[7a - 44 lines; 7b - 52 lines]

1)[line 1] KERIVEI D'ARAVA- relatives of the guarantor

2)[line 10] ECHAD B'SHAVU'A- once in a seven-year Shemitah cycle (lit. week)

3)[line 11]CHOVLANIS- destructive, damaging

4)[line 26]" [ ]""V'HAYU EILEH LACHEM L'CHUKAS MISHPAT L'DOROSEICHEM [B'CHOL MOSHEVOSEICHEM]"- "And these [laws] will be for you for a decree of justice for all of your generations, in all of your settlements" (Bamidbar 35:29). - The words, "in all of your settlements" include any settlements, even those outside of Eretz Yisrael.

5a)[line 30]PELACH- region, county

b)[line 30]IR- city (of at least one hundred twenty or two hundred thirty residents see Tana'ic argument in the Mishnah Sanhedrin, Daf 2b)

6)[line 34] ORACH AR'A- (lit. the way of the world) the normal occurrence

7a)[line 36]TEREIFAH

A Tereifah is a person or an animal that has acquired or was born with a fatal defect that will result in death within a year. The signs of a Tereifah are described in Chulin 42a et seq. (There are some who maintain that a Tereifah can live for more than a year see Chulin 42a-b.) Our Gemara mentions a "Nekev," a hole, i.e. a hole in the body that had rendered the victim a Tereifah before the attacker killed him.

b)[line 36]SHALEM- whole, healthy

8)[line 37]SAYIF- the sword

9)[line 38] K'MAKCHOL BI'SHEFOFERES- like a stick or twig (that is used as an applicator) into a hollow reed tube (that contains a substance to be applied)


10)[line 41] ELU HEN HA'GOLIN (GALUS)

(a)A person who murders intentionally after having been previously warned is liable to the death penalty. A person who murders unintentionally is exempt from the death penalty, but is punished with Galus (banishment, exile).

(b)When it is proven that a person killed unintentionally, he is banished to one of the six Arei Miklat (cities of refuge) or one of the forty-two cities of the Leviyim. He must stay there and not leave the city or its Techum for any reason whatsoever, until the death of the Kohen Gadol who served at the time that he was sentenced to banishment.

(c)If the unintentional murderer leaves his city of refuge, the Go'el ha'Dam (the closest relative of the murdered person) is permitted to avenge the death of his relative and kill the murderer.

11)[line 41] HAYAH ME'AGEL B'MA'AGEILAH- if he was smoothing the layer of mortar that covers a roof with the downward motion of a Ma'ageilah, a roller-type tool made out of wood (RASHI) or stone (TOSFOS) used for this purpose

12)[line 42] HAYAH MESHALSHEL B'CHAVIS- if he was lowering a barrel [from a height]

13)[line 42] HAYAH YORED B'SULAM- if he was climbing down a ladder

14)[line 43] HAYAH MOSHECH B'MA'AGEILAH- if he was pulling the Ma'ageilah with an upward motion

15)[last line] HAYAH DOLEH B'CHAVIS- if he was drawing [water] with a barrel

16)[last line] NIFSAK HA'CHEVEL- the rope snapped


17)[line 4]"[ ] ; [ ]""VA'YAPEL ALAV VA'YAMOS"- "[Or with any stone, whereby a man could die, without having seen,] and caused it to fall upon him, that he died; [and he was not his enemy, nor sought his harm]" (Bamidbar 35:23).

18)[line 6]"[ ] ""... BI'SHEGAGAH"- "[Then you shall appoint cities to be cities of refuge for you; that the man who kills any person] unintentionally [may flee there]" (Bamidbar 35:11).

19a)[line 6]SHEGAGAH- unintentional [murder]

b)[line 6]MEZID- premeditated [murder] (this is the Gemara's assumption)

20)[line 6]"[ ; ] , [ ]""BI'VELI DA'AS"- "[And this is the matter of the [unintentional] murderer, who shall flee there, that he may live; one who kills his neighbor] without knowledge, [whom he did not hate in times past]" (Devarim 19:4).

21)[line 7]MISKAVEN- intention [to kill a person] (this is the Gemara's assumption)

22)[line 8] OMER MUTAR- (lit. saying it is permitted) one who thinks it is permitted to perform a prohibited action, such as a person who thinks that the killing of a certain individual is permitted

23)[line 12] BAR KETALA HU!- He is deserving of the death penalty!

24)[line 13]KUSI- a Nochri (the word "Kusi" is an emendation of the censors)

25a)[line 14]NEFEL- a premature baby that was born alive but has signs that it will not live for thirty days

b)[line 14] BEN KAYAMA- a viable child

26)[line 14]" , ""IM B'FESA..."- "But if he pushed him suddenly without enmity, or hurled upon him anything without lying in wait" (Bamidbar 35:22) - See next entry.

27)[line 15] PERAT L'KEREN ZAVIS- to exclude the case of a person who turns around a corner and kills another person unintentionally, i.e. the murderer does not go to Galus, since he should have been more careful in this situation (RASHI, aided by the translation of TARGUM ONKELUS, learns that the word "b'Fesa" means "adjacent," indicating the close proximity of the murderer and the victim, such as when the murderer turns a corner carelessly)

28)[line 19]" , [- ; ]""VA'ASHER LO TZADAH..."- "And if a man lies not in wait, [but HaSh-m delivers him into his hand; then I will appoint for you a place where he shall flee]" (Shemos 21:13) - RASHI explains that the simple meaning of this phrase is, "And if a man not intend that the murder weapon fall at his side," but rather, he intended for it to travel the distance to which he threw it. He unfortunately did not know that a person was there. Our Gemara learns an extra Halachah from this phrase, which could have been omitted from the verse, that one who throws a murder weapon to an unintended place does not go to Galus; it is deemed closer to Ones (an accident) than Shogeg (unintentional murder).

29)[line 20]" [ , , ; ]""VA'ASHER YAVO ES RE'EHU BA'YA'AR..."- "And when a man goes into the forest [with his fellowman to cut wood, and his hand swings the axe to cut down the tree, and the head slips from the handle (alt. and the axe fires out a chip of wood from the tree), and it strikes (lit. finds) his neighbor, so that he dies; he shall flee to one of those cities and live]" (Devarim 19:5).

30)[line 24] NISHMAT HA'SHELIVAH MI'TACHTAV- the rung [of the ladder] is dislodged from beneath him

31a)[line 31]KATZAV- a butcher

b)[line 32]MEKATZEV- was cutting [meat]

32)[line 44]ISLI'A- wormy, rotted

33)[line 45]MIHADAK- fastened well

34)[line 45] NISHMAT HA'BARZEL MI'KATO- the iron [axe-head] slipped from its handle

35)[line 46] MIN HA'ETZ HA'MISBAKE'A- (a) [the iron axe-head fired out a chip of wood] from the tree that is being hewn (RASHI); (b) [the iron axe-head slipped from its handle and rebounded] off the tree that is being hewn (RAMBAM Hilchos Rotze'ach 6:15)

36)[line 48] V'NASHAL HA'BARZEL ME'ETZO- and the iron [axe-head] slipped from its handle

37)[line 48]"[ ] ""[V'NASHAL HA'BARZEL] MIN HA'ETZ"- "[... and the iron [axe-head] fires out a chip of wood] from the tree..." (Devarim 19:5)

38a)[line 48] NE'EMAR ETZ L'MATAH- the word "ha'Etz" is stated below [in the verse, "v'Nashal ha'Barzel Min ha'Etz"]

b)[line 49] NE'EMAR ETZ L'MA'ALAH- the word "ha'Etz" is stated above [in the same verse, "v'Nidchah Yado va'Garzen Lichros ha'Etz" - "and his hand swings the axe to cut down the tree"]


(a)Some words in the Torah, based on the Mesorah (the authoritative "Tradition"), are read differently from the way that they are written. There is no question how the verse is to be read when reading the Torah, since the Mesorah specifies a certain way of reading it. However, the Tana'im argue over how to learn Halachos from such verses. "Yesh Em la'Masores" means that we learn Halachos from the verse based on the way it is written; "Yesh Em la'Mikra" means that we learn Halachos from the verse based on the way it is read.

(b)For example, according to the Mesorah, the word "ba'Sukos" (which appears three times in the verses regarding Sukah in Parashas Emor) is written once with a "Vav," implying our pronunciation of "ba'Sukos" (plural), and twice without a Vav, implying the pronunciation "b'Sukas" (singular), which is not the way that we read it. We pronounce the word as "ba'Sukos" all three times, according to the Mesorah.

40a)[line 51]V'NISHAL- and it fires out

b)[last line]V'NASHAL- and it slips off