THE TRAGEDIES OF TISH'AH B'AV
Question: How do we know that it was on Tish'ah b'Av that it was decreed upon our ancestors not to enter Eretz Yisrael?
Answer: The Mishkan was put up on the 1st of Nisan. The cloud lifted from it on the 20th of Iyar. The people complained for three days, and they were granted quail for a month. Then, on the 22nd of Sivan, Miriam was locked up for seven days. On the 29th of Sivan, the spies were sent out, and returned after 40 days, on the ninth of Av.
Question: There are only 39 days from th 19th of Sivan until the 9th of Av?
Answer: In that year, Tamuz was a full month.
On that night of the ninth of Av, the people wept. Hash-m said that since they wept for nothing, He would cause them to weep for generations.
Question: How do we know that the First Beis ha'Mikdash was destroyed on Tish'ah b'Av?
Answer: One Pasuk says that it happened on the seventh, another says that it happened on the tenth;
The reconciliation is that they entered on the seventh, they ate and defiled it on the seventh, eighth and ninth, lit the fires at sunset on the ninth, and they burnt for a day.
(R. Yochanan): If I had lived then, I would have established the fast on the tenth, as most of the Beis ha'Mikdash burned then.
The Rabanan held that we follow the start of the punishment.
Question: How do we know that the Second Beis ha'Mikdash was destroyed on Tish'ah b'Av?
Answer: Good events are brought about on good days, bad events are brought about on bad days.
The Churban took place on Motzai Shabbos and Motzai Shemittah.
The Levi'im sang the Shir for Wednesday, which ends with a lament, and as they sang it, the Churban began.
That Beitar was captured on Tish'ah b'Av is known from a received tradition.
That Yerushalayim was razed to the ground on Tish'ah b'Av is known from a received tradition.
THE EVENTS OF THE CHURBAN
When Turnusrufus destroyed the Heichal, he sentenced R. Gamliel to execution.
The Roman officer announced in the Beis ha'Midrash that the man with the big nose (the most important man) is wanted.
R. Gamliel hid, but the Roman found him and asked him if he would bring him to Olam ha'Ba if he would save him.
When R. Gamliel agreed and swore to it, the Roman threw himself off the roof.
The Romans had a law that if one of the leaders died, the decrees would be revoked.
A Bas Kol announced that the Roman had earned a place in Olam ha'Ba.
(Beraisa): When the first Beis ha'Mikdash was being destroyed, the young Kohanim took the keys to the Heichal, went up to the roof and threw them to Hash-m, saying that they were no longer trusted to look after them.
A type of hand descended and took the keys, and the Kohanim leapt into the flames.
Yeshayahu lamented their death, and Hash-m lamented the desolation.
(R. Yehudah son of R. Shmuel bar Shilas citing Rav): Just as we decrease pleasure when Av begins, we increase pleasure when Adar begins.
(R. Papa): Therefore, if a Jew has a court case with a non-Jew, he should not conduct it in Av, when there is bad Mazal, but rather in Adar.
The Pasuk about hopes for the exile in Bavel refers to the date-palms and linen garments there.
When Yitzchak referred to the smell of Ya'akov as being like that of a field which Hash-m has blessed, he was referring to an apple-field.
WASHING CLOTHES DURING THE WEEK OF TISH'AH B'AV
The Mishnah said that during the week in which Tish'ah b'Av falls, it is forbidden to have haircuts or wash clothing.
(R. Nachman): Only washing clothes to wear is forbidden, but not washing clothes for after Tish'ah b'Av.
(R. Sheshes): Even washing clothes for afterwards is forbidden.
Proof of this is that the laundries of Bei Rav would shut down in this period.
Question: The Mishnah appears to contradict R. Nachman:
The Mishnah said that it is permitted to wash clothes on Thursday out of respect for Shabbos;
This cannot refer to washing them in order to wear them on Thursday.
So it must refer to washing them to wear afterwards on Shabbos, which is only permitted on Thursday for Shabbos, but not on other days for after Tish'ah b'Av!?
Answer: It is referring to washing it in order to wear it immediately, in a case where he only has one shirt, so this is his last chance to do so before Shabbos.
We find that someone who only has one shirt may wash it on Chol ha'Mo'ed.
(R. Binyomin citing R. Elazar): Only washing clothes to wear is forbidden, but not washing clothes for after Tish'ah b'Av.
Question: A Beraisa states that it is forbidden to wash clothes before Tish'ah b'Av even for after Tish'ah b'Av.
The ironing of bavel is like the washing of those days.
Linen clothing may be ironed.
This refutes R. Elazar's view.
Although linen clothing may be ironed, it may not be worn during the week when Tish'ah b'Av falls.
(Rav): This only refers to the days until Tish'ah b'Av.
(Shmuel): It refers to the entire week.
Question: We see that it only refers to the days until Tish'ah b'Av:
(Beraisa): During the week in which Tish'ah b'Av falls, it is forbidden to have haircuts or wash clothing, except on Thursday out of respect for Shabbos.
This means that if Tish'ah b'Av fell on Sunday, it is permitted to wash all week.
If it fell from Monday to Thursday, it is forbidden to wash before but permitted after.
If it fell on Friday, it is permitted to wash on Thursday out of respect for Shabbos.
If one did not wash clothing on Thursday, one may do so on Friday afternoon after Minchah.
Abaye (or Rav Acha bar Ya'akov): cursed anyone who did so.
If it fell on Monday or Thursday, three people are called to the Torah, one for Maftir.
If it fell on Tuesday or Wednesday, one person is called up to the Torah and for Maftir.
(R. Yosi): In all cases, three are called up.
Answer: It is a Machlokes between Tannaim, with Shmuel holding like R. Shimon b. Gamliel:
(Beraisa): If Tish'ah b'Av or Erev Tish'ah b'Av fell on Shabbos, one may eat and drink freely like the feast of Shlomo.
(R. Meir): One may not have haircuts or wash clothes from Rosh Chodesh until Tish'ah b'Av.
(R. Yehudah): These are prohibited for the entire month of Av.
(R. Shimon b. Gamliel): They are prohibited for the entire week of Tish'ah b'Av.
(R. Yochanan ): All these opinions are based on a Pasuk speaking of rejoicing being banned for a festival (Rosh Chodesh), month, and a week.
(Rava): The Halachah follows R. Shimon b. Gamliel.
(Rava): The Halachah follows R. Meir.
These are meant leniently;
Like R. Shimon b. Gamliel in that it is only for the week of Tish'ah b'Av, not from Rosh Chodesh;
Like R. Meir in that they are only forbidden until Tish'ah b'Av, not after.