TO WHAT DOES LAUNDERING APPLY? [laundering: materials]
(Mishnah): The law of laundering is the same for cloth, Sak (goat's hair)...(or leather...)
Inference: Laundering applies to leather.
Contradiction (Mishnah #1): (On Shabbos) if there was filth on a cloth, it may be wiped off with a rag. If there was filth on a leather pillow, one pours water over it until it gets clean. (If laundering applied, this would be forbidden!)
Answer #1 (Abaye): Our Mishnah is like Chachamim, who say that laundering does not apply to leather. Mishnah #1 is like Acherim, who says that it does;
(Beraisa): If Dam Chatas splashed on Beged (fabric) or Sak, it is laundered. If it splashed on a Keli (that is not laundered) or leather, it is scraped off;
Acherim say, if it splashed on Beged, Sak or leather, it is laundered. If it splashed on a Keli, it is scraped off.
R. Chiya bar Ashi said 'many times (on Shabbos) I shook Rav's shoes (in his presence) in water.' This is like Chachamim.
Objection (Rava): Surely, all agree that laundering applies to leather - "veha'Beged... Oh Chol Keli ha'Or Asher Techaves"!
Answer #2 (Rava): Rather, the verse and our Mishnah discuss soft leather. The Tana'im argue about whether laundering applies to hard leather.
R. Chiya (bar Ashi) often shook Rav's shoes in water. We must say that they were hard shoes, and he held like Chachamim.
Retraction (Rava): I was wrong. The verse did not specify. Surely it applies even to hard, cooked leather!
Correction (Rava): The verse discusses all leather. Even if it was originally hard, since Tzara'as comes from the garment itself, this softens the garment.
Question (Rava - Mishnah): If there was filth on a leather pillow, one pours water over it until it gets clean. (Pillows are soft!)
Answer #3 (Rava): Laundering without rubbing (one side of the garment on the other) is not considered laundering.
R. Chiya shook Rav's shoes in water, but he did not rub them.
If the shoes were soft, all Tana'im agree (that one may not rub them). If they were hard, this was like Acherim. (Chachamim would permit even rubbing.)
Question: If it is not considered laundering without rubbing, the Mishnah should permit shaking a Beged in water!
Answer: For Beged, soaking in water is laundering.
(Rava): If one threw a turban into water (on Shabbos), he is liable.
(Rava): One may launder shoes on Shabbos.
Question (Rav Papa): R. Chiya shook Rav's shoes in water. He did not rub them!
Rava publicly retracted. 'I erred. Shaking in water is permitted, but not rubbing.'
Shabbos 141a (Rav Kahana): If there is mud on one's garment, one may rub it from the inside, but not from the outside.
142b (Mishnah): If there is filth on a pillow, one may clean it with a rag. If it is of leather, he may pour water on it until it is clean.
Rif and Rosh (Shabbos 58b and 20:14): If there is mud on one's garment, one may rub it from the inside, but not from the outside. One may scrape it with his fingernail (Rosh - or a knife). Rava retracted to say that one may shake (a shoe) in water, but he may not rub.
Rambam (Hilchos Shabbos 22:18): If there is mud or excrement on a shoe or sandal, one may be Meshachshech (shake) it in water, but he may not launder it. He may not scrape it, but he may anoint it or clean old shoes. If there is excrement or filth on a pillow or blanket, he may clean it lightly with a cloth. If it was of leather, he pours water on it until it is clean.
Hagahos Maimoniyos (80): If a nursing baby dirtied his mother's garment (with urine), R. Tam permitted her to wash her hands and clean (dry) them in the place of the filth (to nullify the urine), to permit her to pray. This (is not like laundering, rather,) it is like dirtying. It does not remove only the urine. Also the water goes away with them. Chachamim were lenient for the sake of Mitzvos in many places. E.g. one may walk through a river to greet his Rebbi on Yom Kipur (Yoma 77b), and a Nidah may scheme and immerse in her clothes (on Shabbos, to be Metaher them along with herself - Beitzah 18a). The Ri disagreed, for she intends to clean the filth! If urine splashed on one's garment, the Riva permits putting water on to nullify it, for he intends to be Metaher, but not to launder and polish. We learn from a Nidah, who may scheme.
Hagahos Maimoniyos (90, citing Re'em): I heard from Ri that we forbid only when there is filth, like the Beraisa discusses. I disagree. Rava obligates one who threw a turban into water. It does not mention filth! The Mishnah merely discussed a typical case (normally, one cleans only if there is filth). Bahag forbids without filth. He says that if one's hands are very wet, he should not clean them on wool or linen. I do not know what is considered 'much'. Therefore, on Shabbos it is good to shake the water off one's hands vigorously before drying them on a cloth.
Hagahos Maimoniyos (90): Maharam shakes his hands vigorously on Shabbos before drying them. Soaking is laundering only regarding water. Wine or beer dirties the cloth.
Rosh (Yoma 8:4): Why may one walk through a river to greet his Rebbi on Yom Kipur? In Zevachim, we say that soaking is laundering! That is only if there is blood or filth on the garment. If it darkened due to wearing or using it, and all the more so if it is white and he wants to whiten it more, soaking is not laundering. R. Tam says that we do not say soaking is laundering regarding something made to get dirty, e.g. drying on a towel or cleaning hands on a cloth. If a nursing baby dirtied his mother's garment, R. Tam permitted her to wash her hands and clean them in the place of the filth, to permit her to pray.
Shulchan Aruch (OC 302:9): One may put water on a shoe in order to Leshachshecho. One may not launder it, i.e. rub one side on the other.
Mishnah Berurah (40): Shichshuch is putting water on until the filth goes away.
Mishnah Berurah (39): The Av Melachah of Melaben (whitening or bleaching) applies to wool, linen and all materials that whiten. Laundering and squeezing are Toldos (derivatives) of Melaben. Laundering applies to soft leather. Some say that it applies even to hard leather. However, regarding leather only full laundering is laundering. For Beged, soaking in water is laundering. One is liable for soaking even colored Begadim. Some say that soaking is laundering only if there is filth, but not if it merely darkened from wearing it. Then, one is liable only for proper laundering or squeezing. Even so, mid'Rabanan one may not soak it, lest he squeeze. Some say that soaking is laundering even if there is no filth, unless it is Derech Lichluch (the way of dirtying), e.g. drying his hands. Some are stringent to say that soaking is laundering even Derech Lichluch if there is much water, therefore, one shakes almost all the water off his hands before drying them.
Kaf ha'Chayim (63): This applies to all leather Kelim.
Shulchan Aruch (ibid.): If there is filth on a Beged, even Leshachshecho is forbidden, for this is its laundering. Rather, one cleans it lightly with a cloth, but without pressing, lest he squeeze.
Gra (DH she'Yesh): The Shulchan Aruch adopted the text of the Mishnah 'if there is filth.' It is forbidden even if there is not filth, like the Beis Yosef says. These words apply to the Seifa, i.e. the Heter to clean it lightly with a cloth.
Beis Yosef (DH Mutar): Rashi explains that laundering is rubbing one side on the other. The Mishnah permits cleaning filth on a pillow only with a rag, but not with water, for a Stam pillow is of Beged, and putting water is laundering. If it is of leather, he may pour water on it; for laundering does not apply to leather. One may not truly launder it, for Stam pillows and blankets are soft, so laundering applies. However, we do not say that soaking is laundering. Tosfos (Shabbos 111b DH Hai) says that we say that soaking is laundering only if there is blood or filth on the garment. The Ri did not accept R. Tam's Heter to clean one's hands to nullify urine; the Rosh did not bring the Ri, so also the Tur brought only R. Tam. How does cleaning the hands help? A Revi'is is needed to nullify urine! Perhaps R. Tam permitted washing the hands over the dirty part of the Beged. The Ri agreed, for it is not normal to launder with waste (i.e. used) water. However, the Poskim did not mention washing over the Beged. It seems that normally only a few drops of urine leak from the baby's clothing to the mother's Beged, so it suffices to clean her hands on it.
Mishnah Berurah (41): The Shulchan Aruch connotes that only rubbing (like launderers) is forbidden regarding shoes. However, many Poskim forbid plain laundering, and permit only Shichshuch. However, all agree that there is no concern for laundering regarding wooden Kelim.
Mishnah Berurah (42): This opinion holds that laundering applies to leather, and one is liable for it.
Mishnah Berurah (43): Even spit is considered filth.
Kaf ha'Chayim (66): The Magen Avraham (18) forbids putting any water. Likewise, one is liable for any amount of any liquid that whitens. One may not put even liquids that do not whiten in order to remove the filth. Eshel Avraham and R. Zalman obligate even for colored wool, unlike Maharam me'Rotenburg.
Kaf ha'Chayim (67): It is better to pass one's hand or foot over the filth to clean it than to use a cloth, especially if the Beged is hard and there is no concern for squeezing.
Kaf ha'Chayim (68): There is an Isur mid'Rabanan to squeeze out filth absorbed in a garment.
Rema: One may put a small amount of water on a Beged without filth, but not much water, lest he squeeze.
Magen Avraham (19): One may put much water if he is not concerned if there is water in the garment, like it says in Siman 301:46.
Mishnah Berurah (46): One may not put even a little water if he intends to launder.
Kaf ha'Chayim (69): Olas Shabbos says that if there is filth, it is forbidden even Derech Lichluch. If there is no filth, it is permitted only Derech Lichluch, e.g. to pass through water to go to a Mitzvah or drying with a towel.
Kaf ha'Chayim (71): Libun does not apply, since there is no filth, but we are concerned for squeezing if there is much water.
Rema (ibid.): Some forbid in every case.
Mishnah Berurah (47): One should be concerned for this opinion, for this is a Torah Isur.
Kaf ha'Chayim (72): This opinion holds that even if there is no filth, Libun applies, even with a little water. However, Derech Lichluch is permitted.
Kaf ha'Chayim (73): The Gra says that the first opinion is primary. Eliyahu Rabah brings many Rishonim who hold like it. However, Rishonim including the Tur hold like the latter opinion, so one should be concerned for a Torah Isur. The Acharonim hold like this.