YOMA 41 (11 Sivan) - Dedicated to commemorate the Yahrzeit of Chaim Yoseph ben Ephraim Henach ha'Levi z'l.

[41a - 33 lines; 41b - 53 lines]


(a)A pair of birds is known as a Ken (plural Kinim), which means "nest." Three individuals who may be required to offer such a pair of birds as Korbanos, one an Olah and the other as a Chat'as, are a Zav, a Zavah, and a woman who has given birth.


1.A man who emits Zov at least twice, whether this occurs over the course of one day or two or consecutive days, is called a Zav. Zov is a clear discharge with the appearance of the white of a sterile or spoiled egg (in contrast to semen, which has the consistency of fresh egg white). Zov also may be a pus-like discharge resembling the liquid component of barley dough or soft barley batter. A Zav has the status of an Av ha'Tum'ah and may not enter "Machaneh Leviyah" (see Background to Pesachim 67:6).

2.A Zav must count seven "clean" days during which he experiences no discharge in order to start his purification process. On the seventh day or following, he immerses himself in a Mikvah during the daytime. At nightfall he becomes Tahor (assuming that he continue to experience no emissions; Zavim 2:2).

3.If a Zav emits Zov only twice, he need not bring a Korban. If he has discharged Zov three times, however - whether over the course of one day or over two or three consecutive days - he must offer a Korban after completing his seven clean days in order to be able to enter the Beis ha'Mikdash or eat Korbanos.

4.The Korban which a Zav must offer consists of a pair of turtle-doves or common doves, one as an Olah and one as a Chatas.


1.The eleven days which follow the seven days of Nidah (see Background to Pesachim 112:62) are termed days of Zivah. If a woman experiences uterine bleeding during this time for either one day or two consecutive days, she is known as a Zavah Ketanah and is Teme'ah. As long as she does not bleed over the following night and day, she may immerse in a Mikvah to become Tehorah. She may even immerse the morning immediately following the bleeding, although whether or not she becomes Tehorah is contingent upon whether or not she sees blood later on that day. A woman in such a situation is called a Shomeres Yom Keneged Yom, for she must watch the following day in order to determine whether or not she has continued to bleed.

2.If a woman has a show of blood for three consecutive days during her eleven days of Zivah, she attains the status of a Zavah Gedolah. In order to become Tehorah, she must count seven "clean days" during which she experiences no further bleeding. On the morning of the seventh clean day she may immerse in a Mikvah. As long as she experiences no further bleeding over the rest of that day she is Tehorah and no longer a Zavah. She must then offer a Korban Zavah in order to enter the Beis ha'Mikdash or partake of Kodshim. This Korban consists of a pair of turtle-doves or common doves, one as an Olah and one as a Chatas. A pair of birds is known as a Ken (plural Kinim), which means "nest."


1.In Vayikra 12:1-8, the Torah discusses the laws of Tum'ah and Taharah after childbirth. (The same Halachos apply to a woman who miscarries after the fetus has reached a certain stage of development.) After a woman gives birth, she must wait for a certain amount of time before she can enter the Beis ha'Mikdash or eat Kodshim. That time period is divided into two stages:

i.During the initial stage, she has the status of a Nidah (even if she had not seen any blood). If she gave birth to a male, this lasts for seven days. If a female was born, this stage lasts for two weeks. At the end of this period, she may go to the Mikvah after nightfall. After she has gone to the Mikvah, she is known as a "Tevulas Yom Aroch" (a "long" Tevulas Yom - see Background to Nidah 71:23b), and she is permitted to her husband and to eat Ma'aser Sheni.

ii.During the second stage, any bleeding that she experiences does not give her the status of a Nidah as it normally would. This blood is called Dam Tohar. Nevertheless, during this period, she may not eat Terumah, Kodshim or enter the Beis ha'Mikdash. This lasts for thirty-three days for a male, and sixty-six days for a female. Thus, the total waiting period for a male is forty days and for a female, eighty days. (The current practice is to consider a woman a Nidah even if she experiences bleeding during the period of Dam Tohar - see Insights to Nidah 25a.)

2.Any bleeding that the woman experiences after the conclusion of the above two terms is the start of her regular cycle (Dam Nidah).

3.At the end of the above two stages, the woman may eat Kodshim and enter the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash only after she brings a Korban Yoledes. Until then she is a Mechuseres Kaparah (see Background to Me'ilah 8:4). Her Korban includes a male sheep as an Olah and a Tor (turtledove) or a Ben Yonah (common dove) as a Chatas. If she could not afford a sheep, she brings two Torim or two Bnei Yonah, one as an Olah and one as a Chatas.

(e)The manner in which an Olas ha'Of (see Background to 29:29) and a Chatas ha'Of (see Background to 24:32) are offered differ. If one is offered in the manner prescribed for the other, it is Pasul. It is therefore important for the Kohen offering them to know which one is which.

2)[line 5]MISPARSHOS- [irrevocably] designated [as a Chatas or Olah, such that if the Kohen offers them otherwise they are Pasul]

3a)[line 5] B'LEKICHAS BE'ALIM- [by the one offering them] at the time that he purchases them

b)[line 6] B'ASIYAS KOHEN- [by the Kohen] at the time that he offers them

4)[line 7]"... [ , ...]""... V'LAKCHAH [SHTEI SORIM O SHNEI BNEI YONAH, ECHAD L'OLAH V'ECHAD L'CHATAS...]"- "... and she shall take [two pigeons or two turtle-doves, one for an Olah and one for a Chatas...]" (Vayikra 12:8). This verse refers to the Korban offered by a Yoledes.

5)[line 7]" [ , ...]""V'ASAH [OSAM HA'KOHEN, ECHAD CHATAS VEHA'ECHAD OLAH...]"- "And [the Kohen] shall make [them, one a Chatas and one an Olah...]" (Vayikra 15:15). This verse refers to the Korban offered by a Zav.

6)[line 14]HACHA- here [regarding the two goats at the time of the lots drawn on Yom ha'Kipurim]


(a)One may not enter the Mikdash (see Background to Tamid 27:27 for a definition of this term) if he has become Tamei due to contact with an Av ha'Tum'ah (Bamidbar 5:2; see Background to 14:14).

(b)If one transgresses this prohibition b'Mezid (intentionally) in front of two Halachically valid witnesses who have warned him of the consequences of his action (Hasra'ah), he receives Malkus (lashes) from Beis Din. If he was not warned, then he receives Kares (see Background to Shekalim 13:47; Vayikra 12:4, 22:3-4, Bamidbar 5:3, 19:20) (SEFER HA'CHINUCH Mitzvah #167).

(c)If he transgresses it b'Shogeg (unintentionally), he must offer a Korban Oleh v'Yored. What the Korban Oleh v'Yored consists of depends upon the means of the penitent:

1.If he is wealthy, he must offer a female sheep or goat as a Chatas (Korban Ashir).

2.If he cannot afford a sheep, he must offer a pair of turtledoves or common doves, one as an Olah and one as a Chatas (Korban Oleh v'Yored b'Dalus).

3.If he cannot even afford a pair of birds, he may offer one-tenth of an Eifah of fine flour as a Minchas Chatas (Korban Oleh v'Yored b'Dalei Dalus) (Vayikra 5:6-13).

8)[line 24]V'HE'ESHIR- and he then became wealthy

9)[line 24] ELU L'CHATASO- this [half of the money that he designated with which to purchase his Ken is to be used] toward his Chatas

10)[line 28]V'TISBERA?- is it logical [that this Beraisa is to be taken at face value even should we disregard this question]?


11)[line 2]?! ?LAKACH?! MOSIF U'MEVI CHOVASO MAI NIHU?- [if he has already] purchased [the birds,] what does [the Beraisa] mean [by stating that] he may add [to the value of the Chatas] in order to purchase [the female sheep or goat that] he [now] requires [for a Chatas]?

12)[line 3] D'PARIK LEI- that he redeems [the bird purchased as a Chatas]

13)[line 5]PEREIDAH- bird

14)[line 5]ZAVAN- bought


(a)The Torah allows one to offer a voluntary sacrifice in the Beis ha'Mikdash (Vayikra 1:2). Such Korbanos may be Olos (which are burned entirely on the Mizbe'ach), Shelamim (parts of which are eaten by he who offers it) or Menachos (flour offerings; see Background to Menachos 2:1).

(b)There are two categories of voluntary Korbanos: general and specific. Should one state, "I pledge an Olah" (for example) without singling out any specific animal, then his pledge is called a Neder. Even after subsequently designating a specific animal with which to fulfill his pledge, he must replace it should that animal become misplaced or die. If one singles out an animal to offer as his pledge, then it is known as a Nedavah. If this animal is lost or dies, then he has no obligation to offer another in its place.


(a)There are five categories of Korbenos Chatas which are left locked up without food or water until they expire, as per Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai. These are:

1.The offspring of a Chatas (which also has the Kedushah of a Chatas)

2.The Temurah (see Background to Pesachim 96:17) of a Chatas

3.A Chatas whose owner has passed away

4.A sheep or goat designated as a Korban Chatas which is now older than one year (and therefore invalidated as a Korban Chatas)

5.A Chatas which was lost and later found with a Mum, whose owner has in the interim offered a different Chatas to atone for his sin (Temurah 21b)

(b)Since one who became wealthy after entering the Mikdash in a state of Tum'ah inadvertently must then offer a sheep or goat in place of a bird as a Chatas, the bird fits category #5 above and therefore must be left to die.

17)[line 11]METZORA

(a)If one develops a white patch on his skin the size of a Gris (a Cilician bean, approximately the size of a dime) which appears to be Tzara'as, he must go to a Kohen, as the status of Tzara'as can only be determined by the pronouncement of a Kohen. If the Kohen ascertains that the whiteness of the patch is indeed the hue of a Nega Tzara'as, then the status of the individual depends on its appearance. If there are Simanei Tum'ah, which include the spreading of the patch, unaffected skin in the middle of the patch, or two white hairs growing in the patch, then the Kohen immediately declares him to be a Metzora. Such an individual is known as a Metzora Muchlat. If the Kohen does not find any Simanei Tum'ah, then he pronounces him Tamei for one week. At this point the person in question is known as a Metzora Musgar. After the week passes, the Kohen returns to see if the appearance of the patch has developed Simanei Tum'ah. If it has, the Kohen pronounces him a Metzora Muchlat. If it has not, the individual is once again a Metzora Musgar for the duration of a week. At the end of this second week, if no Simanei Tum'ah appear, the Metzora becomes Tahor. A Metzora Muchlat remains Tamei until his Simanei Tum'ah disappear. At that point - after a Kohen determines that the Tzara'as has indeed departed - he is Tahor once pronounced so by the Kohen.

(b)The four shades of white considered Tzara'as are:

1.Baheres, which is the color of snow;

2.Se'es, which is the color of clean, white newborn lamb's wool;

3.Sapachas of Baheres, which is the color of the plaster used to whitewash the Beis ha'Mikdash;

4.Sapachas of Se'es, which is the color of the white membrane found on the inside of an egg.

(c)No Metzora is allowed into "Machaneh Yisrael," i.e. any walled city in Eretz Yisrael.

(d)On the day that a Metzora is healed from his Tzara'as, he procures two kosher birds (Tziporei Metzora), a piece of cedar, some crimson wool and a hyssop branch. One of the birds is slaughtered over fresh spring water in a clay bowl. A Kohen dips the other bird, along with the other articles, into the spring water that is mixed with the blood and sprinkles it seven times on the Metzora. The living bird is sent away towards the fields. Both birds are Asur b'Hana'ah, but the Isur no longer applies to the living bird once it is sent off to the fields.

(e)The Metzora next shaves all places on his body that have a collection of hair and that are exposed, and immerses in a Mikvah. He is now considered Tahor to the extent that he may enter a settlement, but marital relations are forbidden (Moed Katan 7b). He waits seven days, and on the seventh day he once more shaves and immerses. He is now completely Tahor but is still a Mechusar Kaparah (see Background to Pesachim 59:5).

(f)On the eighth day, the Metzora must bring three Korbanos to complete his Taharah. These Korbanos consist of two male sheep and one female sheep. One of the male sheep is offered as an Olah, and the other is offered as an Asham. The female sheep is offered as a Chatas. If he cannot afford these animals, he is called a poor Metzora. The poor Metzora brings two turtledoves or two common doves as the Olah and the Chatas; however, a sheep is still necessary for his Asham.

(g)The Metzora also brings a Log of olive oil to the Beis ha'Mikdash as part of his purification process. A Kohen lifts up and waves (Tenufah) the live Korban Asham while the Log of oil rests upon it. After the Asham is slaughtered, some of its blood is placed upon the middle section of cartilage of the Metzora's right ear, some on his right thumb, and some on his right big toe. These parts of his body must be in the Azarah at the time that the Kohen applies the blood. For this purpose he stands in the gate of Nikanor (the eastern gate of the Azarah, named for he who donated the brass doors of the gate; see Yoma 38). Although all of the other gates of the Azarah have the status of the Azarah, Sha'ar Nikanor is only as Kadosh as Har ha'Bayis. The Chachamim arranged this so that a Metzora can put his head, right hand and right foot into the Azarah while standing under the awning of the gate.

(h)After all of the Korbanos of the Metzora are offered, a Kohen then pours some of the Log of oil into his left hand and sprinkles it with his right finger seven times towards the Kodesh ha'Kodashim, dipping his finger into the oil each time. Some oil is placed on the Metzora, in the same places where the blood of the Asham was placed. The remainder of the oil in the Kohen's hand is placed upon the head of the Metzora. The remainder of the Log is given to the Kohanim; it has the status of Kodshei Kodashim, and therefore must be consumed by male Kohanim in the Azarah (RAMBAM Hilchos Mechusrei Kaparah 4:2-3).

18)[line 13]" [ ...]""ZOS [TIYHEH TORAS HA'METZORA B'YOM TAHARASO...]"- "This [shall be the law of the Metzora on the day of his purification...]" (Vayikra 14:2). The word "Zos" is extraneous and implies an exclusion; the word "Toras" is extraneous and implies an inclusion.

19)[line 14] REISHA NAMI- the first case [of a poor Metzora who offers the Korban of a rich Metzora should] also [be invalid]

20)[line 14]VEHA'TANYA- This Beraisa is offered as proof of the Gemara's thesis.

21)[line 17]" ...""V'IM DAL HU..."- "And if he is poor..." (Vayikra 14:21). This verse describes the Korban of a poor Metzora; the word "Hu" implies an exclusion.

22)[line 18] LASHON SHEL ZEHORIS- a length of combed wool dyed crimson

23)[line 18] SA'IR HA'MISHTALE'ACH

(a)On Yom ha'Kipurim, two goats identical in every way are led in front of the Kohen Gadol. As part of the service of the day, he casts a Goral (lot) to determine which of the goats will be the Sa'ir la'Sh-m, and which the Sa'ir la'Azazel. The first is offered as a Korban, and its blood is sprinkled, in the Kodesh ha'Kodashim; the other is dispatched (Mishtale'ach) to Azazel (a rocky cliff), from which it is pushed off to its death. A length of combed wool dyed crimson is split into two, and half is tied between the horns of the Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach before it was led to Azazel. When Klal Yisrael are worthy, the two lengths turn white when the goat is pushed off the cliff as a symbol that HaSh-m has accepted their Avodah and forgiven them. He who takes the goat to Azazel becomes Tamei, and must subsequently immerse his body and clothing in a Mikvah (Vayikra 16:26).

(c)The Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach symbolically carried with it all of the sins of Klal Yisrael; they were forgiven when it was pushed over the cliff. A companion piece of crimson wool (see Insights to 41b) remained behind near the Beis ha'Mikdash. When Klal Yisrael merited it, the wool would turn white as the Sa'ir went over the cliff to symbolize that they had been forgiven.

24)[line 19] BEIS SHILUCHO- the gate through which it would be sent [to Azazel]

25)[line 20]VELA'NISHCHAT- and regarding the goat that was to be slaughtered

26)[line 21]SHNIYAH- for the second time

27)[line 21]SOMECH (SEMICHAH)

(a)Semichah refers to the positive commandment to lean with all of one's might on the head of his sacrifice before it is slaughtered (Vayikra 1:4).

28)[line 21]MISVADEH- confesses

29a)[line 22]AVISI- I have committed intentional sins

b)[line 23]PASHATI- I have committed sins with the intent to rebel against HaSh-m

c)[line 22]CHATASI- I have committed unintentional sins

30a)[line 31] A'KESHIRAH KA'I- referring to the tying of the length of crimson wool [in which case "Keneged Beis ha'Shechitah" would mean that a length of crimson of wool is tied around the neck of the Sa'ir la'Shem]

b)[line 31] A'HA'AMADAH KA'I- referring to the standing of the goat [in its proper place, in which case "Keneged Beis ha'Shechitah" would mean that the Sa'ir la'Shem is stood next to the Mizbe'ach where it will be slaughtered, and receives no length of crimson wool at all]

31)[line 38] KATIR BEI- has [a length of crimson wool] tied to it

32)[line 41] SHTEI LESHONOS SHAMATI- I learned [that there is a difference between] two lengths of crimson wool

33)[line 41]PARAH (PARAH ADUMAH)

(a)A Parah Adumah is a red cow; if there are as many as two hairs of any other color it is not a Parah Adumah (see Maseches Parah 2:5). Only a cow which has never had a yoke placed upon it nor performed any other work is fit to be used as a Parah Adumah. A place is prepared for its slaughter on Har ha'Zeisim (also known as Har ha'Mishchah; "Mishchah" means oil), opposite the gate to the Azarah (the courtyard of the Beis ha'Mikdash). After it is slaughtered, its blood is sprinkled in the direction of the Beis ha'Mikdash seven times. Its carcass is then burned. A cedar branch, some Ezov branches and a length of combed wool dyed crimson are thrown into the carcass of the cow as it is burning (Bamidbar 19:1-22).

(b)If a person or utensil becomes Tamei by touching a Mes or being in the same room as a Mes (or a part of a Mes which is Metamei b'Ohel), he/it must wait seven days before he/it is able to go to the Mikvah in order to become Tahor. On the third and seventh days, Mei Chatas is sprinkled on the person or utensil. Mei Chatas is a mixture of ashes of a Parah Adumah and spring water. A person who is Tahor dips three Ezov (hyssop) branches which have been bound together into the mixture, and sprinkles them on the person or utensil which is Tamei. After this process is complete, the person or utensil is immersed in a Mikvah. Once night falls, the purification process is complete (Bamidbar 19:17-19).

34)[line 43] D'BA'I CHALUKAH- that must be divided [with half tied between the horns of the Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach, and the other half tied to a rock above the cliff it is pushed off of (Mishnah 67a)]

35)[line 45]KOVED- weight. With regard to the ingredients that are burned with the Parah Adumah, the verse states, "... v'Hishlich El Toch Sereifas ha'Parah" - "and throw [them] into the midst of the burning cow" (Vayikra 19:6). There is an opinion which therefore maintains that they must have enough weight to fall into the middle of the fire, and not burn up at the edge of the flames.

36)[line 46]KORCHAN- tie [the cedar branch and Ezov branches]

37a)[line 46] SHEYAREI LASHON- that which is leftover from the length of wool

b)[line 46] ZENAV LASHON- the tail end of the length of wool [which tapers off after being combed out]

38)[line 47] SHE'KALATESAN SHALHEVES- that the flames [of the fire burning the Parah Adumah] caught [before they fell in completely]

39)[line 47]NISHAVHEV- [if it] was singed

40)[line 48]MEKADESH- and place it in the fire

41a)[line 48]KOLACHAS- a high flame [in which case that which was singed was never close to the base of the flame]

b)[line 48]NICHFEFES- a low flame [in which case that which was singed was close to the base of the flame]

42)[line 49]AGUDAH- a bundle

43)[line 52]... ... ZUZ... SELA'IM... SHEKEL (CURRENCY OF THE TALMUD)

(a)The relationship between the various coins mentioned in the Talmud is as follows:

1.1 Maneh = 25 Sela'im = 100 Dinerin

2.1 Dinar Zahav (gold Dinar) = 25 Dinerin

3.1 Sela = 2 Shekel

4.1 Shekel = 2 Dinerin

5.1 Dinar = 6 Me'ah

6.1 Rova Shekel (or Sela Medinah) = 3 Me'ah

7.1 Me'ah = 2 Pundeyon

8.1 Pundeyon = 2 Isar

9.1 Isar = 8 Perutah (or sometimes 6 Perutah - see Kidushin 12a)

(b)Another name for a Dinar is a Zuz. All of the coins listed above (including the standard Dinar) are silver, except for the Dinar Zahav, which is gold, and the Perutos, which are copper.

(c)The three weights mentioned by Rav Dimi in the name of Rebbi Yochanan are the equivalent of ten Zuz, eight Zuz, and two Zuz.