[42a - 37 lines; 42b - 41 lines]
1)[line 5]וסימניךV'SIMANEICH- and a way for you to remember this is
2)[line 5]"אחד המרבה ואחד הממעיט""ECHAD HA'MARBEH V'ECHAD HA'MAM'IT"- "Both one who learns much and one who learns little [are equal, as long as their intentions are pure]" (Berachos 5b). This sentiment has nothing to do with our Sugya; the wording, however, serves as a reminder that the two opinions regarding the weight of the crimson length of wool burned with the Parah Adumah express the two extremes. There is, however, an opinion in Shekalim (10b) which maintains that the Lashon Shel Zehoris of the Parah was indeed two Sela'im.
3)[line 8]ההוא יומאHA'HU YOMA- a) that day [that Rebbi Shimon bar Chalafta and the Rabanan disagreed; this is part of the assertion of Rebbi Yirmeyahu mi'Difti] (RASHI); b) that day [that Rebbi Yirmeyahu mi'Difti made his assertion; Ravya bar Kisi was a contemporary of his] (RASHASH)
4)[line 9]ואנחו בה סימנא: רביא [בר] קיסי מכפר כשעיר המשתלחV'ANCHU BAH SIMANA: RAVYA BAR KISI MECHAPER K'SA'IR HA'MISHTALE'ACH- and they established a memory device: [the passing of] Ravya bar Kisi atones similar to the way in which the Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach does. (This is based upon the derivation of the Gemara (Moed Katan 28a) that the death of the righteous atones for those who remain alive on this world.)
5)[line 11]שתי שחיטות שמעתיSHTEI SHECHITOS SHAMA'TI- I learned [that there is a difference between] the slaughter of two animals
6a)[line 11]פרהPARAH- the Parah Adumah; see Background to 41:33
b)[line 12]פרוPARO - the bull [of the Kohen Gadol] (PAR SHEL YOM HA'KIPURIM)
(a)Among the Korbanos offered by the Kohen Gadol on Yom ha'Kipurim is a bull purchased with his personal funds (Vayikra 16:3-6). The Kohen Gadol performs Semichah (the placement of both hands upon the head of the animal and leaning on it with all of one's might) on his bull while reciting Viduy (the confession of sins) on behalf of himself and his immediate household (Vayikra 1:4). After drawing the lots for the two identical goats, offering one as a Chatas, and sending the other to Azazel, he again recites Viduy on the bull - this time on behalf of all Kohanim. He then slaughters it, collects its blood, and sprinkles the blood in the Kodesh ha'Kodashim (Vayikra 16:14), and then again in the Heichal toward the Paroches (the curtain separating the Heichal from the Kodesh ha'Kodashim; ibid. 16:16). He then applies it to the Mizbach ha'Ketores in the Heichal (ibid. 16:18). The carcass of the bull is then burned in its entirety outside of Yerushalayim in the same place that the ashes removed from the Mizbe'ach are deposited. The remainder of its blood is then poured on the western Yesod (base) of the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon.
(c)The Mishnah (Shevu'os 2a) states that the service of this Par atones for sins of the Kohanim. The Tana'im disagree as to what sins are atoned for:
1.Rebbi Yehudah is of the opinion that the Par of the Kohen Gadol atones for sins of Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav (see Background to 18:19).
2.Rebbi Shimon maintains that atonement for Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav is provided by the sprinkling of the bull's blood. The Viduy of the Kohen Gadol atones for all other sins of the Kohanim.
7)[line 16]תסתייםTISTAYEIM- let us prove [from the following]
8a)[line 18]"[וּנְתַתֶּם אֹתָהּ אֶל] אֶלְעָזָר [הַכֹּהֵן...]""[U'NESATEM OSAH EL] ELAZAR [HA'KOHEN...]"- "[And you shall give it (over) to] Elazar ha'Kohen..." (Bamidbar 19:3).
b)[line 18]"[זֹאת] חֻקַּת [הַתּוֹרָה...]""[ZOS] CHUKAS [HA'TORAH...]"- "[This is] the statute of [the Torah...]" (Vayikra 19:2). Any time that a word with the root of "Chok" appears in a verse, it implies that every detail mentioned in that Parshah is absolutely necessary.
9a)[line 20]"[וְהִקְרִיב] אַהֲרֹן [אֶת פַּר הַחַטָּאת אֲשֶׁר לוֹ... וְשָׁחַט...]""[V'HIKRIV] AHARON [ES PAR HA'CHATAS ASHER LO... V'SHACHAT...]"- "[And] Aharon [shall bring his bull that is a Chatas close... and he shall slaughter...]" (Vayikra 16:11).
b)[line 20]"[וְהָיְתָה זֹּאת לָכֶם לְ]חֻקַּת [עוֹלָם, לְכַפֵּר עַל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל...]""[V'HAYSAH ZOS LA'CHEM L']CHUKAS [OLAM, L'CHAPER AL BNEI YISRAEL...]"- "[And this shall be an eternal] statute [for you, to atone for Bnei Yisrael...]" (Vayikra 16:34).
10)[line 21]שחיטה לאו עבודה היאSHECHITAH LAV AVODAH HI
(a)All Avodah (divine service) performed in the Beis ha'Mikdash must be performed under certain conditions. It may only be performed by a Kohen; he must be wearing Bigdei Kehunah; he must first wash his hands and feet from the Kiyor (the vessel of water in the Azarah - this is known as Kidush Yadayim v'Raglayim); and he must stand while doing so.
(b)The slaughter of Korbanos is not classified as an Avodah, and therefore does not require these conditions. The Rishonim suggest a number of reasons as to why this is so:
1.A Zar (non-Kohen) may perform the Shechitah of Kodshim, as the Gemara (Yoma 27a) derives from the verse, "v'Shachat... v'Hikrivu Bnei Aharon ha'Kohanim..." (Vayikra 1:5). From that which the Torah does not mention that a Kohen is necessary until the Kabalas ha'Dam (collection of the blood of the Korban in a sanctified utensil), it is apparent that a Kohen need not perform the Avodos until that point (RASHI to Zevachim 14b).
2.Since all animals - even those that are not Korbanos - must be slaughtered before they are eaten, it cannot be that Shechitah is part of the Avodah of the Korbanos (RABEINU YAKOV of Orleans, quoted in TOSFOS ibid. and Yoma 42a).
3.One need not stand in the Azarah while slaughtering a Korban. As long as the animal itself is still within, he may stand outside and slaughter it through extending a long knife into the Azarah. The Gemara (Zevachim 32b) derives this law from the verse "v'Shachat Es Ben ha'Bakar Lifnei HaSh-m..." (Vayikra 1:5) - only the animal must be before HaSh-m, not necessarily he who is slaughtering it. From this it is apparent that Shechitah is not an Avodah, for all Avodah must be performed within the Azarah (RABEINU SHIMSHON of Shanz, quoted in TOSFOS to Zevachim 14b).
11)[line 22]קדשי בדק הביתKODSHEI BEDEK HA'BAYIS (KEDUSHAS HA'GUF / KEDUSHAS DAMIM)
(a)There are two classifications into which all items consecrated to Hekdesh fall. These are:
1.KEDUSHAS HA'GUF - that which holds intrinsic Kedushah, such as an animal fit to be offered upon the Mizbe'ach, or a utensils fit to be used in the performance of the Avodah in the Beis ha'Mikdash (RAMBAM Hilchos Me'ilah 6:5). This is also termed KODSHEI MIZBE'ACH.
2.KEDUSHAS DAMIM - that which is not fit to be used in its present state in the Beis ha'Mikdash, but whose value is consecrated to Hekdesh. Such items are sold, and the proceeds go toward any day-to-day needs of Hekdesh. This is also termed KODSHEI BEDEK HA'BAYIS.
(b)Our Gemara suggests that since the Parah Adumah is not a Korban, there is no reason to differentiate between that which is and that which is not an Avodah.
12)[line 22]ולאו כל דכן הואV'LAV KOL D'CHEN HU?- and [if regarding Kodshei Bedek ha'Bayis Shechitah is considered an Avodah,] should it not then all the more so [be considered an Avodah with regard to Kodshei Mizbe'ach]?
13)[line 24]מראות נגעיםMAR'OS NEGA'IM- see Background to 41:17:a
14)[line 29]שלא יסיח דעתוSHE'LO YASI'ACH DAITO- that he should not remove his attention [from them]
15)[line 36]למעוטי מאיL'ME'UTEI MAI?- what does [the derivation that the Kohen who slaughters and burns the Parah Adumah must pay continual attention to it] exclude [from being valid if his attention was removed from it]?
16a)[last line]אסיפת אפרהASIFAS AFARAH- the gathering of its ashes
b)[last line]מילוי מים לקידושMILUY MAYIM L'KIDUSH- filling a container with spring water in order to mix it with the ashes of the Parah Adumah
17)[line 1]"[וְהָיְתָה לַעֲדַת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל] לְמִשְׁמֶרֶת לְמֵי נִדָּה...""... V'HAYSAH LA'ADAS BNEI YISRAEL] L'MISHMERES L'MEI NIDAH..."- "[... and it shall be] that which is guarded as water of purification [for the congregation of Bnei Yisrael...]" (Bamidbar 19:9).
18)[line 6]לרבL'RAV- [as a support] for [the opinion of] Rav [who asserts that a Zar may not slaughter a Parah Adumah, and a question on that of Shmuel who maintains that he may]
19a)[line 7]שאין כשרין באשהSHE'EIN KESHEIRIN B'ISHAH- which is not valid if performed by a woman [since the verse states, "And a man who is Tahor shall take an Ezov branch, dip it into the water, and sprinkle..." (Bamidbar 19:18)]
b)[line 8]אין כשרין אלא ביוםEIN KESHEIRIN ELA BA'YOM- is not valid when performed at night [since the verse states, "He shall become pure through it on the third day and on the seventh day..." (Bamidbar 19:12).
20)[line 11]"[זֹאת חֻקַּת הַ]תּוֹרָה""[ZOS CHUKAS HA']TORAH..."- "[This is the statute of] the Torah..." (Vayikra 19:2). Thus begins the Parshah of Parah Adumah. The word "Zos" is extraneous and implies an exclusion; the word "ha'Torah" is extraneous and implies an inclusion.
21)[line 19]ואין כשרין באשהEIN KESHERIN B'ISHAH- are not valid if performed by a woman [since every verse regarding these actions specifies either "Elazar ha'Kohen" or "ha'Kohen" as he who must perform them (Bamidbar 19:3-6)]
22)[line 22]והאי, מאי תיובתא?V'HAI, MAI TEYUVTA?- What disproof [of Shmuel's opinion] is there from this [Beraisa]?
23a)[line 25]אשה מאי טעמא?ISHAH MAI TAMAH?- why is it that a woman [may not slaughter the Parah Adumah]?
b)[line 25]אלעזר ולא אשהELAZAR V'LO ISHAH- [it must be that the mention of] Elazar [at the beginning of the verse (Bamidbar 19:3) qualifies the slaughter mentioned at the end of the verse, thereby teaching us that] a woman may not [do so. This is unlike the way in which Shmuel understood this verse; namely, that anyone else may slaughter the cow in front of Elazar.]
24a)[line 28]משמע מוציא מיד משמעMASHMA MOTZI MI'YAD MASHMA- that which is implied [by certain phrases in the Parshah of Parah Adumah] contradicts the implication [of earlier phrases in the Parshah, thereby qualifying their meaning]
b)[line 29]ומשמע ממילאU'MASHMA MIMELA- and the implication [of these later phrases] remains fully
25)[line 29]אותה לאלעזר, ולא לדורות לאלעזרOSAH L'ELAZAR, V'LO L'DOROS L'ELAZAR- this [Parah, in the desert, must be given over] to Elazar, but the [Paros Adumah] of future generations need not [be given over] to Elazar (i.e., the Segan Kohen Gadol). The word "u'Nesatem" implies that all Paros Adumah must be given to the Segan; the word "Osah" modifies this implication to refer to the current Parah Adumah only. This is the first illustration of Ula's previous statement (see MENACHEM MESHIV).
26)[line 32]שפירSHAPIR- it fits nicely [as the implication is that as the Segan is not necessary for the Paros Adumah of future generations, any Kohen is suitable]
27)[line 34]"... וְהוֹצִיא אֹתָהּ [אֶל מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה...]""... V'HOTZI OSAH [EL MI'CHUTZ LA'MACHANEH...]"- "... and you shall remove her (the Parah Adumah) [to outside of the encampment...]" (Vayikra 19:3).
28)[line 37]שלא יאמרו שתים שחטוSHE'LO YOMRU SHETAYIM SHACHATU- both [Paros Adumah] were slaughtered. If two Paros Adumah are slaughtered at once, both are invalidated (43a).
29)[line 38]לא מן השם הוא זהLO MIN HA'SHEM HU ZEH- your reasoning is not the best approach (RASHI to Sotah 8a, Makos 4b)
30)[line 40]ר"ש היא דדריש טעמיה דקראREBBI SHIMON HI, D'DARISH TAIMEI D'KRA
(a)Often, a Tana or Amora will offer an explanation for a Mitzvah of the Torah. Although we may learn a lesson from the idea expressed, this understanding does not actually affect when the Mitzvah does or does not apply. For example, the Torah forbids one from taking a pledge as collateral for a loan from a widow (Devarim 24:17). Ostensibly this is because most widows are poor, and the Torah therefore wishes to protect her from that which would limit her means even further. Even so, one may not take a pledge even from a wealthy widow.
(b)Rebbi Shimon, however, is "Doresh Taima d'Kra." This means that he practically applies the implied reasoning behind a Mitzvah to each individual circumstance. Rebbi Shimon therefore rules that one may take a pledge from a widow who is wealthy.