YOMA 40 (15 Teves) - dedicated by Dr. Moshe and Rivka Snow in memory of Rivka's mother, Rebbetzin Leah bas Rav Yosef (Rabinowitz), the Manostrishtcher Rebbetzin, whose Yahrzeit is 15 Teves.

[40a - 31 lines; 40b - 30 lines]

1)[line 4]L'HISVADOS- to recite Viduy [over the Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach; see Background to 36:24)

2)[line 9] MES ECHAD ME'HEN- if one [of the two identical goats] should die [following their designation]

3)[line 10]CHAVEIRO- an additional identical goat

4)[line 10]' REBBI SHIMON LO YADA...- The Gemara explains that the intention of the Tana Kama was, indeed, that the Kohen Gadol should ideally place the lots on the two goats. If he did not, however, the Hagralah is still valid. If the lots were not drawn to begin with, however, then the Hagralah is not valid. Rebbi Shimon's response deals with the actual drawing of the lots since he thought it possible that this is what the Chachamim were discussing as well.

5)[line 15]B'TARTI- on both counts [since I maintain that 1. the drawing of the lots, like the placement of the lots upon the goats, is not an essential part of the Avodas Yom ha'Kipurim; and 2. the recitation of the Viduy is an essential part of the Avodas Yom ha'Kipurim]


(a)While wearing the four white linen garments reserved for the Avodah special to Yom ha'Kipurim (see Background to 39:57), the Kohen Gadol performs the Yom Kipur service in the following order:

1.He recited Viduy (confession) on his own behalf as well as that of his wife over the bull bought with his personal funds (see Background to 39:47);

2.He drew lots to determine which of the two identical goats was to be a Chatas offered upon the Mizbe'ach and which was to be sent to Azazel (see Background to 36:24,36);

3.He again recited Viduy over his bull, this time also on behalf of all Kohanim;

4.He slaughtered the bull;

5.He entered the Kodesh ha'Kodashim bearing a pan of coals and a long-handled bowl of Ketores (see Background to 38:17), placed the Ketores on the coals, and waited until the cloud of incense filled the chamber;

6.He sprinkled some of the blood from his bull in the Kodesh ha'Kodashim toward the Kapores (the cover of the Aron) one plus seven times;

7.He slaughtered the goat designated as a Chatas;

8.He sprinkled some of the blood from the goat in the Kodesh ha'Kodashim toward the Kapores one plus seven times;

9.Standing in the Heichal, he sprinkled some of the blood from his bull toward the Paroches (the curtain dividing the Kodesh ha'Kodashim from the Heichal) one plus seven times;

10.Standing in the Heichal, he sprinkled some of the blood from the goat toward the Paroches one plus seven times;

11.He mixed the two containers of blood together;

12.He applied from the mixture of blood to the four corners of the Golden Mizbe'ach in the Heichal, then he sprinkled from the mixture on its top surface seven times;

13.Later, in the afternoon, the Kohen Gadol donned the white garments for a second time and removed the pan and bowl that he had left in the Kodesh ha'Kodashim.

(b)The Beraisa quoted in our Gemara states that if any of the Avodah related to the goat or its blood was improperly performed before that relating to the bull, it is invalid and must be repeated. In the opposite case, however, the Avodah would be valid and need not be repeated.

7)[line 16] MATANOS SHEBI'FNIM- the sprinkling of blood inside the Kodesh ha'Kodashim (see previous entry, a:5,8, and below, entry #11)

8)[line 21]"" "CHUKAH" KSIV BEHU- [regarding all service performed in the Kodesh ha'Kodashim on Yom ha'Kipurim,] the Torah states, "[v'Haysah Zos Lachem] l'Chukas [Olam, l'Chaper Al Bnei Yisrael mi'Kol Chatosam Achas ba'Shanah..." - "And this shall be an eternal statute for you, to atone for Bnei Yisrael from all of their sins once a year..." (Vayikra 16:34).] From the wording of the verse, all opinions - including that of Rebbi Yehudah - agree that all such Avodah is absolutely essential to the proper performance of the service of the day.

9)[last line] V'AZDU L'TA'AMAIHU- and [Rebbi Shimon, who maintains that Viduy is absolutely necessary, and Rebbi Yehudah, who is of the opinion that b'Di'eved it need not be repeated if skipped over,] follow their opinions as expressed elsewhere


10)[line 1]"[ ,] ', ...""... YA'AMAD CHAI LI'FNEI HASH-M L'CHAPER ALAV..."- "[And the goat upon which the lot of Azazel has fallen] shall be made to stand, alive, in front of HaSh-m, to atone through it..." (Vayikra 16:10). The word "alive" is unnecessary for the simple understanding of this verse. The Torah is clearly stating that the Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach must remain alive until a certain point - that of atonement - or else it is invalid and must be replaced.


(a)The Dam ha'Nefesh (lifeblood) that exits the body of every Korban (sacrifice) following its slaughter is collected in a bowl (Kabalas ha'Dam). It is then applied to the Mizbe'ach. Depending upon the Korban, there are three possible ways that the blood is applied:

1.In the case of a Korban Chatas, it is applied to the Keranos (cubic Amah posts upon the corners of the Mizbe'ach) beginning with the southeastern corner of the Mizbe'ach and continuing to the northeastern, northwestern, and southwestern corners. The Kohen accomplishes this by dipping his finger into the bowl and then applying it to each corner.

2.The blood of Korbenos Olah (see Background to Kidushin 55:3), Asham, Shelamim (see Background to Kidushin 55:4), and Todah (see Background to Kidushin 51:7) is applied in a manner known as "Shtayim she'Hen Arba" - "two that are four." This means that the blood is applied twice, but to four sides of the Mizbe'ach. First the Kohen walks to the northeastern corner of the Mizbe'ach and applies the blood to the eastern and northern sides of the Mizbe'ach with a single swipe, and then he walks west and then south until he reaches the southwestern corner, at which point he applies the blood to the western and southern sides with a single swipe. This blood is applied below the Chut ha'Sikra (red line that horizontally divides the Mizbe'ach in half), whereas that of a Chatas is applied to the Keranos above the Chut ha'Sikra.

3.The blood of a Korban Pesach (see Background to Sukah 42:39), Bechor (see Background to Rosh Hashanah 28:41), or Ma'aser Behemah (see Background to Rosh Hashanah 18:15) is applied only once to the Mizbe'ach. This is accomplished through dashing it from the bowl within which it was collected against any side of the Mizbe'ach below the Chut ha'Sikra, with the exception of the southeastern corner.

(b)The Zerikah of the Par and Sa'ir la'Sh-m on Yom ha'Kipurim differs from that of other Korbanos. Their blood is sprinkled eight times in both the Kodesh ha'Kodashim and the Heichal, and then applied to the four corners and top of the Golden Mizbe'ach in the Heichal.

(c)When a sacrifice provides atonement, it is through this service that the atonement is gained. This is stated clearly in the Torah: "Ki ha'Dam Hu, ba'Nefesh Yechaper" - "for it is the blood that will atone for the soul" (Vayikra 17:11).

12)[line 6]" , , ...""V'CHILAH MI'KAPER ES HA'KODESH..."- "And he shall finish atoning for the Kodesh ha'Kodashim, the Ohel Mo'ed, and the Mizbe'ach..." (Vayikra 16:20). This verse refers to the end of the service involving the sprinkling and application of the blood of the bull and Sa'ir la'Sh-m.

13)[line 10] ALAH B'SMOL- [if the lot for the Sa'ir la'Sh-m] arose in the [Kohen Gadol's] left [hand, which is an unfavorable sign]

14)[line 11]TZEDUKIM

(a)The Tzedukim were students of Tzadok, and the Beitusim were students of Beitus. Both of these individuals rejected the Oral Torah (Avos d'Rebbi Nasan 5:2).

15)[line 11]LIRDOS- a) to overcome [through arguing that Torah-true Jews change laws at will]; b) to rebel [through arguing that Torah-true Jews change laws at will]

16)[line 19] YANICHENU ALAV- he should place [the lot] upon [the goat(s)]

17)[line 20]L'MITZVAH- ideally [but not absolutely necessarily]

18)[line 25]"[ ',] ""... V'ASAHU CHATAS"- "[And Aharon brought close the goat upon which the lot of "la'Sh-m" had fallen,] and made it into a Chatas" (Vayikra 16:9).

19)[line 26]HA'SHEM- the verbal designation of the status of each goat

20a)[line 27] B'MAKOM SHE'LO KIDESH HA'GORAL- in a situation in which two Korbanos cannot be designated with their respective Kedushos through a Goral. (This refers to Kinin [a pair of birds offered by a Zav, Zavah, Metzora, or Yoledes; see Background to 41:1], one of which is an Olah and the other a Chatas.)

b)[line 28] KIDESH HA'SHEM- a verbal designation will designate them (see 41a)