[54a - 24 lines; 54b - 13 lines]

1)[line 1]טומאה בוקעת ועולה בוקעת ויורדתTUM'AH BOKA'AS V'OLAH, BOKA'AS V'YOREDES- Tum'ah "breaks through" (Boka'as) the enclosure that it is in and goes straight up and straight down, as if it were in the open air

2)[line 3]"[ולקח אזוב וטבל במים איש טהור והזה על האהל ועל כל הכלים ועל הנפשות אשר היו שם] [ועל] הנגע בעצם או בחלל או במת או בקבר""[V'LAKACH EZOV V'TAVAL BA'MAYIM ISH TAHOR, V'HIZAH AL HA'OHEL V'AL KOL HA'KELIM V'AL HA'NEFASHOS ASHER HAYU SHAM;] (V'CHOL) [V'AL] HA'NOGE'A BA'ETZEM OR V'CHALAL O VA'MES O VA'KAVER."- "[And a person who is Tahor shall take hyssop, and dip it in the water, and sprinkle it upon the tent, and upon all the utensils, and upon the persons who were there,] and upon the one who touched a bone, or one who was slain, or a dead body, or a grave." (Bamidbar 19:18)

3)[line 7]שלפני הדיבורSHE'LIFNEI HA'DIBUR- before the Torah was given

4)[line 14]ר''א היאREBBI ELIEZER HI

Rebbi Eliezer holds that a Nazir who became Tamei starts his Nezirus Taharah again on the seventh day after he became Tamei. The Rabanan rule that the Nazir does not start the count of Nezirus Taharah until the eighth day, after he brings his Korbanos (GEMARA above, Daf 18b).

5)[line 20]הסככותHA'SECHACHOS- (a) a tree with protruding branches located near a cemetery. Since the area is somewhat private and is near a cemetery, there exists the possibility that a passerby may have buried a corpse under it, so it is Metamei b'Ohel out of doubt; (b) a tree containing a branch under which a corpse was buried; however, it is not known under which branch, and there are intervening spaces between the branches. All of the branches of such a tree are Metamei b'Ohel, out of doubt. (Both of these first two explanations appear in RASHI to Moed Katan 5b, and to Nidah 57a.); (c) a tree containing a branch under which a corpse was buried, and it is known under which branch. The Rabanan declared Tum'ah on anyone walking under the other branches of the tree although there are intervening spaces between the branches and Tum'ah d'Oraisa therefore cannot spread from one to the next. (RASH to Ohalos 8:2)

6)[line 20]והפרעותHA'PERA'OS- the stones protruding from a fence located near a cemetery (see previous entry and Background to Nazir 53:4a)

7)[line 21]ובית הפרסBEIS HA'PRAS

(a)Beis ha'Pras is a general term referring to a field or an area that the Rabanan decreed to be treated as though it were Tamei, in certain respects. The Mishnayos in Ohalos (18:1-4) explain that there are three specific types of Beis ha'Pras:

1.A field in which a grave was plowed over, scattering the bones in all directions. Such a field may be planted with trees, but not with vegetables or grains. Its earth can make a person Tamei through Maga or Masa.

2.A field (that is a Reshus ha'Rabim; TOSFOS to Kesuvos 24b; RASH to Ohalos 18:3) in which a grave is known to exist but it became lost and cannot be located. In such a field, trees may not be planted but vegetables or grains may be planted. It can make a person Tamei through Ohel (and according to some Girsa'os, through Maga and Masa as well).

3.A field on the edge of a town where a corpse was brought [and mourned] before burial. Such a field may neither be planted nor sown with vegetables or grains (but its earth is not Tamei if removed from its place). There are a number of reasons why the Rabanan might have made such a field Tamei:

i.Part of a corpse may have become dislodged and fallen there (RASHI to Moed Katan 5b DH Mishum Ye'ush) [or that an entire corpse may have inadvertently been left behind there - ME'IRI ibid.].

ii.Alternatively, since a corpse is commonly found there, the Rabanan instituted that the area not be sown or planted, so as not to attract people to the area who will become Teme'im and spread Tum'ah. (PERUSH HA'MISHNAH of the Rambam to Ohalos 18:4)

iii.The prohibition against planting or sowing such a field has nothing to do with Tum'ah whatsoever. Rather, it involves a question of ownership. Since the community has made it their practice to mourn for and eulogize the dead in this field and the original owner did not protest this practice, he loses all rights to the land. The former owner cannot later decide to plant the field and deny the community the right to use it as a place for public mourning. (RITVA, RASH to Ohalos 18:4 and many Rishonim - see Vilna Ga'on Choshen Mishpat 377:2)

(b)The Bartenura offers three explanations as to why the word "Pras" was used to describe these fields: 1. Tum'ah spreads (Pores) out in all directions from the field; 2. Bones that are broken (Perusim) are strewn in the field. (These first two explanations only apply to the first of the three types of Beis ha'Pras mentioned above, 1); 3. People's feet (Parsos) stay away from the area because of its Tum'ah.

(c)In the first type of Beis ha'Pras (a field with a burial plot that has been plowed), the Rabanan decreed that the field is Metamei in every direction from the grave for the length of the furrow of a plow, which is 50 Amos. This results in an area 100 Amos by 100 Amos around the grave (RASH to Ohalos 17:1). The Rabanan instituted a way to remove the Tum'ah from the area that was plowed (in certain cases) by blowing the dirt of each section of the field to check for small pieces of bone.

8)[line 21]וארץ העמיםV'ERETZ HA'AMIM- and the Chachamim decreed that the lands outside of Eretz Yisrael should be Tamei (see entries 21, 22 below)

9)[line 21]והגולל והדופקGOLEL / DOFEK

(a)There are three basic opinions as to the meaning of Golel and Dofek:

1.Golel refers to the wooden or stone cover of a coffin, and Dofek refers to its sides. The sides are called Dofek because the cover of the Mes bangs ("Dofek") on them. (RASHI to Sukah 23a, TOSFOS ibid. DH v'Lo Golel, ARUCH Erech Gelal, OR ZARU'A 2:424)

2.Golel refers to the gravestone that is above the coffin, which is used as a marker. At the top and bottom of the gravestone are two smaller stones that are each called Dofek. (RABEINU TAM, cited in Tosfos to Kesuvos 4b DH Ad she'Yisasem ha'Golel)

3.When people used burial vaults rather than graves, they made use of a large stone or log as a door, which they would roll in front of the entrance. This door was called a Golel because they would roll (Golel) it. They would also use a wedge-like stone or plank, called a Dofek, to keep the door in place. (OR ZARU'A 2:424, quoting Rabeinu Moshe)

(b)The Golel and Dofek are Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah and are Metamei through Maga and Ohel (and according to Rebbi Eliezer in Ohalos 2:4, they are also Metamei through Masa - see RASHASH to RASHI Sukah ibid. DH v'Lo Golel).

10)[line 22]ורביעית דםREVI'IS DAM

(a)The blood that comes out of a dead body is Metamei b'Ohel if a Revi'is (approximately 75, 86 or 150 cc, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) of it is in one location.

(b)Rebbi Akiva rules that a Revi'is of blood is also Metamei if it came out of two different people. However, the Rabanan (Sanhedrin 4a) rule that the Revi'is of blood must come out of one person for it to be Metamei b'Ohel (see Insights to Nazir 38:1). The Halachah follows the opinion of the Rabanan.

11)[line 22]ואהלOHEL

(a)A k'Zayis of the flesh of a Mes (corpse) is an "Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah" and is Metamei through Maga (contact), Masa (carrying), and Ohel (being in the same room (lit. tent). An Ohel is defined as a covered space that is at least one Tefach in length, width, and height). If a person becomes Tamei by touching Tum'as Mes or being in the same room as a Mes or something that is Metamei b'Ohel, he must wait seven days to go to the Mikvah. Furthermore, on the third and seventh days he must have Mei Chatas (water mixed with ashes of the Parah Adumah - see below, entry #17) sprinkled on him.

(b)In an Ohel ha'Mes, the house or room becomes Tamei even if the Mes is passing through it and does not stop moving. A person who enters an Ohel ha'Mes becomes Tamei even if only a bit of his body enters, even when entering backwards. A Mechitzah (partition) in an Ohel ha'Mes only prevents the spread of Tum'ah if it reaches the ceiling. (RASH to Kelim 1:4)

(c)The bones of a Mes are only Metamei through Ohel under one of three conditions: 1. They constitute a quarter of a Kav (Rova ha'Kav); 2. They are the majority of the human body (whether they are the majority of the build (Rov Binyano) of the body or the majority of the number (Rov Minyano) of 248 bones; 3. The bone is a complete skull or a complete spinal column. In order to be Metamei through Maga and Masa, it is enough for the bone to be the size of a Se'orah (a grain of barley).

(d)When an object that can be Metamei b'Ohel is located in an Ohel, the Ohel makes everything in it Tamei and protects anything that is above it from becoming Tamei. That is, an Ohel is Mevi Tum'ah (spreads Tum'ah inside of it) and is Chotzetz from Tum'ah (intervenes between the Tum'ah and the space above the Ohel, preventing Tum'ah from spreading above it).

(e)However, not all objects that cover Tum'ah are Mevi and Chotzetz. There are objects that are Mevi and not Chotzetz and other objects that are Chotzetz and not Mevi and even others that are neither Mevi nor Chotzetz (Ohalos 8:5). An object that is flying through the air, such as a bird or a Talis that is carried or caught up by the wind, is not an Ohel and is not Mevi or Chotzetz, even if it is one Tefach wide.

(f)According to the more accurate Girsa of TOSFOS DH v'Revi'is Dam, the Girsa in our Mishnah should be v'Ohel Rova Atzamos (without the "Vav" - this is also the Girsa of the Mishnayos, Tosfos below 56b DH Rebbi Eliezer, and the Mefaresh to 53b DH Rova). As such, these words refer to one case that teaches that a Nazir is not Megale'ach for being in the same Ohel as a Rova Kav of Atzamos. However, he is Megale'ach for the Maga and Masa of a Rova Kav of Atzamos. (The RAMBAM in Peirush ha'Mishnah is Gores the "Vav" of v'Rova, but he learns the same Halachah as Tosfos from the extra word "v'Rova.") (ARZEI HA'LEVANON 7:201, Tziyunim 7:44)

12)[line 22]ורובע עצמותROVA ATZAMOS

See previous entry.

13)[line 22]וכלים הנוגעים במתV'KELIM HA'NOG'IM B'MES (THE PRINCIPLES OF TUM'OS AND TAHAROS)

(a)LEVELS OF TUM'AH - Chazal learned from the verses in the Torah (in Parshas Shemini and Parshas Chukas) the various levels of Tum'ah. There are six levels of Tum'ah: 1. Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah; 2. Av ha'Tum'ah; 3. Rishon l'Tum'ah; 4. Sheni l'Tum'ah; 5. Shelishi l'Tum'ah; 6. Revi'i l'Tum'ah.

Something that touches a person or object that is at a particular level of Tum'ah becomes Tamei at one level down from the original Tum'ah. The exception to this rule is metal utensils that touch an Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah or an Av ha'Tum'ah, which become Tamei at the same level of Tum'ah as the object they touched. (However, they cannot in turn cause other metal utensils to become Tamei at their same level of Tum'ah.)

(b)WHICH TUM'OS APPLY TO WHICH ITEMS - Metal utensils can become Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah, Av ha'Tum'ah, or Rishon l'Tum'ah (see Insights to Pesachim 14b), but not any lower level. People and all other utensils except for earthenware utensils can become Av ha'Tum'ah or Rishon l'Tum'ah, but not any lower level - except that Chazal decreed that the hands can sometimes become Sheni l'Tum'ah. Earthenware utensils can only become Rishon l'Tum'ah, and not any other level of Tum'ah. Food and liquids can become Rishon l'Tum'ah, Sheni, Shelishi, and Revi'i, but not any higher level.

(c)TERUMAH AND KODSHIM PESULIM - Terumah that is Teme'ah at the level of a Shelishi l'Tum'ah becomes Pesulah and may not be eaten. Similarly, Kodshim that become Teme'im at the level of a Revi'i l'Tum'ah become Pesulim. If Terumah receives Tum'ah from a normal Sheni l'Tum'ah, it can in turn Metamei Kodshim to make them a Revi'i and as such Pesulim. However, if Terumah receives Tum'ah from a Tevul Yom (who is also considered a Sheni l'Tum'ah), it cannot be Metamei Kodshim. For this reason it is called "Terumah Pesulah" and not "Terumah Teme'ah." Kodshim that are a Revi'i l'Tum'ah are called Pesulim and not Teme'im because they cannot be Metamei anything else (except for Mei Chatas, which, by Rabbinic institution, can become a Chamishi l'Tum'ah). (See Charts to Pesachim #2 for the details of the laws of Tum'ah mentioned above and further laws as well.)

14)[line 23]ובימי ספרוYEMEI SEFIRO

(a)THE PROCESS BY WHICH A METZORA BECOMES TAHOR - On the day that a Metzora is healed from his Tzara'as, he takes two kosher birds (Tziporei Metzora), a piece of cedar, some crimson wool and a hyssop branch. One of the birds is slaughtered over fresh spring water in a clay bowl. A Kohen dips the other bird, along with the other articles, into the spring water that is mixed with the blood and sprinkles it seven times on the Metzora. The living bird is sent away towards the fields. Both birds are Asur b'Hana'ah, but the Isur is removed from the living bird after it is sent off to the fields.

(b)The Metzora next shaves with a razor all places on his body that have a collection of hair and that are exposed, and immerses in a Mikvah. He is now considered Tahor to the extent that he may enter a settlement, but marital relations are forbidden (Moed Katan 7b). He counts seven days (Yemei Sefiro), and on the seventh day he once more shaves and immerses. He is now completely Tahor but is still a Mechusar Kaparah (see Background to Nedarim 35:9). (For a description of the Korbanos that the Metzora brings on the eighth day, see Background to Nazir 39:26c-e.)

15)[line 23]ובימי גמרוYEMEI GOMRO

(a)THE PROCESS BY WHICH A METZORA BECOMES TAMEI - When a person develops a mark that looks like Tzara'as, a Kohen must ascertain whether or not it is a Nega Tzara'as. If it is indeed a Nega Tzara'as, the Kohen tentatively pronounces him Tamei for one week, making him a Metzora Musgar (Hesger Rishon). The Kohen returns after a week to see what changes, if any, occurred to the mark. If there are no changes, the person remains a Metzora Musgar (Hesger Sheni) and the Kohen returns after the second week. If there are still no changes the Kohen pronounces the person to be Tahor. If the Kohen confirms the Tum'ah of the Metzora due to the appearance of Simanei Tum'ah in the mark, the Kohen pronounces him a Metzora Muchlat. A Metzora Muchlat remains Tamei until his Simanei Tum'ah go away.

(b)The names and colors of four types of marks that make a person a Metzora are 1. Baheres, which is the color of snow; 2. Se'es, which is the color of clean, white newborn lamb's wool; 3. Sapachas of Baheres, which is the color of the plaster used to whitewash the Beis ha'Mikdash; 4. Sapachas of Se'es, which is the color of the white membrane found on the inside of an egg.

(c)The Simanei Tum'ah for marks that appear on the skin (Nig'ei Basar) are:

1.the mark spreads (Pisyon); 2. at least two white hairs (Se'ar Lavan) grow inside the mark after the Nega Tzara'as appears; or 3. a patch of healthy skin (Michyah) appears in the middle of the Nega.

16)[last line]ומזה בשלישי ובשביעיU'MAZEH BA'SHELISHI UVA'SHEVI'I- that is, even though he does not become a Nazir Tamei, he does become Tamei to the extent that he needs to have the Mei Chatas sprinkled on him (see next entry)

17)[last line]ומזה בשלישי ובשביעיU'MAZEH BA'SHELISHI UVA'SHEVI'I (HAZA'AH)

(a)The Parah Adumah, an exclusively red-haired female cow is burned on Har ha'Zeisim and its ashes are used for making a person Tahor if he is Tamei Mes. Only a cow that has not had a yoke placed upon it and has had no other work done with it is fit to be used as a Parah Adumah. A place is prepared for its slaughter on Har ha'Zeisim, opposite the gate to the Azarah (the courtyard of the Beis ha'Mikdash). After it is slaughtered, its blood is sprinkled in the direction of the Beis ha'Mikdash seven times. A cedar branch, some Ezov branches and a piece of crimson wool are thrown into the carcass of the cow while it is burning. (Bamidbar 19:1-22)

(b)If a person (or utensil) became Tamei through touching Tum'as Mes or being in the same room as a Mes or something that is Metamei b'Ohel, he must wait seven days to become Tahor. On the third and seventh days he must have spring water mixed with the ashes of the Parah Adumah (Mei Chatas) sprinkled on him. A person who is Tahor dips three Ezov branches that have been bound together into the mixture, and sprinkles them on the person who is Tamei. On the seventh day, he immerses in a Mikvah after the mixture is sprinkled on him in order to complete his Taharah. (Bamidbar 19:17-19)

54b----------------------------------------54b

18)[line 2]ימי הזב והזבהYEMEI HA'ZAV VEHA'ZAVAH

(a)ZAV (Vayikra 15:1-15) - A Zav, a man who emits Zov two or three times (see Background to Pesachim 66:16 for a discussion of the Tum'ah of the Zav), whether it is emitted in one day or in two or three consecutive days, is an Av ha'Tum'ah. Zov is a clear discharge with the appearance of the white of a sterile or spoiled egg, in contrast with semen, which has the consistency of fresh egg white. Zov can also be a pus-like discharge resembling the liquid from barley dough or soft barley batter.

(b)A man who emits a discharge that may be Zov is "checked" to determine whether or not he becomes a Zav. If the discharge came about b'Ones (due to an external cause), he is Tahor. Some examples of Ones are: 1. eating too much; 2. drinking too much; 3. jumping; 4. being sick (see Zavim 2:2).

(c)A Zav must count seven "clean" days in which he sees no Zov in order to start his purification process, as it states in Vayikra 15:13. On the seventh day or afterwards, he must immerse in a spring during the day. At nightfall he becomes Tahor, if he did not emit Zov again beforehand (ibid.).

(d)If a Zav emits Zov only two times, he does not bring a Korban. If he emitted Zov three times, whether it is emitted in one day or in two or three consecutive days, he has to bring a Korban after he becomes Tahor in order to enter the Beis ha'Mikdash and to eat Kodshim and Terumah. The Korban is two Torim (turtledoves) or two Bnei Yonah (common doves), one offered as an Olah and one as a Chatas. In either case, the days in which a Nazir was Tamei as a Zav do not cancel his days of Nezirus.

(e)ZAVAH (Vayikra 15:25-30) - The eleven days that follow the seven days of Nidah are "days of Zivah." If a woman experiences bleeding during these days for one or two consecutive days, she becomes a Zavah Ketanah and is Teme'ah.

(f)If she does not experience bleeding the following night and day, she may immerse in a Mikvah during the day to become Tehorah. She may even immerse on the morning immediately following the day on which she saw blood, but her Tum'ah and Taharah are contingent upon whether or not she sees blood afterwards on that day. She is called a Shomeres Yom Keneged Yom, because she must watch the following day to confirm whether or not she sees blood.

(g)If a woman has a show of blood for three consecutive days during her 11 days of Zivah, she becomes a Zavah Gedolah. In order for her to become Tehorah, she must count seven "clean days" during which she verifies that she has no other show of blood. On the morning of the seventh clean day she immerses in a Mikvah. If she does not experience bleeding during the rest of the day she is Tehorah and no longer a Zavah. A Zavah Gedolah must bring a Korban Zavah to permit her to enter the Beis ha'Mikdash or to eat Kodshim. The Korban is two Torim or two Bnei Yonah, one offered as an Olah and one as a Chatas. Whether a Nezirah is a Zavah Gedolah or a Zavah Ketanah, the days in which she was Teme'ah as a Zavah do not cancel her days of Nezirus.

19)[line 3]וימי הסגרו של מצורעV'YEMEI HESGERO SHEL METZORA

See above, entry 15a.

20)[line 4]אילן המיסך על הארץILAN HA'MEISACH AL HA'ARETZ- a tree that hangs over the ground

21)[line 6]ארץ העמים משום אוירא גזרו עליהERETZ HA'AMIM, MISHUM AVIRA GAZRU ALEHA- the Chachamim decreed that the airspace of Chutz la'Aretz should also be Tamei (see next entry)

22)[line 7]משום גושא גזרו עליהMISHUM GUSHAH GAZRU ALEHA - the Chachamim only decreed that the land of Chutz la'Aretz should be Tamei.

The Rabanan decreed that the lands outside of Eretz Yisrael are to be considered Tamei because the Nochrim bury their dead fetuses in their houses. Our Gemara discusses whether they decreed that only the land should be Tamei or also the airspace above it. The Halachic ramification between these two opinions is whether or not a Nazir would be permitted to enter Chutz la'Aretz by being carried in a Shidah (a sedan chair or chest) that is lifted off the ground.

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