[39a - 41 lines; 39b - 42 lines]

1)[line 1]דלמא דאיקטרDILMA D'IKTAR- perhaps [the ruling of Bnei Rebbi Chiya that Gardumei Techeles are Kesheirim and do not invalidate the Tzitzis refers to a case where it happened that] they (the Tzitziyos) were tied [between each of the Chulyos. We cannot, however, deduce from their ruling that there is an obligation to tie knots]

2)[line 1]קשר עליון דאורייתאKESHER ELYON D'ORAISA- the obligation to tie the "upper knot" is mid'Oraisa; See Insights

3)[line 3]למישרי סדין בציציתL'MISHRI SEDIN B'TZITZIS- to permit [woolen] Tzitzis [to be tied] on linen garments

4)[line 3]התוכף תכיפה אחתHA'TOKEF TECHIFAH ACHAS- one who attaches [wool and linen] with one stitch [does not transgress the prohibition of Sha'atnez] (O.F. point - stitch)

5)[line 4]אינו חיבורEINO CHIBUR - it is not considered an attachment [with regard to the prohibition of Sha'atnez (KIL'AYIM: SHA'ATNEZ)

(a)The word Kil'ayim means "forbidden mixture," which refers to two items, each of which is permitted individually, which the Torah prohibits to combine. Many different types of forbidden mixtures can be referred to by the term "Kil'ayim." Three types of Kil'ayim apply to plants: Kil'ei ha'Kerem, Kil'ei Zera'im and Harkavas ha'Ilan. Two types of Kil'ayim apply to animals: Harba'ah, and Charishah b'Shor va'Chamor. One type of Kil'ayim applies to clothing: Sha'atnez. (It is also prohibited to cook meat and milk together, but this is not referred to as "Kil'ayim.") Our Gemara refers to Kil'ayim of clothing.

(b)Sha'atnez is a mixture of wool and linen which is prohibited, as the Torah states in Devarim 22:11. Chazal teach that the word "Sha'atnez" is made up of three smaller words - "Shu'a" (combed), "Tavi" (spun) and "Noz."

(c)The Rishonim disagree over the translation of the word "Noz":

1.RASHI (Nidah 61b and Horayos 11a DH Noz) and the RASH (Mishnayos Kil'ayim 9:8) learn that Noz means woven together (the wool and linen are woven together in a garment).

2.TOSFOS (Nidah 61b DH Shua Tavi v'Noz) disagrees with Rashi's explanation. We learn that the prohibition of Sha'atnez applies only when the wool and linen are woven together from the word "Yachdav" in the verse. If so, Noz does not mean "woven together." Rather, Noz means that the threads must be twisted or wound.

(d)The Rishonim disagree about how the wool and linen must be joined in order to transgress the Torah prohibition of Kil'ayim:

1.RASHI (ibid.) holds that the wool and linen must be combed, spun, and woven together. That is, the strands of wool must be combed together, spun together, and then woven together with the linen in order to transgress the prohibition of Sha'atnez. If the strands of wool are combed or spun separately from the strands of linen, even though they are later woven into a garment together, the Torah prohibition of Sha'atnez has not been transgressed.

2.TOSFOS (ibid.) learns that one transgresses the Torah prohibition if the wool and linen are combed, spun, and twisted separately, and are then joined together by two stitches. The RASH (ibid.) agrees with Tosfos, and rules that if the wool and linen are combed and spun separately and then joined, the prohibition of Sha'atnez has been transgressed. (However, the Rash does not require that the threads be twisted, see c:1.)

6)[line 6]מעיקרוME'IKARO- (lit. at its base) at the point where it is attached to the garment

7a)[line 9]בתחילתוBI'TECHILASO- at its inception, when it is first made

b)[line 9]סופוSOFO- after it has been used

8a)[line 9]שיריוSHEYARAV- its remnants

b)[line 10]גרדומיוGARDUMAV- its remnants (the Gemara will explain the difference between these two words

9)[line 12]דאיגרדום איגרדומיD'IGARDUM IGARDUMEI- it was cut at its base, at the point where it is attached to the garment

10)[line 13]שיורי גרדומיוSHIYUREI GARDUMAV- the remainder of a string of the Tzitzis (where the fringe is intact)

11)[line 14]שיריוSHIYURA- a specific amount

12)[line 15]כדי לענבןKEDEI L'ANVAN- enough to tie a bow in them

13)[line 16]חוט של כרךCHUT SHEL KERECH- the string that is wound around the other strings to create the "Chulyos"

14)[line 16]עולה מן המניןOLEH MIN HA'MINYAN- is included in the count [of eight strings]

15)[line 19]דמן אושאD'MIN USHA- from Usha, a city in the western part of the lower Galilee. It was one of the ten places to which the Sanhedrin was exiled at the time of the destruction of the second Beis ha'Mikdash.

16)[line 21]תכלת שכרך רובהTECHELES SHE'KARACH RUBAH- a garment with Tzitzis (which is called "Techeles" by the Gemara because of the importance of the strings of Techeles for the performance of the Mitzvah) where the "Gedil," the fringe part of the Tzitzis, is the majority (two thirds of the length) [and the "Anaf," the hanging ends of the strings, is one third of the length]

17)[line 28]חוליאCHULYA- when one string of the Tzitzis is wound around the rest of them to create the fringe for the Mitzvah of Tzitzis, a Chulya is defined as three windings of the string

18)[line 29]נויי תכלתNOYEI TECHELES- the beauty of the Tzitzis fringe

19a)[line 29]שליש גדילSHELISH GEDIL- one third "Gedil," the fringe part of the Tzitzis

b)[line 29]שני שלישי ענףSHNEI SHELISHEI ANAF- two thirds "Anaf," the hanging ends of the strings

20)[line 31]כדי שיכרוך וישנה וישלשKEDEI SHE'YICHROCH V'YISHNEH VI'YESHALESH- enough to wind [once,] twice and three times

21a)[line 32]הפוחתHA'POCHES- (lit. one who reduces the number) the minimum number of (a) Chulyos (RASHI, TOSFOS, 1st explanation); (b) windings of the "Kerech" string (TOSFOS, 2nd explanation, NIMUKEI YOSEF)

b)[line 32]המוסיףHA'MOSIF- (lit. one who increases the number) the maximum number of (a) Chulyos (RASHI, TOSFOS, 1st explanation); (b) windings of the "Kerech" string (TOSFOS, 2nd explanation, NIMUKEI YOSEF)

22a)[line 34]שבעה רקיעיםSHIV'AH REKI'IM- seven "heavens," as listed in Chagigah 12b

b)[line 35]ששה אוירין שביניהםSHISHAH AVIRIN SHE'BEINEIHEM- the six spaces in between them (each as wide as the Reki'im themselves - see Chagigah ibid.)

23)[line 38]מעלין בקודש ולא מורידיןMA'ALIN BA'KODESH V'EIN MORIDIN

When a person or object receives a higher status of holiness, we do not lower its status at a later time. We may only raise it to a higher level.

24)[line 40]חליף ואזילCHALIF V'AZIL- was passing before him

25)[line 40]דמיכסי גלימאD'MICHSI GELIMA- who was wearing a cloak

26)[last line]ורמי ליה תכלתאV'RAMI LEI TECHELTA- an he attached Tzitzis to it


27)[line 1]וגדילא מיגדילU'GEDILA MIGDAL- and he made the entire length of the Tzitzis "Gedil," fringe, with no "Anaf," the hanging ends of the strings

28)[line 1]יאיYA'I- it is beautiful

29)[line 4]או גדיל או פתילO GEDIL O PESIL- either fringe or string

30)[line 6]למניינאL'MINYANA- for the count [of four fringes to fulfill the Mitzvah of Tzitzis]

31)[line 6]גדיל שניםGEDIL SHNAYIM- the word Gedil signifies two [fringes]

32)[line 7]פותליהו מתוכוPOSLEIHU MI'TOCHO- (a) twist or wrap them using one of the strings (as opposed to an additional external string) (RASHI, 1st explanation); (b) leave them untied, as separate strings, partway down (RASHI, 2nd explanation and to Yevamos 5b); (c) fold them like a wick, making eight strings out of the original four (TOSFOS DH u'Fosleihu and to Yevamos 5b DH Gedilim)

33)[line 13]"לֹא תִלְבַּשׁ שַׁעַטְנֵז - צֶמֶר וּפִשְׁתִּים יַחְדָּו. גְּדִלִים תַּעֲשֶׂה-לָּךְ [עַל-אַרְבַּע כַּנְפוֹת כְּסוּתְךָ אֲשֶׁר תְּכַסֶּה-בָּהּ.]""LO SILBASH SHA'ATNEZ- TZEMER U'FISHTIM YACHDAV. GEDILIM TA'ASEH LACH [AL ARBA KANFOS KESUSCHA ASHER TECHASEH BAH.]" - "You shall not wear Sha'atnez (combined fibers) - wool and linen together. You shall make for yourselves twisted threads (Tzitzis) [on the four corners of your garment with which you cover yourself.]" (Devarim 22:11-12) - See above, entry #5.

34)[line 19]שיראיןSHIRA'IN- silk garments

35)[line 21]כלךKALACH- (O.F. folcel) floss-silk, silkworm cocoon

36)[line 21]סריקיןSERIKIN- a garment made from inferior silk

37)[line 22]מדרבנןMID'RABANAN- (this word is Rav Nachman's answer, in which he claims that garments made from these materials are only obligated mid'Rabanan)

38)[line 24]מישתרו בהו כלאיםMISHTERU BEHU KIL'AYIM- it is permitted to attached to them Sha'atnez, i.e. woolen Techeles strings and white strings of linen)

39)[line 27]הן במינן פוטריןHEN B'MINAN POTRIN- those [fabrics] (i.e. strings made from those fabrics) fulfill the requirement of Tzitzis only for garments made of their respective fabrics

40)[line 30]אי משום הא, לא איריאIY MISHUM HA, LO IRYA- if [your argument is] because of this [logic], this is no proof

41a)[line 41]צמר גמליםTZEMER GEMALIM- camel hair

b)[last line]צמר ארנביםTZEMER ARNAVIM- rabbit hair

c)[last line]נוצה של עזיםNOTZAH SHEL IZIM- hair of goats; mohair