[82a - 38 lines; 82b - 50 lines]
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any OTHER important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos
 Gemara 82a [line 36]:
The words "Echad ha'Shochet Es ha'Parah v'Echad ha'Shochet Es Imah v'Echad ha'Shochet Es Benah"אחד השוחט את הפרה ואחד השוחט את אמה ואחד השוחט את בנה
should read "Echad Shochet Es ha'Parah v'Echad Shochet Es Imah v'Echad Shochet Es Benah"אחד שוחט את הפרה ואחד שוחט את אמה ואחד שוחט את בנה
1)[line 2]מערכתהMA'ARACHASAH- the pile of wood on which it is burned
2)[line 3]פרת חטאת אינה משנהPARAS CHATAS EINAH MISHNAH- the words "Paras Chatas" do not belong in the Mishnah (since slaughtering it can be considered a "Shechitah Re'uyah")
3)[line 9]ונסבין חבריא לומרV'NASVIN CHEVRAYA LOMAR- and the scholars of the Yeshiva thought to say
4)[line 10]נחל איתןNACHAL EISAN- see Background to Chulin 81:13
5)[line 15]צפורי מצורעTZIPOREI METZORA (TAHARAS HA'METZORA)
(a)THE PROCESS BY WHICH A METZORA BECOMES TAHOR - On the day that a Metzora (see Background to Zevachim 102:3) is healed from his Tzara'as, he takes two kosher birds (Tziporei Metzora), a piece of cedar, some crimson wool and a hyssop branch. One of the birds is slaughtered over one Revi'is of fresh spring water in a clay bowl. A Kohen dips the other bird, along with the other articles, into the spring water that is mixed with the blood and sprinkles it seven times on the Metzora. The living bird is sent away towards the fields. Both birds are Asur b'Hana'ah, but the Isur is removed from the living bird after it is sent off to the fields.
(b)The Metzora next shaves with a razor all places on his body that have a collection of hair and that are exposed, and immerses in a Mikvah. He is now considered Tahor to the extent that he may enter a settlement, but marital relations are forbidden (Moed Katan 7b). He counts seven days ("Yemei Sefiro"), and on the seventh day he once more shaves and immerses. He is now completely Tahor but is still a Mechusar Kaparah (see Background to Menachos 27:34).
(c)On the eighth day, the Metzora must bring Korbanos to complete his Taharah. The animal Korbanos are two male sheep and one female sheep. One of the male sheep is offered as an Olah, the other as an Asham. The female sheep is offered as a Chatas. If he could not afford to buy all these animals, he is called a poor Metzora. The poor Metzora brings two Torim (turtledoves) or two Benei Yonah (common doves) as the Olah and the Chatas; however, a sheep is still brought as his Asham. An ordinary Metzora or a poor Metzora brings Nesachim with all of his animal Korbanos (Menachos 91a).
(d)The Metzora also brings a Log of olive oil to the Beis ha'Mikdash as part of his purification process. A Kohen lifts up and waves (Tenufah) the live Korban Asham with the Log of oil resting upon it. After the Asham is slaughtered, some of the blood is placed on the body of the Metzora: on the middle section of cartilage of the Metzora's right ear, on his right thumb and on his right big toe. These parts of his body must be in the Azarah at the time that the Kohen applies the blood. For this purpose he stands in the gate of Nikanor (TY #18; the eastern gate of the Azarah, named for the man who donated the brass doors of the gate (see Yoma 38)). Although all of the other gates of the Azarah had the Kedushah of the Azarah, Sha'ar Nikanor only had the Kedushah of Har ha'Bayis. The Chachamim arranged this so that the Metzora could stick his head, right hand and right foot into the Azarah while standing under the archway of the gate.
(e)After all of the Korbanos were offered, a Kohen pours some of the oil in his left hand and sprinkles it seven times towards the Kodesh ha'Kodashim. He must dip his right finger in the oil each time. Oil is also put on the body of the Metzora, on the places where the blood of the Asham was placed. The remainder of the oil in the Kohen's hand is placed on the Metzora's head. The rest of the Log which was not poured into the Kohen's hand was given to the Kohanim, and must be consumed by male Kohanim in the Azarah (it is one of the Kodshei ha'Kodashim). (RAMBAM Hilchos Mechusarei Kaparah 4:2-3)
6)[line 5]לא ישחטוLO YISHACHETU- they shall not be slaughtered
7)[line 9]בהעלם אחדB'HE'ELEM ECHAD
A He'elem is a period of forgetfulness. If a person sins repeatedly (for example, if he ate two or more k'Zeisim of Chelev) in one He'elem, and later finds out that he has sinned, he only has to offer one Korban Chatas to atone for his sins. If he sins repeatedly in two He'elemos, he must offer two Korbenos Chatos. However, if a person sins two different types of sins in one He'elem, he has to bring a separate Korban Chatas for each sin.
8)[line 10]בעלמאB'ALMA- (lit. in the world) in a general Mishnah, stating the Halachah as Sumchus' opinion in all cases, as opposed to the singular case of our Mishnah with regard to Oso v'Es Beno
9)[line 11]גופין מוחלקיןGUFIN MUCHLAKIN- the prohibition to slaughter the cow is brought about by the slaughter of two different animals; its two calves in the case mentioned in the beginning of the Mishnah, and its mother and daughter in the case mentioned at the end of the Mishnah
10)[line 17]הזורע כלאים כלאים לוקהHA'ZORE'A KIL'AYIM KIL'AYIM LOKEH (KIL'AYIM: KIL'EI HA'KEREM)
(a)The word Kil'ayim means "forbidden mixture," which refers to two items, each of which is permitted, which the Torah prohibits to combine. Many different types of forbidden mixtures can be referred to by the term "Kil'ayim." Three types of Kil'ayim apply to plants: Kil'ei ha'Kerem (see below), Kil'ei Zera'im (see Background to Avodah Zarah 63:22) and Harkavas ha'Ilan (see Background to Kidushin 39:23a:d). Two types of Kil'ayim apply to animals: Harba'ah (see Background to Chulin 38:12), and Charishah b'Shor va'Chamor (see Background to Bava Metzia 90:34:c). One type of Kil'ayim applies to clothing: Sha'atnez (see Background to Menachos 39:5). (It is also prohibited to cook meat and milk together, but this is not referred to as "Kil'ayim.") Our Gemara refers to Kil'ei ha'Kerem. Of the many different types of Kil'ayim, only Kil'ei ha'Kerem is Asur b'Hana'ah.
(b)Kil'ei ha'Kerem refers to the prohibition of sowing vegetables or grains in a vineyard, as the Torah states, "Lo Sizra Karmecha Kil'ayim, Pen Tikdash ha'Melei'ah ha'Zera Asher Tizra u'Sevu'as ha'Karem" - "You shall not sow your vineyard with other species, lest the fruit of the seed which you have sown, and the fruit of the vineyard, be forfeited" (Devarim 22:9). According to some Tana'im, even if one finds other crops growing in his vineyard and does not remove them, he transgresses this prohibition (Makos 21b). One who intentionally transgresses this prohibition is liable to receive Malkus. (See Background to Bava Basra 36:4.)
(c)The grapevines and the vegetables or grains that grow in a vineyard that has been planted with Kil'ei ha'Kerem are prohibited to be eaten. They must be burned, as the Torah states, "Pen Tikdash ha'Melei'ah...," which the Gemara translates as, "lest the produce (of that vineyard) have to be burned ('Tukad Esh')" (RAMBAM Hilchos Kil'ayim 5:7).
(d)If Orlah or Kil'ei ha'Kerem falls into or is otherwise mixed with permitted food and there were 200 parts of permitted food to one part Orlah, the entire mixture is permitted to be eaten. If it falls into or is otherwise mixed with less than 200 parts of permitted food, the entire mixture is prohibited. (RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'achalos Asuros 15:14)
11)[line 21]נזירNAZIR (NEZIRUS)
(a)If a person makes a vow to become a Nazir without stipulating a time period, his or her Nezirus lasts for a period of thirty days. If the person stipulates a time period, his or her Nezirus lasts for whatever amount of time he stipulated. During this period, the Nazir is not allowed to 1. cut his hair; 2. become Tamei by touching or being in the same room as a corpse; or 3. consume any products of the grapevine (Bamidbar 6:1-21, SEFER HA'CHINUCH #377). Transgressing any one of these prohibitions makes the Nazir liable to Malkus, as long as he was warned beforehand.
(b)If an ordinary Nazir becomes Tamei through contact with or being in the same room as a corpse, on the third and seventh days he must be sprinkled with water that has the ashes of the Parah Adumah in it (see Background to Chulin 81:11) to become Tahor. On the seventh day of his purification he shaves off the hair of his head. On the eighth day, he brings the sacrifices of a Nazir who becomes Tamei and begins counting anew the days of Nezirus that he accepted upon himself. The sacrifices he brings are two Torim (turtledoves) or two Benei Yonah (young common doves), one as a Chatas and one as an Olah. He must also bring a yearling sheep as an Asham. (These Korbanos and this shaving are in addition to the Korbanos and shaving that he, and every Nazir, brings upon the completion of his Nezirus.)
(c)When a Nazir completes his period of Nezirus, he must offer three sacrifices: a male sheep as an Olah, a female sheep as a Chatas, and a ram as a Shelamim. Together with the Shelamim he brings 6 and 2/3 Esronos of Soles (fine flour), which are made into twenty loaves of Matzah, ten Chalos (unleavened loaves of Matzah) and ten Rekikin (flat Matzos). He then shaves off the hair of his head and burns it under the cauldron in which the Zero'a of the Shelamim is cooked (Bamidbar 6:18).
12)[line 31]חרצןCHARTZAN- a grape seed
13)[line 31]מפולת ידMAPOLES YAD- "the throw of a hand," i.e. throwing down [and sowing] the seeds by hand
14)[line 33]אכל מזה כזית ומזה כזיתACHAL MI'ZEH K'ZAYIS UMI'ZEH K'ZAYIS - he ate from one of them k'Zayis and from the other one k'Zayis (GID HA'NASHEH)
(a)The Gid ha'Nasheh is the sciatic nerve, the large main nerve of the lower extremity, running down the back of the leg. Eating the part of the Gid ha'Nasheh that is located on the rounded part of flesh ("Kaf") that sits on the hipbone is prohibited by the Torah (Bereishis 32:33). Rebbi Yehudah (Pesachim 83b, Chulin 90b) rules that the prohibition only applies to one leg. There is a question whether he says that it "definitely applies" or "most likely applies" to the right leg. According to the other Tana'im, the prohibition applies to both legs (and the Halachah follows this opinion).
(b)This prohibition applies only to wild or domestic four-legged animals but not to birds.
(c)Besides the Gid that is prohibited by the Torah, the Rabanan prohibited certain nearby fats and nerves.
(d)Rebbi Yehudah (Chulin 100b) states that Gid ha'Nasheh was prohibited to the sons of Yakov, who were considered Benei Noach before HaSh-m gave the Torah to Benei Yisrael on Mount Sinai. The Rabanan argue, claiming that the prohibition was only given to Benei Yisrael on Mount Sinai. HaSh-m, however, instructed Moshe to write the verse along with the story of Yakov as an injunction for the future, to reveal the reason for the prohibition. Even Rebbi Yehudah agrees that only Benei Yisrael, and not all Benei Noach, were commanded not to eat the Gid ha'Nasheh, as the verse states, "Al Ken Lo Yochlu Venei Yisrael Es Gid Ha'Nasheh..." (Bereishis ibid.).
15)[line 36]התראת ספקHASRA'AS SAFEK
16)[line 38]הכה את זה וחזר והכה את זהHIKAH ES ZEH V'CHAZAR V'HIKAH ES ZEH - he bruised this one (one of the men who may be his father; the prohibition against bruising one's father carries the death penalty - Shemos 21:15, see Background to Chulin 11:36) and then bruised the other one
17)[last line]"וְלֹא תוֹתִירוּ מִמֶּנּוּ עַד בֹּקֶר ...""LO SOSIRU MIMENU AD BOKER ..." (NOSAR)
(a)If any meat of a Korban remains after the time that was allotted for it to be eaten, it is termed "Nosar" and it must be burned. With regard to the Korban Pesach, the verse states, "Do not leave any of it (i.e. the Korban Pesach) over until the morning. Anything that is left over until the morning must be burned in fire" (Shemos 12:10). The repetition of the phrase "until the morning" signals that the verse is referring to the mornings of two different days, and can be understood as follows: "Do not leave any of the Korban Pesach over until the morning (which is Yom Tov). If anything is left over, on the following morning (which is Chol ha'Moed), it must be burned."
(b)The Torah warns us four times not to allow the meat of a Korban to remain past the time during which it may be eaten, each of which is counted as an individual Mitzvah. The first three apply to specific Korbanos (Korban Pesach, in Shemos 12:10 and SEFER HA'CHINUCH Mitzvah #8; Korban Pesach Sheni, in Bamidbar 9:12 and Sefer ha'Chinuch Mitzvah #382; the Chagigah that is brought with the Pesach, in Devarim 16:4 and Sefer ha'Chinuch Mitzvah #486). The fourth time this prohibition is written is with regard to the Korban Todah (Vayikra 7:15 and 22:30), which serves as the source for the prohibition of leaving over meat from any Korban after the allotted time (Sefer ha'Chinuch Mitzvah #142). (The Minchas Chinuch 8:5 suggests that the latter Lav applies even to the three Korbanos for which the Isur of Nosar is written explicitly; however the Acharonim reject his suggestion based on the Gemara in Zevachim 36a.)