitzvos" is the subject of a disagreement between Tana'im] thought
12)[line 25]לולב אין צריך אגדLULAV EIN TZARICH EGED- see Background to 31:24
13)[line 26]תעשה ולא מן העשויTA'ASEH V'LO MIN HE'ASUY
(a)Many Mitzvos in the Torah require a positive action. When describing certain of these Mitzvos, the Torah uses the term "Ta'aseh" - "you should make". Examples of such Mitzvos are Tzitzis ("Gedilim Ta'aseh Lach ..." [Devarim 22:12]) and Sukah (Chag ha'Sukos Ta'aseh Lecha ... [Devarim 16:13]).
(b)Chazal understand from this terminology that one must actively create a situation resulting in Tzitzis on his garment or Sechach atop his Sukah. If his action is performed upon something else resulting in Tzitzis or a kosher Sukah as a side effect, then the Tzitzis or Sukah is invalid. This is known as "Ta'aseh" - v'Lo Min he'Asuy.
(c)An example of the application of this Halachah is that one may not dig a niche in the side of a haystack in order to form a Sukah, even if it that niche is large enough to meet the specifications of a minimally sized Sukah. Although all of the necessary materials are in place, the Sechach was created by default. One therefore must lift up the upper section of the haystack and then replace it, thereby directly placing Sechach upon his Sukah.
(d)There is a Machlokes between Acharonim regarding whether Ta'aseh v'Lo Min he'Asuy applies to Sechach only when the invalidation was inherent to the Sechach (such as in the case described above), or even if the reason why the Sukah was invalid until this point was due to reasons other than the validity of the Sechach. See Insights to 11a for further elucidation of this topic.
14)[line 39]אגודת אזובAGUDAS EZOV
(a)The first Korban Pesach (see Background to Pesachim 41:20) in history was offered by Klal Yisrael in Mitzrayim, just before they left. There were a number of differences between this "Pesach Mitzrayim" and a regular Korban Pesach.
(b)One of these differences was that the blood of the Pesach Mitzrayim was applied to the doorposts and lintel of the front door of every Jew in Mitzrayim. Since the Mal'ach ha'Maves (angel of death) was allowed to roam the streets of Mitzrayim that night in order to kill the firstborn sons of the Egyptians, Hash-m commanded Klal Yisrael to do so as a sign that these were Jewish houses, and that the Mal'ach ha'Maves should not enter. The blood was applied with an Agudas Ezov - a bundle of hyssop branches tied together (Shemos 12:21-23).
15)[line 41]לית להו לקיחה לקיחהLEIS LEI LEKICHAH LEKICHAH- do not [have a tradition to] expound the Gezeirah Shavah of Lekichah Lekichah
16)[line 43]"זֶה קֵלִי וְאַנְוֵהוּ""ZEH KELI V'ANVEHU" (HIDUR MITZVAH)
(a)In the song sung by Klal Yisrael following the splitting of the Yam Suf, the phrase "Zeh Keli v'Anvehu" - "This is my G-d and I shall glorify him" - appears. Chazal derive from this verse that one should beautify Mitzvos that he performs. This is known as Hidur Mitzvah. Applications of this Halachah include the decorations hung in a Sukah, the beauty of the calligraphy of a Sefer Torah, and the beautification of the garment upon which Tzitzis are attached.
(b)The Gemara (Bava Kama 9a-b) determines that one must spend up to an additional third on a Mitzvah item if is more beautiful than the cheaper option. The Gemara is unsure if this means an additional 33% or an additional 50%. Anything beyond this amount is "Shel ha'Kadosh Hu". This means a) that Hash-m will pay him back (RASHI); b) that he will receive reward in both this world and the next (TOSFOS); c) that he should only spend more than a third if he is wealthy (RA'AVAD quoted in the SHITAH).
17a)[line 44]דבר זה רבינו הגדול אמרוDAVAR ZEH RABEINU HA'GADOL AMRO- our great teacher (referring to Rav) said the following
b)[line 44]והמקום יהיה בעזרוVEHA'MAKOM YIHEYEH B'EZRO- and may he be granted Divine assistance
18)[last line]במקום אחדB'MAKOM ECHAD- [that the berries] are clustered in one place
19a)[line 1]מנומרMENUMAR- (O.F. tajez) speckled
b)[line 1]ופסולU'PASUL- and is [therefore] invalid [since it is lacking in Hidur, which is a requirement of the Arba Minim since the verse (Vayikra 23:40) uses the term "Hadar"]
20)[line 5]שחורותSHECHOROS- black [due to that which they have dried out]
21)[line 5]מיני דהדס הואMINEI D'HADAS HU- it is equal in appearance to the Hadas [and is therefore not Menumar]
22)[line 8]דם שחור אדום הוא, אלא שלקהHAI DAM SHACHOR ADOM HU, ELA SHE'LAKAH (DAM NIDAH)
(a)By Torah law, a woman who has her period is a Nidah for the following seven days, whether she sees blood only that one time or for the entire seven days. After nightfall on the seventh day, she may immerse in a Mikvah to become Tehorah.
(b)Not every secretion from the womb renders a woman a Nidah; the color of the secretion must be red in order for her to become Teme'ah. Rebbi Chanina teaches that black blood is considered Dam Nidah. It started off as red in color, but was then adversely affected and turned black.
23)[line 10]דחוי מעיקרא הואDICHUY ME'IKARA HU - it has been unfit from the beginning; see above, entry #7:b
25) [line 12] הזמנה בעלמא הוא HAZMANAH B'ALMA HU - is [not a Mitzvah, but rather] merely a preparation [for the Mitzvah]. The Hadas therefore is not considered as designated for the Mitzvah of Arba Minim until it is actually used for the Mitzvah. At this point, our Gemara understands that the point of the Mishnah is to teach this very point; namely, that there is no Mitzvah to bind the Lulav with the Hadasim and Aravos.
24)[line 14]דאשחור אימת?D'ASHCHUR EIMAS?- when did the berries turn black?
25)[line 18]נראה ונדחה הואNIR'EH V'NIDCHEH HU- it was it fit [for the Mitzvah], and then became invalid; see above, entry #7:b
26)[line 24]קא מתקן מנא!KA MESAKEN MANA!- he is fashioning a utensil (i.e., a usable item) [by rendering the Hadas fit for the Mitzvah of Arba Minim]! This is prohibited on Shabbos and Yom Tov.]
29)[line 26]דבר שאין מתכויןDAVAR SHE'EIN MISKAVEN
(a)A Davar she'Eino Miskavein is an act carried out toward a certain end which can be reached without transgressing a Melachah, but which may result in a Melachah being inadvertently performed. Rebbi Yehudah prohibits performing such an action mid'Rabanan, since it may result in a Melachah. Rebbi Shimon disagrees. He maintains that even though a Melachah may result from this action, the action is permitted since that one has no intention to perform the Melachah.
(b)One must have specific intent to perform a Melachah on Shabbos in order to be liable for punishment or to be required to bring a Korban. Therefore, if one does act in a way that results in an inadvertent Melachah, even Rebbi Yehudah agrees that he is not obligated to bring a Korban, since the Melachah was performed accidentally. The Machlokes between Rebbi Yehudah and Rebbi Shimon addresses only whether or not one may perform an action that may possibly result in a Melachah to begin with. (See Insights to Shabbos 41:2)
(c)The disagreement of Rebbi Shimon and Rebbi Yehudah applies to a situation in which it is not inevitable that a Melachah will occur as a result of the action. If, however, a prohibition will definitely be violated, then the action is termed a Psik Reishei and is forbidden. The classic example of a Psik Reishei involves one who wishes the blood of a chicken to feed to his dogs on Shabbos. Although he has no intention to kill the chicken, which is prohibited, even Rebbi Shimon agrees that he would be liable for doing so on Shabbos.
27)[line 28]פסיק רישיה, ולא ימות?PSIK REISHEI, V'LO YAMUS?- shall its head be cut off, and it will not die? (see previous entry (c))
28)[line 29]דאית ליה הושענא אחריתיD'IS LEI HOSHANA ACHARISI- that he has another Hadas [for the Mitzvah of Arba Minim] (see Insights)
32)[line 29]הותר אגדוHUTAR OGDO- if the binding [holding the Lulav, Hadasim, and Aravos together] has become untied
29)[line 30]אוגדו כאגודה של ירקOGDO K'AGUDAH SHEL YEREK- one should bind it like the binding of a bundle of vegetables [by wrapping a string around them and tucking in the ends
34)[line 30]ליענביה מיענב!LI'ANVEI MI'ANAV!- let him tie it with a bow!
30)[line 37]צפצפהTZAFTZEFAH- a species of willow with rounded leaves and a white stem
31)[line 37]כמושהKEMUSHAH- (O.F. flacedes) withered
32)[line 38]של בעלSHEL BA'AL- [a willow tree that grows in] an non-irrigated field
38a)[line 38]הגדילין על הנחלHA'GEDEILIN AL HA'NACHAL- [this teaches that one should ideally use Aravos from those willow trees] that grow upon the banks of a brook
b)[line 40]משוך כנחלMASHUCH K'NACHAL- is elongated like a brook (as opposed to Tzaftzefah)
39)[last line]"ערבי נחל" מכל מקום"ARVEI NACHAL" MI'KOL MAKOM- "'willows' (in the plural form) of the brook" teaches that all willows are acceptable [for the Mitzvah of Arba Minim]