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POINT BY POINT OUTLINE

prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim

Kollel Iyun Hadaf

daf@dafyomi.co.il, www.dafyomi.co.il

Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld

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ERCHIN 3 Next
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1) INCLUSIONS OF OTHER MISHNAYOS AND BERAISOS (cont.)

(a) Question: A Beraisa teaches that "everyone is obligated to read Megilas Esther", and a Mishnah teaches that "everyone is Kosher to read the Megilah." Whom do these include?

(b) Answer: It includes a woman. This is like R. Yehoshua ben Levi:

1. (R. Yehoshua ben Levi): Women are obligated to read the Megilah, because also they were (in danger and) saved by the miracle. (Rashi - a woman can be Motzi even men. Tosfos - she can be Motzi only women. Text of Shitah Mekubetzes (12) - "everyone is Kosher to read the Megilah" includes a child. He can be Motzi even adults. This is like R. Yehudah.)

(c) Question: A Beraisa teaches that "everyone is obligated in Zimun (the preface to Birkas ha'Mazon added when three people ate together)." Whom does this include?

(d) Answer: It includes women and slaves:

1. (Beraisa): Women make a Zimun by themselves, and slaves make a Zimun by themselves.

(e) Question: A Beraisa teaches that "everyone joins to a Zimun." Whom does this include?

(f) Answer: It includes children:

1. (Rav Nachman): If a child understands to Whom we bless, he may be one of the three for a Zimun.

(g) Question: A Mishnah teaches that "everyone can become Tamei through Zivah." Whom does this include?

(h) Answer: It includes a newborn baby boy:

1. (Beraisa - R. Yehudah) Question: What do we learn from "Ish Ish" (in the Parshah of Zav)?

2. Answer: This includes a one day old baby. (Three emissions of Zivah make him a Zav.)

3. R. Yishmael, son of R. Yochanan ben Berokah says, we have a different source - "(these are the laws of Zivah) la'Zachar ul'Nekevah" - a male or female of any age.

4. Question: What does he learn from "Ish Ish"?

5. Answer: The Torah speaks like people do. (They sometimes double a word. Therefore, we need not expound this.)

(i) Question: A Beraisa teaches that "everyone can become Tamei Mes." Whom does this include?

(j) Answer: It includes a child;

1. One might have thought that "v'Ish Asher Yitma v'Lo Yischata (v'Nichresah)" excludes a child;

2. "V'Al ha'Nefashos Asher Hayu Sham" includes a child.

3. Question: What do we exclude from "v'Ish Asher Yitma"?

4. Answer: This exempts a child from Kares. (One might have thought that since he becomes Tamei like an adult, he gets Kares like an adult.)

(k) Question: A Mishnah teaches that "everyone can become a Metzora." Whom does this include?

(l) Answer: It includes a child;

1. One might have thought that "Ish Tzaru'a" excludes a child.

2. Suggestion: Perhaps this is true!

3. Rejection "Adam Ki Yihyeh v'Or Besaro" includes any person, even a child.

4. Question: What do we exclude from "Ish Tzaru'a"?

5. Answer (Beraisa) Question: It says "Ish". What is the source that a woman can be a Metzora?

i. Answer: "Veha'Tzaru'a" includes another Metzora, i.e. a woman.

ii. Question: If so, why does it say "Ish"?

iii. Answer: This excludes women from the following Parshah, i.e. Peri'ah (letting one's hair grow) and Perimah (tearing one's clothing).

(m) Question: A Beraisa and Mishnah teach "everyone can see Tzara'as (and rule on it)," and "everyone is Kosher to see Tzara'as." Whom do these include?

(n) Version #1 - Answer: Both include a Kohen (Rashi; Tosfos - a Chacham) who is not proficient in Tzara'as and the names of the different plagues. (An untrained Kohen takes a Chacham with him. He tells the Kohen to say "Tahor" or "Tamei".)

(o) Version #2 - R. Gershom - Answer: Any Kohen can see Tzara'as. Even if he is not proficient in Tzara'as and its names; everyone (even a Yisrael) is eligible to see Tzara'as (and determine the law), even though a Kohen must say "Tahor" or "Tamei." (end of Version #2)

(p) Question: We learned that one who is not proficient in Tzara'as and its names may not see it!

(q) Answer (Ravina): One who is not proficient may see Tzara'as only if he understands when people explain to him.

(r) Question: A Mishnah teaches that "everyone is Kosher to be Mekadesh (to mix ashes of the Parah Adumah with the water)." Whom does this include?

(s) Answer: According to Chachamim, it includes a woman. According to R. Yehudah it includes a child. (Even though he is explicitly Machshir a child in the Mishnah, perhaps "everyone" includes a child below the age of Chinuch - Tzon Kodashim.)

1. (Mishnah): Everyone is Kosher to be Mekadesh, except for a child, lunatic or Cheresh;

2. R. Yehudah is Machshir a child. He is Posel a woman and Androginus.

2) INCLUSIONS OF OTHER MISHNAYOS AND BERAISOS (cont).

(a) Question: A Mishnah teaches that "everyone is fit to sprinkle Mei Chatas." Whom does this include?

(b) Answer: It includes an Arel (uncircumcised man). This is like R. Elazar:

1. (R. Elazar): If an Arel sprinkled, it is valid.

(c) Question: Two Mishnayos teach "everyone can slaughter." Whom do these include?

(d) Answer: One includes Kusim (the Nochrim whom Sancheriv settled in place of the 10 exiled Shevatim. They later converted, but they did not keep all the Mitzvos properly.) The other includes a Mumar (but not one who transgresses idolatry, Shabbos or eats Nevelah).

(e) Question: A Mishnah teaches that "everyone can force (the other) to come up (to Eretz Yisrael)." Whom does this include?

3b----------------------------------------3b

(f) Answer #1: It includes a slave. (Rashi - when a master wants to sell his Eved Kena'ani, the slave can demand to be sold in Eretz Yisrael; Rashi in Kesuvos - a master can force his Eved Ivri to come up. Ri - an Eved Kena'ani can demand to come up. If the master does not want to go, he must sell the slave to someone going up, or free him.)

(g) Question: According to the opinion that the Mishnah explicitly teaches a slave, whom does it include?

(h) Answer: It teaches that he can force to go from a nice area (in Chutz la'Aretz) to a bad area in Eretz Yisrael.

(i) (The conclusion of the Mishnah) "One cannot force to leave (Eretz Yisrael)" teaches about a slave who fled to Eretz Yisrael. (We do not return him to Chutz la'Aretz. The master must sell him in Eretz Yisrael or free him.)

(j) Question: A Mishnah teaches that "everyone can force (the other) to come up to Yerushalayim." Whom does this include?

(k) Answer: It teaches that a man can force his wife to go from a nice area (outside of Yerushalayim) to a bad area in Yerushalayim. (R. Gershom - all of Yerushalayim is considered a bad area, for city life is difficult.)

3) MITZVOS THAT APPLY TO ALL MEN

(a) Question: A Mishnah teaches that "All are obligated in the Mitzvah of Sukah - Kohanim, Leviyim and Yisraelim." This is obvious!

(b) Answer: We must teach that Kohanim are obligated:

1. It was taught "ba'Sukos Teshvu" - like you live in your dwelling, a man with his wife;

2. One might have thought that since Kohanim must do Avodah during the festival, (they cannot be intimate with their wives, so) they are exempt. The Mishnah teaches that this is not so;

3. Granted, they are exempt at the time of Avodah, but they are obligated at other times, just like travelers;

i. People traveling during the day are exempt from Sukah during the day and obligated at night.

(c) Question: A Mishnah teaches that "All are obligated in the Mitzvah of Tzitzis - Kohanim, Leviyim and Yisraelim." This is obvious!

(d) Answer: We must teach that Kohanim are obligated:

1. The Torah writes the Mitzvah of Tzitzis right after the prohibition of Kil'ayim. This teaches that the Mitzvah applies only to those forbidden to wear Kil'ayim;

2. Suggestion: Since Kil'ayim is permitted to Kohanim (in Bigdei Kehunah), they should be exempt from Tzitzis!

3. Rejection: Kil'ayim is permitted to Kohanim only for the sake of Avodah. Otherwise (e.g. outside the Mikdash) they are forbidden. (Therefore, they are commanded about Tzitzis.)

(e) Question: A Beraisa teaches that "all are obligated to wear Tefilin: Kohanim, Leviyim and Yisraelim." This is obvious!

(f) Answer: We must teach that Kohanim are obligated;

1. "U'Keshartam l'Os Al Yadecha v'Hayu l'Totafos Bein Einecha" teaches that the Mitzvah to wear Tefilin on the head applies only to those commanded to wear it on the arm;

2. Kohanim do not wear Tefilin on the arm (at the time of Avodah), for it says "Yilbash Al Besaro"; Bigdei Kehunah must be on their skin without any interruption. One might have thought that they are also exempt from head Tefilin!

3. The Beraisa teaches that they are obligated, for neither Tefilin is Me'akev the other;

i. (Mishnah): The hand Tefilin is not Me'akev the head Tefilin, and the head Tefilin is not Me'akev the hand Tefilin. (Even if one cannot wear one, he may wear the other.)

(g) Question: Why do they wear head Tefilin? "V'Samta ha'Mitznefes Al Rosho" requires the turban to be on his head without an interruption!

(h) Answer (Beraisa): The Kohen Gadol's hair was visible between the Mitznefes and the Tzitz. He would wear Tefilin there.

(i) Question: A Beraisa teaches that "all are obligated to blow the Shofar: Kohanim, Leviyim and Yisraelim." This is obvious!

(j) Answer #1: We must teach that Kohanim are obligated:

1. It says "Yom Teru'ah Yihyeh Lachem." One might have thought that this applies only to those who blow only one day each year;

2. Kohanim blow every day in the Mikdash - "u'Skatem ba'Chatzotzros Al Oloseichem."

(k) Rejection: They blow trumpets every day, not a Shofar!

(l) Answer #2: We must teach that Kohanim (and Leviyim) are obligated;

1. (Mishnah): Yovel and Rosh Hashanah are the same regarding sounding the Shofar and the blessings (of Musaf Shemoneh Esreh).

2. One might have thought that only those to whom Yovel applies are obligated in Shofar on Rosh Hashanah. Yovel does not apply to Kohanim and Leviyim;

i. (Mishnah): Kohanim and Leviyim can always sell their land (even in Yovel, whereas a Yisrael cannot) and redeem their land (if they sold a field, unlike a Yisrael who must wait two years before redeeming it).

3. The Beraisa teaches that they are obligated. Granted, not all laws of returning fields in Yovel apply to them, but cancellation of loans (in Shemitah, which depends on Yovel) and freeing (Yisrael) slaves apply to them.

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