[3a - 37 lines; 3b - 44 lines]

1)[line 9]מטמאין בזיבהMETAM'IN B'ZIVAH (ZAV)

(a)A Zav (Vayikra 15:1-15), a man who emits Zov two or three times, whether it is emitted in one day or in two or three consecutive days, is an Av ha'Tum'ah (the Tum'ah generated by a Zav is discussed in Background to Chulin 123:20). Zov is a clear discharge with the appearance of the white of a sterile or spoiled egg, in contrast with semen, which has the consistency of fresh egg white. Zov can also be a pus-like discharge resembling the liquid from barley dough or soft barley batter. A man who emits Zov one time is Tamei like a Ba'al Keri (see Background to Zevachim 32:21) and must immerse and wait for nightfall to become Tahor.

(b)A man who emits a discharge that may be Zov is "checked" to determine whether or not he becomes a Zav. If this discharge came about b'Ones (due to an external cause), he is Tahor. The seven ways are: 1. eating too much; 2. drinking too much; 3. carrying a heavy load; 4. jumping; 5. being sick; 6. (a) seeing a frightening sight (RASHI to Nazir 65b); (b) seeing a woman, even without having unclean thoughts (ROSH to Nazir ibid.); 7. having unclean thoughts.

(c)A Zav must count seven "clean" days ("Shiv'ah Nekiyim") in which he sees no Zov in order to start his purification process, as it states in Vayikra 15:13. On the seventh day or afterwards, he must immerse in a spring during the day. At nightfall he becomes Tahor, if he did not emit Zov again beforehand (ibid.).

(d)If a Zav emits Zov only two times, he does not bring a Korban. Even if the first time was b'Ones, as long as the second emission was not, he is Tamei. If he emitted Zov three times, whether it is emitted in one day or in two or three consecutive days, he has to bring a Korban after he becomes Tahor (on the eighth day) in order to enter the Beis ha'Mikdash and to eat Kodshim and Terumah. The Korban is two Torim (turtledoves) or two Benei Yonah (common doves), one offered as an Olah and one as a Chatas.

(e)In the case of three emissions, however, he is only obligated in a Korban if the first two were not b'Ones. The third emission may come about b'Ones according to the Rabanan. According to Rebbi Eliezer, he is only obligated in a Korban if all three emissions are not b'Ones (Nazir 65b). However, if the Zav had an emission during Shiv'ah Nekiyim, even b'Ones, all agree that this emission stops his count, and he must start counting again (Zavim ibid.).

2)[line 19]"[ו]איש אשר יטמא ולא יתחטא [ונכרתה הנפש ההיא מתוך הקהל]""[V']ISH ASHER YITMA V'LO YISCHATA [V'NICHRESAH HA'NEFESH HA'HI MITOCH HA'KAHAL...]"- "[But] a man who shall be Tamei, and shall not purify himself, [that soul shall be cut off from among the congregation, because he has defiled the sanctuary of HaSh-m (should he enter it while he is Tamei); the water of sprinkling has not been sprinkled upon him; he is Tamei.]" (Bamidbar 19:20)

3)[line 29]פורע ופורםPORE'A U'FOREM (PERI'AH / PERIMAH)

A Metzora Muchlat (a person whom the Kohen has confirmed to be a Metzora; see below, entry #4b) must let his hair grow ("Peri'ah"), make a tear ("Perimah") of at least a Tefach in his clothes and cover his head down to his lips like a mourner, as stated in Vayikra 13:45.

4a)[line 29]רואין את הנגעיםRO'IN ES HA'NEGA'IM- examining Nega'im. A Metzora, unlike all other people who are Tamei, does not automatically become Tamei. Only after a Kohen examines him and pronounces him to be Tamei, does he become Tamei.


(a)When a Jew develops a mark on his body the size of a Gris (a Cilician bean, approximately the size of a dime) that looks like the skin disease of Tzara'as, a Kohen must be summoned to ascertain whether or not it is a Nega Tzara'as. (Depending on the type of mark, this is determined by different factors - see (b) below.) The Kohen inspects the mark during the day, but not in bright sunshine and not under conditions that obstruct the sunlight, such as a cloudy day or a darkened room. If it is indeed a Nega Tzara'as, the Kohen pronounces him Tamei, initiating a one or two-week period of quarantine or "Hesger" (depending on the type of blemish). During this period, he is known as a Metzora Musgar. If no "Simanei Tum'ah" (signs of Tum'ah; see below, b:1-4) appear in the mark during that time, the Kohen pronounces the Metzora Musgar to have become Tahor. If Simanei Tum'ah do appear in the mark at the end of the first or second week of Hesger, or even when the Kohen first sees the Nega or after the Metzora has become Tahor, the Kohen pronounces him a Metzora Muchlat. A Metzora Muchlat remains Tamei until his Simanei Tum'ah go away, after which the Kohen pronounces him to have become Tahor.

(b)There are four types of blemishes that constitute Nig'ei Tzara'as that affect a Jewish person: Nig'ei Basar, Shechin or Michvah, Nesek, Karachas or Gabachas.

1.NIG'EI BASAR refers to Tzara'as that affects normal skin. It appears as a white blotch of one of four bright shades of white, sometimes with some red mixed in. The period of Hesger for Nig'ei Basar is two weeks. A Kohen inspects the Nega at the end of each week, and at the end of the two-week period he declares the Metzora to be either Tahor or Muchlat. The signs of Tum'ah for Nig'ei Basar are: 1. the lesion spreads ("Pisyon"); 2. two or more white hairs ("Se'ar Lavan") grow inside the lesion after it appears on the skin; 3. a patch of normal looking skin ("Michyah"), measuring two by two hairs or more, appears in middle of the Nega.

2.SHECHIN or MICHVAH refer to the Tzara'as of a boil or a burn. It appears as a white blotch of one of four bright shades of white, sometimes with red mixed in, that develops over a partially healed pustule, boil or blister produced by non-fire heat or by friction (in the case of Shechin), or over a burn produced by the heat of a fire (in the case of Michvah). The period of quarantine for Shechin and Michvah is only one week, after which the Kohen declares the Metzora either Tahor or Muchlat. (The Halachos of Shechin and Michvah are identical. They are distinct only in that a half-Gris of one of them does not combine with a half-Gris of the other to make a person Tamei (Nega'im 9:2). Their signs of Tum'ah are: 1. the mark spreads (Pisyon); 2. two or more white hairs (Se'ar Lavan) grow inside the mark after the Nega Tzara'as appears.

3.NESEK (pl. Nesakim) refers to Tzara'as that appears beneath the hair of the scalp, beard or eyebrows. According to most Rishonim, a Nesek appears as normal skin that is revealed when a cluster of hair (measuring the size of a Gris) falls out from parts of the scalp or beard that are normally covered with hair, such that a bald spot without even two normal hairs is created (see RAMBAN to Vayikra 13:29). The period of Hesger for a Nesek is two weeks. At the beginning of the Hesger, the Kohen shaves the hair surrounding the Nesek, only leaving a two-hair-thick ring of normal hair around the Nesek. A Kohen inspects the Nesek at the end of each week, and at the end of the two-week period he declares the Metzora to be either Tahor or Muchlat. The signs of Tum'ah of a Nesek are: 1. the Nesek spreads ("Pisyon") - that is, more hair falls out around the periphery of the original Nesek; 2. two or more thin, golden hairs ("Se'ar Tzahov Dak") grow inside the Nesek after it appears on the skin. Nesek, unlike the other Nega'im, also has a Siman Taharah, which can make it Tahor at any time: If normal, black hairs grow in the Nesek, the Kohen pronounces the Metzora to be Tahor.

4.KARACHAS or GABACHAS refer to Tzara'as that affects a completely bald scalp (which became bald through exposure to a balding agent, or through a normal balding process - see RASH to Negaim 10:10 and RAMBAN to Vayikra 13:29), either in the fore part of the head (Gabachas) or the back part of the head (Karachas). Their Halachos are identical to those of Nig'ei Basar (above, 1) that appear on a normal, non-hairy part of the skin, except that it lacks the Siman Tum'ah of Se'ar Lavan (since it is on a part of the body on which hair does not grow). (The Halachos of Karachas and Gabachas are identical. They are distinct only in that a half-Gris of one of them does not combine with a half-Gris of the other to make a person Tamei - Negaim 10:10.)

(c)The four marks that make a person a Metzora through Nig'ei Basar, Shechin or Michvah and Karachas or Gabachas are: 1. Baheres, which is the color of snow; 2. Se'es, which is the color of clean, white newborn lamb's wool; 3. Sapachas of Baheres, which is the color of the plaster used to whitewash the Beis ha'Mikdash; 4. Sapachas of Se'es, which is the color of the white membrane found on the inside of an eggshell (RASHI).

(d)For a full discussion of the process by which a Metzora becomes Tahor, see Background to Chulin 82:5.

5)[line 32]דמסברי ליה וסברD'MASBEREI LEI V'SAVAR- a person who is able to understand the principles of Nega'im once they are explained to him

6)[line 33]לקדשL'KADESH - to mix the ashes of the Parah Adumah with spring water (MEI CHATAS)

(a)If a person (or utensil) became Tamei through touching a Mes, he must wait seven days to become Tahor. On the third and seventh days he must have spring water mixed with the ashes of the Parah Adumah (see Background to Bechoros 25:11; the mixture is known as "Mei Chatas") sprinkled on him. A person who is Tahor dips three Ezov (hyssop) branches that have been bound together into the mixture and sprinkles them on the person who is Tamei. On the seventh day, he immerses in a Mikvah after the mixture is sprinkled on him in order to complete his Taharah. (Bamidbar 19:17-19)

(b)The Gemara here quotes the Mishnah that records the argument between the Tana'im as to which people may mix the ashes with the spring water.

7)[line 35]להזותL'HAZOS - to sprinkle the Mei Chatas upon the person or object that is Tamei in order to make it Tahor (HAZA'AH)

See previous entry.

8)[last line]הכל מעלין לא''יHA'KOL MA'ALIN L'ERETZ YISRAEL (VELI'YERUSHALAYIM)- one spouse can demand from the other that they travel to and settle in Eretz Yisrael. If they are already in Eretz Yisrael, he or she may demand to live in Yerushalayim. If the spouse refuses, the other can demand a divorce. If the husband refuses, he must pay the Kesuvah. If the wife refuses, she loses her Kesuvah.


9)[line 2]מנוה היפה לנוה הרעהMI'NAVEH HA'YAFEH L'NAVEH HA'RA'AH- from an area with good climate in Chutz la'Aretz to an area with poor climate in Eretz Yisrael

10)[line 3]עבד שברח מח''ל לארץEVED SHE'BARACH MI'CHUTZ LA'ARETZ- If an Eved Kena'ani flees to Eretz Yisrael, his master who lives outside of Eretz Yisrael cannot reclaim him. He must free the slave, who is obligated to repay him at a later date. The Gemara in Gitin (45a) bases this law on the verse, "Lo Sasgir Eved El Adonav" (Devarim 23:16).

11)[line 22]אשתרי כלאים לגבייהוISHTERI KIL'AYIM L'GABAIHU- Kilayim was permitted for them; they wore the Avnet, a belt made of linen and wool, when they performed the Avodah in the Beis ha'Mikdash

12)[line 23]בעידןB'IDAN- at the time of

13)[line 30]"ילבש על בשרו""YILBASH AL BESARO"- "he shall wear [a long shirt of linen and pants of linen] upon his flesh" (Vayikra 6:3)