[2a - 35 lines; 2b - 52 lines]
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.
 Mishnah 2a [line 8]:
"v'Lo Zu Bilvad Amru ולא זו בלבד אמרו
This is also the Girsa of the Rosh. However, in the Mishnayos the word "Amru" does not appear.
 Rashi, end of 2a:
At the end of the page, a number of Rashi's glosses were accidentally omitted from our text (which is based on the Bombergi printing of the Talmud in 1520.) In some editions of Berachos (such as the Wagshal edition), the missing words of Rashi have been recovered from the earlier Soncino edition of the Talmud (Lombardy, 1484), and they are printed in the margin.
 Tosfos 2a DH me'Eimasai ד"ה מאימתי:
The words "ume'Osah Sha'ah Havah Zman Tefilah" ומאותה שעה הוה זמן תפילה
should be "ume'Osah Sha'ah Havah Zman Shechivah" ומאותה שעה הוה זמן שכיבה
(This is the way it appears in Tosfos Rabeinu Peretz)
 Rashi 2b DH Nichnasin and DH v'Hai Minaihu Me'uchar ד"ה נכנסין והי מינייהו מאוחר:
"l'Chulam... l'Chulam" לכולם... לכולם
(a) The words of Rashi, that the time of "Bnei Adam Ochlim" בני אדם אוכלים is the latest of all, and that the time of "Ani Ochel" עני אוכל is the latest of all, are contradictory (as all the Acharonim point out). To solve this problem, the Maharsha removes the word "l'Chulam" לכולם from the first Dibur, since he is of the opinion that the time of "Ani Ochel" עני אוכל is later than the time of "Bnei Adam Ochlim"בני אדם אוכלים, even during the week.
(b) The Acharonim (Nachalas David, and see also Yefei Einayim; from the marginal note printed in the Gemara, it seems that the Maharshal also argues with the Maharsha; however, we do not find this in our editions of the Maharshal) prove from the words of the Gemara that this cannot be correct. It is also apparent that the Tosfos ha'Rosh (DH Rav Achai) had the Girsa of "l'Chulam" לכולם in the first Rashi, and it is likewise evident from Rashi (3a, DH Kashya d'Rebbi Meir, and 2b, DH mishehe'Ani) that the time of "Bnei Adam Ochlim" בני אדם אוכלים is later than both the time of "Ani Ochel"עני אוכל and the time of "Kohanim Nichnasim" כהנים נכנסים. As such, "l'Chulam" לכולם should appear only in DH v'Hai Minaihu Me'uchar.
1)[line 2]קורין את שמעKORIN ES SHEMA (KERI'AS SHEMA)
(a)There is a Mitzvah for every Jewish male to read Keri'as Shema every evening and morning. The three passages of Keri'as Shema are "Shema Yisrael..." (Devarim 6:4-9), "v'Hayah Im Shamo'a..." (Devarim 11:13-21), and "va'Yomer..." (Bamidbar 15:37-41). The phrase, "Baruch Shem Kevod Malchuso l'Olam va'Ed," is recited in an undertone between Shema and v'Ahavta (the first two Pesukim of Keri'as Shema). There is a difference of opinion as to whether the obligation to recite Baruch Shem is from the Torah or mid'Rabanan.
(b)The reason for the Mitzvah is in order for a person to accept upon himself HaSh-m's kingship and remember His Oneness to help him refrain from sinning and being led astray by his base instincts (SEFER HA'CHINUCH #420).
2)[line 2]בערביןB'ARAVIN- at night (lit. in the nights; the Girsa of the Mishnayos is b'Arvis, in the singular. This Girsa is parallel with that of the next Mishnah, "me'Eimasai Korin Es Shema b'Shacharis")
3)[line 3]נכנסים לאכול בתרומתןNICHNASIM LE'ECHOL B'TERUMASAN
(a)After a crop that is grown in Eretz Yisrael is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah Gedolah from the crop and give it to a Kohen. Although the Torah does not specify the amount to be given, the Rabanan set the requirement at one fiftieth of the total crop. After Terumah is removed from the produce, one tenth of the produce that remains must be designated Ma'aser Rishon, and given to a Levi. The Levi, in turn, must separate one tenth of his Ma'aser Rishon as Terumas Ma'aser, to be given to a Kohen, as it states in Bamidbar 18:26.
(b)The produce may not be eaten until both Terumos have been separated from it. Until the Terumos have been separated, the produce is called Tevel. The punishment for eating Tevel is Misah b'Yedei Shamayim (Sanhedrin 83a).
(c)A non-Kohen may not eat Terumah or Terumas Ma'aser. Even Kohanim and their families and slaves may not eat Terumah unless they and the Terumah are Tehorim (ritually pure). A Kohen who is Tamei who eats Terumah that is Tehorah is liable to Misah b'Yedei Shamayim, as is learned from the verse in Vayikra 22:9. A Kohen who becomes Tamei may not eat Terumah until he immerses in a Mikvah and waits until nightfall.
The night is broken up into Ashmuros, or watches. There is a difference of opinion as to whether an Ashmurah lasts for three or four hours. They correspond to the watches of the ministering angels.
5)[line 5]חצותCHATZOS- Halachic midnight, which is the middle of the night when calculating from sunset to sunrise
6)[line 5]יעלה עמוד השחרYA'ALEH AMUD HA'SHACHAR
(a)Amud ha'Shachar is Halachic dawn (lit. "when the pillar [or ray of the morning] rises") marks the border between the last time to do the Mitzvos of the night and the first time to do the Mitzvos of the morning.
(b)There are three opinions for the calculation of Halachic dawn: 120, 90, or 72 minutes before sunrise. There is a further difference of opinion as to whether these are ordinary minutes of a clock, or minutes of a variable hour, a Sha'ah Zemanis (the amount of time between sunrise and sunset divided by 12). A different theory records these times as degrees of the angle of the sun underneath the horizon: 25.9, 19.75, or 15.99 degrees, respectively. (See "Zemanei ha'Halachah l'Ma'aseh" by Rav Baruch Ezrachi, Yerushalayim 5736.)
7)[line 6]בית המשתהBEIS HA'MISHTEH- from a wedding feast or similar Se'udas Mitzvah (in which they were considered "Osek b'Mitzvah, Patur Min ha'Mitzvah")
8)[line 11]הקטר חלבים ואבריםHEKTER CHALAVIM V'EVARIM
Most of the Avodos of the Korbanos of the Beis ha'Mikdash were performed during the day. The primary Avodos of animal Korbanos are Shechitah (slaughtering), Zerikas ha'Dam (casting the blood on the Mizbe'ach), and placing upon the fire of the Mizbe'ach the Chalavim (certain fats) and Eivarim (limbs of the Korban Olah), depending on the specific Korban. When many Korbanos were offered in a single day, as long as the Zerikas ha'Dam was performed before nightfall the Korban was valid. The Chalavim and Eivarim could then be placed on the fire of the Mizbe'ach, even throughout the night, until dawn.
9)[line 12]הנאכלים ליום אחדHA'NE'ECHALIM L'YOM ECHAD
Parts of certain Korbanos are eaten. Some may be eaten only by the Kohanim and others by anyone who is Tahor. All Korbanos have a time limit within which they must be eaten. The Mishnah is discussing those Korbanos which may be eaten on the day that they are slaughtered and the following night, until dawn. Some examples are Chatas, Asham, and Todah.
10)[line 15]תנא היכא קאי דקתני "מאימתי"TANA, HEICHA KAI DEKA'TANI "ME'EIMASAI?"- Where is the Tana "coming from" that he is asking, "From when [can one recite the Keri'as Shema]?" That is, we should be taught about the obligation to recite Keri'as Shema before the Tana asks from when do we recite it.
11)[line 30]צאת הכוכביםTZEIS HA'KOCHAVIM
Halachic night (lit. when the stars come out) marks the beginning of the time to do the Mitzvos of the night. It follows the time period called Bein ha'Shemashos (see below, entry #26). There are many opinions for the calculation of Tzeis ha'Kochavim, ranging from 13.5 to 40 minutes after sunset. According to the opinion of RABEINU TAM (cited by TOSFOS to Shabbos 35a DH Trei and Pesachim 94a DH Rebbi Yehudah), Tzeis ha'Kochavim is 72 or 90 minutes after sunset. (See "Zemanei ha'Halachah l'Ma'aseh" by Rav Baruch Ezrachi, Yerushalayim 5736.)
12)[line 33]כפרה לא מעכבאKAPARAH LO ME'AKVA
(a)There are three stages in the Taharah (purification) process of a Zav, Zavah, Yoledes, and Metzora: 1. Tevilah (immersing in a Ma'ayan for a Zav, or a Mikvah for the others), 2. He'erev Shemesh (nightfall after the Tevilah), and 3. bringing a Korban the following day.
(b)Kohanim and members of their households who become Teme'im with the above Tum'os may not eat Terumah until nightfall after their Tevilah. They may not eat Kodshim until they have brought their Korbanos on the following morning. A Tamei person who has only immersed is called a Tevul Yom until nightfall. After nightfall he is called a Mechusar Kaparah (lit. one who is lacking atonement) until he brings his Korban.
13)[line 33]"ובא השמש וטהר""U'VA HA'SHEMESH V'TAHER"- "And when the sun is down, he shall be ritually pure, [and shall afterwards eat of the holy things (i.e. Terumah); because it is his food.]" (Vayikra 22:7)
14)[line 34]ביאת השמשBI'AS HA'SHEMESH- the setting of the sun
15)[last line]טהר יומאTAHER YOMA- the day is gone (nightfall)
16)[line 1]ביאת אורוBI'AS ORO- (a) daybreak on the following morning (RASHI); (b) the beginning of sunset (TOSFOS)
17)[line 1]טהר גבראTAHER GAVRA- (a) the person becomes Tahor after offering his Korbanos (RASHI); (b) the person becomes Tahor since the required time has passed (TOSFOS)
18)[line 3]איערב שמשאI'AREV SHIMSHA- the sun is set
19)[line 4]אדכי יומאIDKEI YOMA- the sun (lit. day) has gone completely (RASHI)
20)[line 4]מערבאMA'ARAVA- Eretz Yisrael (lit. in the west [of Bavel])
21)[line 14]עומד ליפטרOMED LI'PATER- he gets up to go [away from the table, after his meal]
22)[line 22]"ואנחנו עושים במלאכה וחצים מחזיקים ברמחים מעלות השחר עד צאת הכוכבים. [גם בעת ההיא אמרתי לעם איש ונערו ילינו בתוך ירושלם] והיו לנו הלילה משמר והיום מלאכה.""VA'ANACHNU OSIM BA'MELACHAH, V'CHETZYAM MACHZIKIM BA'REMACHIM ME'ALOS HA'SHACHAR AD TZEIS HA'KOCHAVIM. GAM BA'ES HA'HI AMARTI LA'AM 'ISH V'NA'ARO YALINU B'SOCH YERUSHALAYIM V'HAYU LANU HA'LAILAH MISHMAR VEHA'YOM MELACHAH'" - "...We were doing the work, and half of them held on to their spears, from the break of dawn until nightfall. [Also at that time I said to the people, 'Let each man and his servant sleep inside Yerushalayim';] so that [in] the night [they] shall be a guard for us, and they day shall be for labor.'" (Nechemyah 4:15-16) (GUARDING AND BUILDING )
(a)The Babylonian exile ended when, 18 years after Koresh put a stop to the construction of the second Beis ha'Mikdash, Nechemyah and the returnees received permission from Daryavesh II to resume the building.
(b)When Sanbalat the Samaritan and his friend Tuvyah the Amoni heard that the building of the walls of Yerushalayim was proceeding nicely, they became furious. (It was through their intervention that the building was stopped in the first place.) At first, they merely mocked the workers and taunted them. When they saw that the work continued to proceed at a steady pace, they plotted — together with Yisrael's old enemies, the Aravim, Amonim, and the Ashdodim (from Pelishtim) — to attack Yerushalayim in order to put a stop to the building at any cost.
(c)Nechemyah and the other leaders decided to divide the people into two sections. Half would build, and the other half would stand on guard to protect the builders from the attack of Sanbalat and his men, should it materialize.
(d)In fact, the situation was so perilous that out of fear of being attacked in the middle of the night, Nechemyah and his men slept fully clothed. The only ones who removed their clothes at nighttime were those who were Tamei and who had to immerse in a Mikvah.
23)[line 26]אינהו דמחשכי ומקדמיINHU D'MECHASHCHEI U'MEKADMEI- it was they who stayed late (after the day had already ended) and came early (before the day had begun)
24)[line 34]משעה שקדש היום בערבי שבתותMI'SHA'AH SHE'KIDESH HA'YOM B'ARVEI SHABBASOS- at the time that Shabbos arrives on Friday (this is at Bein ha'Shemashos — see entry #26)
25)[line 42]להסבL'HASEV- to recline [to eat] (the practice at the time of the Gemara was to lie down on a couch to eat)
26)[line 51]אבין השמשות דידךA'BEIN HA'SHEMASHOS DIDACH (BEIN HA'SHEMASHOS: D'REBBI YEHUDAH / D'REBBI YOSI)
(a)Bein ha'Shemashos refers to the period of the day during which the sun begins to set, but has not yet finished setting (according to the Halachic definition of sunset). There is an uncertainty as to whether Bein ha'Shemashos is considered part of the day or part of the night.
(b)The Tana'im (Shabbos 34b) argue as to exactly when Bein ha'Shemashos occurs:
1.According to Rebbi Yehudah, Bein ha'Shemashos starts from the time the sun dips under the horizon and lasts for the time that it takes an average person to walk either two thirds or three quarters of a Mil (according to the various understandings of Rebbi Yehudah's statement in Shabbos 34b).
2.Rebbi Nechemyah explains that it lasts for the time that it takes an average person to walk half of a Mil. (The fact that RASHI here and to Berachos 2b records this as the opinion of Rebbi Yehudah is discussed in Insights to Nidah 53:1.)
3.According to Rebbi Yosi, Bein ha'Shemashos lasts only as long as the [gentle] blink of an eye. Beforehand is day; afterwards is night. The Gemara (Nidah 53a) states that there is a difference of opinion as to whether the Bein ha'Shemashos of Rebbi Yosi occurs after or during the Bein ha'Shemashos of Rebbi Yehudah. Elsewhere (Shabbos 35a), the Gemara concludes that Rebbi Yosi's Bein ha'Shemashos occurs after the end of Rebbi Yehudah's Bein ha'Shemashos.
27)[last line]הרף עיןHEREF AYIN- the blink of an eye