KIDUSHIN 70 - Sponsored by a generous grant from an anonymous donor. Kollel Iyun Hadaf is indebted to him for his encouragement and support and prays that Hashem will repay him in kind.

[70a - 45 lines; 70b - 53 lines]

1)[line 1]"... וכל הנבדל מטמאת גויי הארץ אלהם [לדרש לה' א-לקי ישראל...]""... V'CHOL HA'NIVDAL MI'TUM'AS GO'YEI HA'ARETZ ALEIHEM [LI'DROSH LA'SH-M EL-KEI YISRAEL...]" - "[And the Jewish people who returned from the exile ate it,] together with all those who had separated from the defilement of the nations of the land (i.e. the converts) to join them [and to seek HaSh-m, G-d of Yisrael. And they celebrated the festival of Matzos for seven days, with joy, for HaSh-m had made them happy, and had turned the heart of the King of Ashur (Daryavesh II) towards them to strengthen their hands in the labor of HaSh-m, the G-d of Yisrael"(Ezra 6:21-22) (THE FIRST PESACH FOLLOWING THE REBUILDING OF THE BEIS HA'MIKDASH)

(a)These verses describe the first Pesach that the exiles spent with Ezra after the rebuilding of the Beis ha'Mikdash.

(b)See Background to Rosh Hashanah 3:8.

2)[line 2]"וישמע סנבלט החרוני וטוביה העבד העמוני... כי רבים ביהודה בעלי שבועה לו, כי חתן הוא לשכניה בן ארח; ויהוחנן בנו לקח את בת משלם בן ברכיה""VA'YISHMA SANBALAT HA'CHORANI V'TOVYAH HA'EVED HA'AMONI... KI RABIM BI'YEHUDAH BA'ALEI SHEVU'AH LO, KI CHASAN HU LI'SHECHANYAH BEN ARACH; VI'YEHOCHANAN BENO LAKACH ES BAS MESHULAM BEN BERECHYAH" - "And Sanbalat the Chorani, Tovyah the Amoni slave, [Geshem the Arab heard that they were building the walls of Yerushalayim and they mocked and despised us, and they said, 'What is this that you are doing? Have you decided to rebel against the king?' And I answered them and said to them, 'The G-d of the Heavens will grant us success, and we are His servants; and as for you, you have no portion, no merit, and no remembrance in Yerushalayim... Because many in Yehudah had sworn allegiance to him (Tovyah), since he was the son-in-law of Shechanyah ben Arach, and Yehochanan his son married Meshulam the son of Berechyah...." (Nechemyah 2:19, 20; 6:18) (SANBALAT AND TOVYAH, EVIL MEN)

(a)Sanbalat and Tovyah caused Nechemyah constant aggravation. They did everything in their power to prevent him from building the walls of Yerushalayim, including employing false prophets and prophetesses, and issuing various forms of threats, to intimidate him and frighten him.

(b)Nechemyah saw through them, and he remained undeterred throughout the process until, finally, despite their efforts, the walls were completed.

(c)See Background to Berachos 2:22 and Erchin 6:3.

3a)[line 4]עובד כוכבים ועבד הבא על בת ישראל הולד ממזרOVED KOCHAVIM V'EVED HA'BA AL BAS YISRAEL HA'VELAD MAMZER- [according to one opinion,] when an idolater or a Nochri slave has relations with Jewish woman, the offspring is a Mamzer.

b)[line 6]הולד כשרHA'VELAD KASHER- [according to another opinion,] offspring of a union between an idolater or a slave with a Jewish woman is legitimate: (a) the offspring is a legitimate Jew (most RISHONIM; this is the Halachic opinion - SHULCHAN ARUCH Even ha'Ezer 4:19); (b) Some Rishonim explain that the child is a proper Nochri and not a Jew at all, and that when he converts he will not be considered a Mamzer (RASHI to Kidushin 68b, DH Leima, TOSFOS to Yevamos 23a, DH Kasavar)

4)[line 7]"ואלה העולים מתל מלח...""V'ELEH HA'OLIM MI'TEL MELACH..."- "And these were the ones who went up from Tel Melach, Tel Charsha: Keruv, Adon, and Imer, and they were unable to relate the house of their father or their mother, whether they were from Yisrael" (Nechemyah 7:61).

5)[line 10]מתל מלחMI'TEL MELACH- (lit. from a mound of salt) this alludes to the people who repeated the practices of Sedom, the people of which were turned into salt (Devarim 29:22), who had many Mamzerim among them. The Gemara in Sanhedrin (109b) explains that there was a law in Sedom that if one man hit another man's pregnant wife, causing her to miscarry, he was required to live with her until he made her pregnant again, and hence there were many Mamzerim among the people of Sedom.

6)[line 13]כרובKERUV- [as holy as the] Cherub, the angelic being (Yechezkel 10:14)

7)[line 13]כנמרK'NAMER- [as unscrupulous as the] leopard

8)[line 16]חרשאCHARSHO- he plowed over [and sowed it with salt]

9)[line 18]"בה' בגדו כי בנים זרים ילדו [עתה יאכלם חדש את חלקיהם]""BA'SH-M BAGADU KI VANIM ZARIM YALADU, [ATAH YOCHLEM CHODESH ES CHELKEIHEM]"- "Against HaSh-m they have rebelled, for they have given birth to strange children they have born, [now they (their enemy) will consume them in a month, with their portions]" (Hoshea 5:7).

10)[line 23]כופתוKOFSO- ties him up

11)[line 23]רוצעוROTZ'O- whips him

12)[line 25]וכל הפוסל פסול ואינו מדבר בשבחא (לעולם) [של עולם]V'KOL HA'POSEL PASUL, V'EINO MEDABER B'SHIVCHA (L'OLAM) SHEL OLAM- and anyone who accuses someone else of being of sullied lineage is himself of sullied lineage, and he (one who is of sullied lineage) never speaks of the world with praise

13)[line 26]במומו פוסלB'MUMO POSEL- he accuses others of being unfit with his own blemish

14)[line 27]לבי מטבחיאBEI MATBECHAYA- a butcher shop

15)[line 28]יהודה בר שויסקאלYEHUDAH BAR SHEVISKAL- Rav Yehudah bar Yechezkel was the Rosh Yeshiva in Pumbedisa (RASHI), known as Rav Yehudah. The other man insulted him by called him, "Yehudah bar Sheviskal" - "Yehudah the roasted-meat eater (i.e. the glutton)."

16)[line 29]שמתיהSHAMTEI- he placed him in excommunication

17)[line 30]אזל ההואAZAL HA'HU- that one (who insulted Rav Yehudah bar Yechezkel) went

18)[line 33]יקרא דבי נשיאהYEKARA D'VEI NESI'AH- the honor of the House of the Nasi (prince, Reish Galusa)

19)[line 36]פורתא דגונדריתאPURTA D'GUNDERISA- a small barrier (that is acceptable to fulfill the Mitzvah of Ma'akeh (see Background to Kidushin 34:3), but is not a major construction project that would be unfit for Rav Nachman's social status

20)[line 37]אקרפיטאKARPITA- a bench

21)[line 38]אתרונגאESRONGA- Esrog, the citron fruit

22a)[line 41]אנבגאANBEGA- a cup [of Ispargus - see next entry]

b)[line 41]איספרגוסISPARGUS- a beverage of wine or beer made with asparagus (a type of cabbage) that has the quality of preventing inebriation (Otzar ha'Ga'onim #324) which people used to drink in the morning on an empty stomach for medicinal purposes

c)[line 41]אנפקANPAK- a cup [of Ispargus - see previous entry]

23)[line 42]דונגDONAG- the name of Rav Nachman's young daughter

24)[last line]קול באשה ערוהKOL B'ISHAH ERVAH- the voice of a woman is considered like her nakedness (and arouses a person to sin); see Insights


25a)[line 3]שרי ליה תגריהSHARI LEI TAGREI- resolve his dispute

b)[line 4]דלא נישוויך כשאר עם הארץD'LO NISHAVICH KI'SHE'AR AM HA'ARETZ- so that he not make you equal to every other ignoramus

26)[line 5]שיאטיהSHI'ATEI- [what is the master's] way of coming (i.e. what brings the master here)

27)[line 5]טסקא דהזמנותאTASKA D'HANMENUSA- subpoena

28)[line 6]שותא דמרSHUSA D'MAR- the master's speech

29)[line 8]דיסקא דהזמנותאDISKA D'HAZMENUSA- subpoena

30)[line 11]מחנפיMECHANFEI- show favoritism

31)[line 13]ונגדיה מרV'NAGDEI MAR - and the master should have given him lashes (MAKAS MARDUS)

Beis Din has the power to inflict lashes upon a person when lashes mid'Oraisa cannot be instituted. These lashes are called Makas Mardus (lit. lashes for rebelliousness) and may be unlimited in number. (See Insights to Chulin 110:1 for a discussion of the various opinions regarding how Makas Mardus is administered.)

32)[line 19]דאתינא מבית חשמונאי מלכאD'ASINA MI'BEI CHASHMONAI MALKA- that I stem from the family of the Hasmonean kings!

33)[line 22]כל תלמיד חכם שמורה הלכה ובאKOL TALMID CHACHAM SHE'MOREH HALACHAH U'VA- all scholars who cite teachings and Halachic rulings [that are critical to the case at hand]

34)[line 25]חדא כרעא אגודא וחדא כרעא במבראCHADA KAR'A A'GUDA, V'CHADA KAR'A B'MAVRA- one foot on the bank and one foot on the ferry (or bridge)

35)[line 31]זרעייתאZAR'AYASA- families

36a)[line 31]דבי יונהD'VEI YONAH- of the family of "Yonah" ("dove")

b)[line 32]דבי עורבתיD'VEI ORVASEI- of the family of "Orvasi" ("Orev," or "raven")

37)[line 32]ריגמאRIGMA- the stones [with which they intended to pelt him]

38)[line 33]וקם אטמא בנהר מלכאV'KAM ATMA BI'NEHAR MALKA- and it dammed the Royal Canal (lit. Malka River)

39)[line 34]ברמות רוחאB'RAMUS RUCHA- because of his haughtiness

40)[line 35]בלאי דנאי טלאי מלאי זגאיBALA'EI DANA'EI TELA'EI MELA'EI ZAGA'EI- these are all names of families, or the places in which the families resided, that were declared to be of sullied lineage

41a)[line 36]גובאי גבעונאיGOVA'EI GIVONA'EI- the family known as "Gova'ei" are Givonim, i.e. Nesinim (see Background to Kidushin 69:12)

b)[line 36]דורנוניתא דראי נתינאיHEBREW DORNUNISA DARA'EI NESINA'EI- the village of Dornunis means "the town (Dura) of Nesinim"

42)[line 41]"... ועמך כמריבי כהן""... V'AMCHA KI'MRIVEI CHOHEN"- "... and your people are like the quarrelsome Kohanim" (Hoshea 4:4).

43)[line 46]"בעת ההיא נאם ה' אהיה לא-לקים לכל משפחות ישראל [והמה יהיו לי לעם]""BA'ES HA'HI NE'UM HASH-M EHEYEH LE'L-KIM L'CHOL MISHPECHOS YISRAEL [V'HEMAH YIHEYU LI L'AM]"- "At that time, says HaSh-m, I will be for a G-d to all of the families of Yisrael, [and they will be unto Me a nation]" (Yirmeyahu 30:25) - (The reference in the gloss of the Gemara that says Yirmeyahu 31 is an error.)

44)[line 51]כספחתK'SAPACHAS - like a mark of Tzara'as on the skin

The names and colors of four types of marks that make a person a Metzora are:

1.Baheres, which is the color of snow;

2.Se'es, which is the color of clean, white newborn lamb's wool;

3.Sapachas of Baheres, which is the color of the plaster used to whitewash the Beis ha'Mikdash;

4.Sapachas of Se'es, which is the color of the white membrane found on the inside of an egg. (See Background to Kidushin 35:23.)

45)[line 51]"... ונלוה הגר עליהם ונספחו על בית יעקב""... V'NILVAH HA'GER ALEIHEM V'NISPECHU AL BEIS YAKOV"- "[For HaSh-m will have mercy on Yaakov, and will yet choose Yisrael, and set them in their own land;] and foreigners shall be joined with them, and they shall cleave to the house of Yaakov" (Yeshayah 14:1).

46)[line 52]"[זאת התורה...] ולשאת ולספחת [ולבהרת]""[ZOS HA'TORAH...] VELA'SE'ES VELA'SAPACHAS [VELA'BEHARES]"- "This is the law... for the Se'es, and for the Sapachas [and for the Baheres]" (Vayikra 14:54-56). (See above, entry #44.)