[71a - 42 lines; 71b - 32 lines]

1)[line 11]לסימניםL'SIMANIM - Chayos Tehoros must be slaughtered by cutting the "Simanim," just like Behemos Tehoros (SHECHITAH)

(a)The laws of Shechitah (proper ritual slaughter) that permit an animal to be eaten are a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai, a tradition that was handed down to us from Moshe at Har Sinai (Chulin 28a, based on Devarim 12:21).

(b)There are two "Simanim," or parts of the animal that must be sliced through when performing Shechitah: the Kaneh (trachea) and the Veshet (esophagus). When slaughtering a bird, cutting one Siman is sufficient for a Kosher Shechitah. Five of the most important laws of Shechitah are the following:

1."Shehiyah" - One may not "pause" in middle of a Shechitah.

2."Derasah" - One may not "press" the knife into the neck, but must use a sliding, cutting motion.

3."Chaladah" - One may not insert the knife into the middle of the thickness of the neck and cut the Simanim from there.

4."Hagramah" - One may not cut the Simanim such that part of the cut "slants" above the point that delimits the part of the neck upon which Shechitah may be performed.

5."Ikur" - One may not "rip out" the Simanim from the neck and then cut them. Similarly, one may not cause the Simanim to tear during Shechitah, such as by cutting them with a dull blade.

2)[line 12]להרבעהL'HARBA'AH (KIL'AYIM: KIL'EI BEHEMAH)

(a)The word Kil'ayim means "forbidden mixture," which refers to two items, each of which is permitted, which the Torah prohibits to combine. Many different types of forbidden mixtures can be referred to by the term "Kil'ayim." Three types of Kil'ayim apply to plants: Kil'ei ha'Kerem (see Background to Chulin 82:10), Kil'ei Zera'im (see Background to Chulin 114:25) and Harkavas ha'Ilan (see Background to Kidushin 39:23a:d). Two types of Kil'ayim apply to animals: Harba'ah (see below), and Charishah b'Shor va'Chamor (see Background to Bava Metzia 90:34:c). One type of Kil'ayim applies to clothing: Sha'atnez (see Background to Menachos 39:5). (It is also prohibited to cook meat and milk together, but this is not referred to as "Kil'ayim.") Our Gemara refers to the Kil'ayim of Harba'ah.

(b)Harba'as Behemah refers to the prohibition of mating together any two different types of animals or birds (Bava Kama 54b), as the Torah states, "Behemtecha Lo Sarbi'a Kil'ayim" (Vayikra 19:19). One who intentionally transgresses this prohibition is liable to Malkus (lashes).

1.Animals that are produced through Harba'as Behemah are permitted to be used (see Tosfos to Chagigah 2b DH Lisa).

3)[line 19]אם זכר, תשב לזכר; אם נקבה, תשב לנקבה; אינו ידוע, תשב לזכר ולנקבהIM ZACHAR, TESHEV LA'ZACHAR; IM NEKEVAH, TESHEV LA'NEKEVAH; EINO YODE'A, TESHEV LA'ZACHAR ULE'NEKEVAH (YOLEDES)

(a)In Vayikra 12:1-8 the Torah discusses the laws of Tum'ah and Taharah after childbirth. After a woman gives birth, she must wait for a certain amount of time before she can enter the Beis ha'Mikdash or eat Kodshim. That time period is divided into two stages: 1. During the initial stage, she has the status of a Nidah (even if she had not seen any blood). If she gave birth to a male, this lasts for seven days. If a female was born, this stage lasts for two weeks. At the end of this period, she may go to the Mikvah after nightfall. After she has gone to the Mikvah, she is permitted to eat Terumah, if she is the wife of a Kohen. 2. During the second stage, any blood that she sees does not give her the status of a Nidah as it normally would. The blood that she sees during this period is called Dam Tohar. Nevertheless, during this period, she may not eat Kodshim or enter the Beis ha'Mikdash. This lasts for thirty-three days for a male, and sixty-six days for a female. Thus, the total waiting period for a male is forty days and for a female, eighty days.

(b)At the end of the above two stages, the woman may eat Kodshim and enter the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash only after she brings a Korban Yoledes. Until then she is a Mechuseres Kaparah (see Background to Menachos 27:34). Her Korban includes a male sheep as an Olah and a Tor (turtledove) or a Ben Yonah (common dove) as a Chatas. If she could not afford a sheep, she brings two Torim or two Benei Yonah, one as an Olah and one as a Chatas. (The current practice is to consider a woman a Nidah even during the period of Dam Tohar - see Insights to Nidah 25a.)

(c)A woman who does not know whether she gave birth to a male or a female, must act in accordance with the stringencies of both. The initial stage, during which she has the same status as a Nidah, lasts for two weeks. The second stage, when her blood is Dam Tohar, lasts from the fourteenth day until the end of forty days from the time of birth. However, she may not eat Kodshim or enter the Beis ha'Mikdash until eighty days after the birth.

4)[line 25]חיהCHAYAH- the midwife

5)[line 26]טומאת שבעהTUM'AS SHIV'AH (TUM'AS MES)

If a person (or utensil) became Tamei through touching Tum'as Mes or being in the same room as a corpse or something that is Metamei b'Ohel (see Background to Chulin 125:4), he must wait seven days to become Tahor. On the third and seventh days he must have spring water mixed with the ashes of the Parah Adumah (Mei Chatas; see Background to Chulin 81:11) sprinkled on him. A person who is Tahor dips three Ezov branches that have been bound together into the mixture, and sprinkles them on the person who is Tamei. On the seventh day, he immerses in a Mikvah after the mixture is sprinkled on him in order to complete his Taharah (Bamidbar 19:17-19).

6)[line 27]טומאה בלועהTUM'AH BELU'AH

Tum'ah Belu'ah ("swallowed Tum'ah") refers to an object that is Tamei that is inside a living creature. While it is there, the object is neither Metamei by Maga (touching), nor by Masa (carrying). After it comes out, it will be Metamei in its normal manner (see Background to Chulin 117:31a). This is unlike Tum'as Beis ha'Setarim. Tum'as Beis ha'Setarim refers to an object that is Tamei that comes into contact with the concealed part of a person or object. Under such circumstances, the object cannot make a person Tamei by Maga, but it can make him Tamei by Masa. For example, if a piece of a Sheretz was found in the folds of a person's skin, he is Tahor because a Sheretz is only Metamei through Maga. If, however, he had a Neveilah in the folds of his skin, he is Tamei, because a Neveilah is also Metamei through Masa.

7)[line 28]טומאה בלועה אינה מטמאהTAHARAH BELU'AH EINAH MITAMA'AH- an object that is Tahor that is swallowed is protected from becoming Tamei as long as it remains inside the living creature

8)[line 30]"וְהָאֹכֵל מִנִּבְלָתָהּ יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו ...""VEHA'OCHEL MI'NIVLASAH YECHABES BEGADAV ..."- "And one who eats from its dead body ("Neveilah," the body of a kosher animal that died without proper Halachic slaughter - see below, entry #10) must immerse his clothes [in a Mikvah] ..." (Vayikra 11:40)

9)[line 31]אכל סמוך לשקיעת החמהACHAL SAMUCH L'SHEKI'AS HA'CHAMAH- he ate it (the Neveilah) close to sunset. (Before sunset he immerses himself and his clothes in a Mikvah and they are Tehorim at nightfall. The Gemara proves from this that even though the Neveilah has not changed its form, since there was not enough time for it to be digested, this Tum'ah Belu'ah does not prevent the person who ate it from becoming Tahor.)

10)[line 32]דלא חזיא לגרD'LO CHAZYA L'GER - it is not fit for consumption by a "Ger," i.e. a Ger Toshav, a Nochri who has accepted upon himself the seven laws of a Ben Noach (TUM'AS NEVEILAH)

(a)A Neveilah is a carcass of a Kosher animal that died without a Halachic slaughtering (or that was slaughtered improperly). The Torah states, "You shall not eat anything that dies by itself (Neveilah). You shall give it to the stranger who is in your gates, that he may eat it, or you may sell it to a Nochri, for you are a holy people to HaSh-m, your Elokim." (Devarim 14:21). A person who eats a k'Zayis of Neveilah is liable to Malkus (RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'achalos Asuros 4:1) and a k'Zayis or more of a Neveilah makes a person or an object Tamei through Maga (contact). It is Metamei a Keli Cheres (an earthenware utensil) if it enters the utensil's interior and is Metamei a person with Tum'as Masa (by carrying it) to cause him, in turn, to be Metamei the clothes that he is wearing (RAMBAM Hilchos She'ar Avos ha'Tum'ah 1:1).

(b)In order for a Neveilah to transfer Tum'ah, it must be fit for human consumption at the time of its death. Rebbi Yochanan asserts that as long as it was fit for human consumption at the time of its death, it only loses the capability to transfer Tum'ah when it becomes unfit for consumption by a dog.

(c)According to bar Pada, as soon as the Neveilah is no longer fit for human consumption it cannot transfer Tum'ah to people. However, the Neveilah at this point is no less Tamei than another object that had touched a Neveilah. Such an object is a Rishon (see Background to Chulin 117:31a) and may transfer Tum'ah to food and drinks. The Neveilah, therefore, continues to be Metamei food and drinks until it is no longer fit for consumption by a dog.

11)[line 33]אחת זו ואחת זוACHAS ZO V'ACHAS ZO- this (the ability to transfer Tum'ah to people) and that (the ability to transfer Tum'ah to food and drinks) have the same constraint

12)[line 39]כלי חרס המוקף צמיד פתילKLI CHERES HA'MUKAF TZAMID PASIL - an earthenware utensil that is sealed with a tight seal (KELI CHERES: TUMA'ASO)

(a)Klei Cheres are clay and earthenware utensils. They do not receive Tum'ah when an object of Tum'ah touches their outside. They only become Tamei when Tum'ah enters them (even if the Tum'ah does not touch them). Therefore, when they are covered with a Tzamid Pesil (a tight seal) they cannot become Tamei even if they are in the Ohel of a Mes, as is stated in Bamidbar 19:15. If they do become Tamei, they make any food or drink items that enter them Tamei, even if the items did not touch their inside surface.

(b)If the clay and earthenware utensils become Temei'im, they remain so until they are broken beyond use. Immersing them in a Mikvah does not change their status.

(c)If the mouth of the utensil is so small that a person cannot insert his finger into it, it has no possibility of becoming Tamei through a Zav (see Background to Chulin 88:4a-b). However, these utensils can become Tamei in the Ohel of a Mes, as long as they do not have a Tzamid Pasil to entirely seal them. Similarly, they can become Tamei if they come into contact with a k'Adashah of a Sheretz (see Background to Chulin 122:7).

(d)For a further discussion of the principles of Tum'os and Taharos, see Background to Nazir 54:13 and Insights to Pesachim 14:1.

13a)[line 41]טומאה רצוצה בוקעת ועולה עד לרקיעTUM'AH RETZUTZAH BOKA'AS V'OLAH AD L'RAKI'A - Tum'ah that is "squashed" breaks through and goes up to the sky (TUM'AS OHEL)

See Background to Chulin 125:4.


14)[line 3]אין מטמא מגבוEIN METAMEI MI'GABO

See above, entry #12.

15)[line 8]עיכולIKUL- digestion

16)[line 14]בית המנוגעBAYIS HA'MENUGA - a house that has been infected with Tzara'as (NIG'EI BATIM)

(a)For a detailed description of how a house becomes a Bayis ha'Menuga, see Chulin 128:20.

(b)When a person is a Metzora (see Background to Erchin 3:4b), he is Metamei the objects in the house that he is in. Similarly, a house that is declared a Bayis ha'Menuga is Metamei all the objects that are in it. If the stones of this house are brought into another house, they are Metamei the objects in the second house.

(c)Regarding a person who enters a house that has Tzara'as or has a Metzora in it, there are two Pesukim:

1."veha'Ba El ha'Bayis Kol Yemei Hisgir Oso, Yitma Ad ha'Erev." (Vayikra 14:46)

2."veha'Shochev ba'Bayis Yechabes Es Begadav, veha'Ochel ba'Bayis Yechabes Es Begadav." (ibid. 14:47)

(d)From the first verse we learn that any person (or thing) that comes into the house becomes Tamei. The clothes that he is wearing, however, do not become Tamei. From the second verse we learn that if someone lingers in the house for the amount of time it takes to eat a Pras (half of a loaf of wheat bread) dipped in relish, while he is reclining, then even the clothes that he is wearing become Tamei.

(e)The RASH (Keilim 1:4) lists four differences between the Tum'ah of the Ohel of a Mes and the Tum'ah of a house that has Tzara'as or that has a Metzora (or an article of clothing or a stone from a house that has Tzara'as) inside of it:

1.In an Ohel ha'Mes, a person becomes Tamei even if only a bit of his body enters. In a house that has Tzara'as or has a Metzora inside it, a person becomes Tamei only when most of his body enters the house.

2.In an Ohel ha'Mes, even when entering backwards, a person becomes Tamei when only a bit of his body enters the house. In a house that has Tzara'as or that has a Metzora inside it a person becomes Tamei when entering backwards only when his entire body enters.

3.In an Ohel ha'Mes, a Mechitzah (partition) only prevents the spread of Tum'ah if it reaches the ceiling. In a house that has Tzara'as or that has a Metzora inside it, a Mechitzah of ten Tefachim in height (or even a ditch of ten Tefachim in depth) is enough to prevent the spread of Tum'ah.

4.In an Ohel ha'Mes, the house or room becomes Tamei even if the Mes is passing through it and does not stop moving. In a house that has a Metzora (or an article that has Tzara'as, as mentioned above) inside it, the people in the house become Tamei only if the Metzora stops passing through and is stationary. (TOSFOS to Yevamos 103b, DH Keivan, maintains that the people in the house do become Tamei even if the Metzora is just passing through it. However, if a Metzora or an article with Tzara'as passes under an unenclosed tree or canopy, the people under the tree or canopy do not become Tamei unless the Metzora or article with Tzara'as stops and is stationary.)

17)[line 19]בידיוB'YADAV- [and his rings] in his hands, i.e. clutched in his palms, but not on his fingers

18)[line 22]בכדי אכילת פרסBI'CHDEI ACHILAS PRAS

(a)The Torah specifies that a k'Zayis is the amount of food that constitutes a "Ma'aseh Achilah," the minimum Halachically-binding act of eating and digesting. A person who eats a k'Zayis of a food in order to fulfill a Mitzvah (such as Matzah) has fulfilled his requirement. Similarly, someone who eats a k'Zayis of a prohibited food (such as blood or Chelev), is punished for his act.

(b)The Torah also specifies (as a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai) the amount of time in which a k'Zayis must be eaten in order for the act to be considered a Ma'aseh Achilah. This amount of time, called a "Kedei Achilas Peras," is defined as the amount of time that it takes to eat three (according to Rebbi Yochanan ben Berokah) or four (according to Rebbi Shimon - Eruvin 82b) Beitzim of bread with relish, while reclining. A person who eats a k'Zayis of Matzah in more than this amount of time has not fulfilled the Mitzvah, and a person who eats a k'Zayis of Isur in more than this amount of time is exempt from punishment.

(c)Our Gemara illustrates the Halachah that a person who enters a Bayis ha'Menuga only becomes Tamei if he stays there for the amount of time of Kedei Achilas Peras.

19)[line 26]טבעת טמאהTABA'AS TEMEI'AH

See above, entry #6.