[34a - 29 lines; 34b - 32 lines]
1)[line 1]ותפיליןTEFILIN (MITZVAS ASEH SHEHA'ZEMAN GERAMA)
(a)Mitzvos which must be performed at a specific time of the day are called Mitzvos Aseh sheha'Zeman Geraman. Some examples are Sukah, Lulav, Shofar, and Tzitzis. Women are exempt from these Mitzvos, with the exception of Kidush on Friday night, Matzah on Pesach night, the Korban Pesach, Hakhel, and Simchah on Pesach, Shavuos, and Sukos.
(b)There is a Machlokes Tana'im whether Tefilin should be worn on Shabbos and at night as well (see Shabbos 61a, 62a, and Eruvin 96a). The Halachah follows the opinion that they should not be worn on Shabbos or at night. Women, therefore, are exempt, as in all Mitzvos Aseh sheha'Zeman Geraman.
2)[line 2]מזוזהMEZUZAH (MITZVAS ASEH SHE'LO HA'ZEMAN GERAMA)- the Mitzvah to affix a Mezuzah to the doorposts of one's home (Devarim 6:9) applies at all times and is not limited to any particular time, and therefore a woman is obligated in this Mitzvah, as in all Mitzvos Aseh she'Lo ha'Zeman Geraman.
3)[line 2]מעקהMA'AKEH - a fence or guardrail
The Torah (Devarim 22:8) commands that a fence be built around the roof of one's home (or balcony) in order to prevent one from falling off. This Mitzvah applies at all times and is not limited to any particular time, and therefore a woman is obligated in this Mitzvah, as in all Mitzvos Aseh she'Lo ha'Zeman Geraman.
4)[line 2]אבידהAVEIDAH - a lost object
The Torah (Devarim 22:1-3) commands that a person who finds a lost object must return it to the owner. This Mitzvah applies at all times and is not limited to any particular time, and therefore a woman is obligated in this Mitzvah, as in all Mitzvos Aseh she'Lo ha'Zeman Geraman.
5)[line 2]ושילוח הקןSHILU'ACH HA'KEN
It is forbidden to take a mother bird that is sitting on her nest together with the eggs or baby birds; rather, he must first send the mother away as prescribed in Devarim (22:7). This is a Mitzvas Aseh that is not limited to any particular time, and therefore a woman is obligated in this Mitzvah, as in all Mitzvos Aseh she'Lo ha'Zeman Geraman.
The Mitzvah to eat Matzah (Shemos 12:18) is time-bound, limited to the night of Pesach. Nevertheless, women are obligated in this Mitzvah, even though it is a Mitzvas Aseh sheha'Zeman Gerama. The reason is because the verse that commands against eating Chametz on Pesach also commands the obligation to eat Matzah (Devarim 16:3). The Gemara (Pesachim 43b) derives from this Hekesh that those who are obligated to observe the Lo Sa'aseh of not eating Chametz (i.e. everyone, including women) are also obligated to observe the Mitzvas Aseh of eating Matzah.
The Torah (Devarim 16:14) requires that all of the Jews be happy on the festivals. Buying food and clothing that cause one to be happy, each person according to his taste, fulfills this Mitzvah. Even though this Mitzvah is a Mitzvas Aseh sheha'Zeman Gerama, women are obligated in its fulfillment, because the verse there states, "And you shall rejoice on your festival - you and your son and your daughter."
8)[line 3]הקהלH AKHEL
All of the Jewish people are obligated in the Mitzvah of Hakhel once every seven years, as it states in Devarim 31:10-13, "At the end of every seven years, in the Shemitah year, during the festival of Sukos, when all of Yisrael comes to appear before HaSh-m in the place which He shall choose, you shall read this Torah before all of Yisrael. Gather the people together, men, women and children... that they may hear, and learn, and fear HaSh-m, your G-d, and observe all the words of this Torah." This takes place in the Beis ha'Mikdash on the second day of Sukos in the year following the Shemitah year. During Hakhel, the King reads from the Torah portions of Devarim, as specified in the Mishnah (Sotah 41a). Even though this is a Mitzvas Aseh sheha'Zeman Gerama, women are obligated, for the verse specifically includes them in the Mitzvah.
9)[line 4]תלמוד תורהTALMUD TORAH
Even though the Mitzvah of learning Torah is a Mitzvas Aseh she'Lo ha'Zeman Gerama and is not limited to any specific time, women are nevertheless exempt from the Mitzvah, as the Gemara derives earlier (29a).
10)[line 5]פריה ורביהPIRYAH V'RIVYAH
Even though the Mitzvah of having children (literally, being fruitful and multiplying) is a Mitzvas Aseh she'Lo ha'Zeman Gerama and is not limited to any specific time, women are nevertheless exempt from the Mitzvah (according to the majority opinion in the Mishnah in Yevamos 65b). The reason is because there is a Hekesh in the verse (Bereishis 1:28) linking the Mitzvah to procreate with the command to conquer the earth. The Gemara teaches that since it is not the manner for women to conquer the earth, they are also exempt from the Mitzvah of procreating.
11)[line 5]ופדיון הבןPIDYON HA'BEN
Even though the Mitzvah of redeeming a firstborn son is a Mitzvas Aseh she'Lo ha'Zeman Gerama and is not limited to any specific time, women are nevertheless exempt from the Mitzvah, as the Gemara derives earlier (29a). (See Background to Kidushin 29:7)
12a)[line 8]בכל מערביןBA'KOL ME'ARVIN- an Eruv can be made with any type of food (RASHI (Eruvin 26b) claims that this refers to Eruvei Chatzeiros and Eruvei Techumin (see next two entries). TOSFOS and other Rishonim state that this refers to Eruvei Techumin only; Eruvei Chatzeiros can only be made with bread)
b)[line 8]מערביןME'ARVIN (ERUVEI TECHUMIN)
(a)A person is only allowed to walk a distance of 2000 Amos, approximately 960 meters (3147 feet) or 1,152 meters (3774 feet), depending upon the differing Halachic opinions, from his city or dwelling place (if he is not in a city) on Shabbos or Yom Tov. If he wants to walk another 2000 Amos, he must make an Eruv Techumin.
(b)This is accomplished by placing an amount of food that would be used for two meals nearly 2000 Amos away from his present location, in the direction in which he wishes to walk. The location where his food is placed is considered his new dwelling or place of Shevisah for that Shabbos or Yom Tov, and he may walk 2000 Amos in any direction from there.
c)[line 8]מערבין ומשתתפיןME'ARVIN U'MISHTATFIN (ERUVEI CHATZEIROS / SHITUFEI MAVO'OS)
(a)THE TORAH LAW - According to Torah law, in a courtyard (Chatzer) that has in it houses owned by different people, all of the neighbors may transfer objects from their houses to the courtyard and into other houses on Shabbos. Even though each house is a separately owned Reshus ha'Yachid and the Chatzer is a jointly owned Reshus ha'Yachid, it is permissible to move objects from one Reshus ha'Yachid to another.
(b)ERUV CHATZEIROS AND SHITUFEI MAVO'OS - King Shlomo decreed that transferring objects from one Reshus ha'Yachid to another is forbidden unless an Eruv Chatzeiros (lit. a mixing of the courtyard, Rambam Hil. Eruvin 1:6; or fraternization of the courtyard, Eruvin 49a) is created on Friday, before Shabbos begins (Shabbos 14b, Eruvin 21b). The equivalent of an Eruv Chatzeiros for an alley or a city is called a Shituf Mavo'os. This is accomplished by all of the neighbors collectively setting aside a loaf of bread, in one common container, in one of the houses of the courtyard (or, in the case of Shituf, in one of the courtyards of the alleyway). This shows that all neighbors have an equal share in all of the Reshuyos ha'Yachid, just as they all have a share in that bread. Through this act, they can be considered one Reshus again. (RAMBAM ibid. 1:4-9)
13)[line 10]כמהין ופטריותKEMEIHIN U'FITRIYOS- types of boletes, such as mushrooms, morels, and truffles
14a)[line 18]בפרשה ראשונהPARSHAH RISHONAH- the first paragraph of Keri'as Shema (Devarim 6:4-9)
b)[line 18]בפרשה שניהPARSHAH SHENIYAH- the second paragraph of Keri'as Shema (Devarim 11:13-21)
15)[line 25]"[בסכות תשבו שבעת ימים כל] האזרח [בישראל ישבו בסכת]""[BA'SUKOS TESHVU SHIV'AS YAMIM, KOL] HA'EZRACH [B'YISRAEL YESHVU BA'SUKOS]"- "[In Sukos you shall dwell for seven days, every] citizen [of Yisrael shall dwell in Sukos]." (Vayikra 23:42) - The Gemara (28a) derives from the extra letter "Heh" of "ha'Ezrach" that women are exempt from the Mitzvah of Sukah.
16)[line 1]נילף 'חמשה עשר' 'חמשה עשר' מחג המצותNEILAF 'CHAMISHAH ASAR' 'CHAMISHAH ASAR' ME'CHAG HA'MATZOS- we should derive from Pesach [that women are obligated in the Mitzvah of Sukah] through a Gezeirah Shavah of "the fifteenth" (written with regard to Sukos) and "the fifteenth" (written with regard to Pesach)
Every Jewish male is required to appear before HaSh-m in the Azarah (courtyard) of the Beis ha'Mikdash and to bring a Korban Re'iyah on Pesach, Shavuos, and Sukos (Devarim 16:16). The Korban Re'iyah is a Korban Olah. If the Korban was not brought on the first day of the festival, it may be brought on any of the other six days of Pesach. On Sukos it may be brought on the first day or the next seven days. On Shavuos it may be brought on Shavuos or on the six days following the festival. Beis Hillel rules that the minimum amount that one must spend for a Korban Re'iyah is one Me'ah (Chagigah 2a).
18)[line 5]"זכורך""ZECHURCHA"- "[Three times in the year all of] your males [shall appear before the L-rd, HaSh-m." (Shemos 23:)
19)[line 8]אשה בעלה משמחה אלמנהISHAH BA'ALAH MESHAMCHAH- a woman's husband is obligated to ensure that she rejoices on the festival. The woman herself has no independent Mitzvah to rejoice.
20)[line 9]בשרויהאצלוB I'SHERUYAH ETZLO- who stays with him (a householder who supports her)
21)[line 11]וכל שני כתובים הבאין כאחד אין מלמדיםV'KOL SHNEI CHESUVIM HA'BA'IM K'ECHAD, EIN MELAMDIM - we do not learn from two subjects that express the same Halachah (lit. that come together)
(a)A Binyan Av (lit. "building through a father"; "father" in this sense means a Biblical source), is a rule of Biblical interpretation in which one subject is deemed a prototype in order to apply a Halachah stated by that subject to other comparable subjects.
(b)If two verses express the same Halachah regarding two different subjects, we cannot apply the Halachah elsewhere through a Binyan Av. Through the fact that the Torah found it necessary to repeat the law the second time, we may deduce that the Halachah is not meant to be applied automatically in all situations.
22)[line 22]טפליםTEFALIM- children (dependent on their parents)