[29a -51 lines; 29b - 45 lines]
1)[line 1]אנת צבית לחרובי ביתא ידך אשלימת ליהANT TZAVIS L'CHARUVEI VEISA; YADCHA ASHLEIMAS LEI- (a) you wished to destroy the house [of HaSh-m by enticing Klal Yisrael to worship you]; I have [taken revenge and] paid Him [by severing] your hand (RASHI, first explanation, second explanation of TOSFOS DH v'Ishtachach); (b) you wished to destroy the house [of HaSh-m by enticing Klal Yisrael to worship you]; it cost you your hand (Rashi, second explanation, as interpreted by the MENACHEM MESHIV NEFESH); (c) you wished to destroy the house [of HaSh-m by enticing Klal Yisrael to worship you]; and now you have acted on his behalf [by severing my hand]? (first explanation of TOSFOS DH v'Ishtachach)
2)[line 3]"ויהי בחדש הראשון בשנה השנית באחד לחדש הוקם המשכן""VA'YEHI BA'CHODESH HA'RISHON HUKAM HA'MISHKAN" - "And in the first month of the second year on the first day of the month, the Mishkan was erected." (Shemos 40:17) (WHEN THE PEOPLE WEPT FOR NOTHING)
(a)Here are the nine stages that prove that the decree forbidding the generation of the desert to enter Eretz Yisrael was issued on Tish'ah b'Av:
1.On Rosh Chodesh Nisan of the second year the Mishkan was set up.
2.On 25 Iyar in the same year, the Cloud departed and the people left Har Sinai in a sinful manner (in that they fled from Har Sinai like a child runs away from school).
3.Three days later (on 22 Iyar) they (the Erev Rav) desired meat.
4.For a full month they ate the quails and suffered the consequences (until 22 Sivan).
5.On 22 Sivan, Miriam and Aharon spoke against Moshe, and Miriam was punished with Tzara'as for seven days.
6.On 29 Sivan, Moshe sent the spies.
7.The spies returned at the end of forty days, which ought to have fallen on 8 Av.
8.In fact, they returned on the 9th of Av, because by Divine design they declared Tamuz a full month (in order "to break the young men" on Tish'ah b'Av).
9.When the people wept on the evening of the 9th (see Maharsha in Chidushei Agados), HaSh-m announced, "You wept for no reason; I will give you something to weep about!"
3)[line 11]סרו מאחרי ה'SARU ME'ACHAREI HASH-M- they turned away from the service of HaSh-m. This is derived by interpreting the words "me'Har HaSh-m" as "Maher (me')HaSh-m" - "quickly away from HaSh-m."
4)[line 11]"והאספסוף אשר בקרבו""VEHA'ASAFSUF ASHER B'KIRBO..."- "And the mixed multitude that was in the midst [of Klal Yisrael] brought themselves to crave, and Bnei Yisrael, too, sat and cried, and they said, 'Who will feed us meat?'" (Bamidbar 11:4)
5)[line 13]"עד חדש ימים...""AD CHODESH YAMIM..."- "For one month..." (Bamidbar 11:20) - This verse details for how long HaSh-m sent the Slav (birds with which to satisfy Bnei Yisrael's craving for meat). RASHI maintains that this month lasted for 29 days; TOSFOS DH (u'Chesiv) [d'Chesiv] (as well as the Gemara in Nazir 5a) maintains that it was for 30 days, and began on the same day that they arrived in their new location.
6)[line 14]"ותסגר מרים שבעת...""VA'TISAGER MIRIAM..."- "And Miriam was shut out of the camp for seven days, [and the nation did not travel until Miriam was gathered back.]" (Bamidbar 12:15) - This was Miriam's punishment for speaking ill of her brother, Moshe.
7)[line 18]"וישובו מתור הארץ...""VA'YASHUVU MI'TUR HA'ARETZ..."- "And they returned from spying on the land at the end of forty days." (Bamidbar 13:25)
8)[line 18]הני ארבעים יום נכי חד הוו!HANI ARBA'IM YOM NAKI CHAD HU!- that computes to one less than forty days! This is because (a) the count begins from the day upon which they left, the twenty-ninth of Sivan, continues through the thirtieth and the month of Tamuz (which is usually twenty-nine days), and ends on the eighth of Av. They cried that night, on the ninth (RASHI); (b) the count begins from the day after they left, the thirtieth of Sivan, continues through the month of Tamuz (which is usually twenty-nine days), and ends on the ninth of Av. They cried on the evening of the ninth, which is when the Batei Mikdash were set on fire (TOSFOS DH Amar).
9a)[line 19]תמוז דההיא שתאTAMUZ DEHA'HI SHASA- [the month of] Tamuz of that year [during which Klal Yisrael were in the desert]
b)[line 20]מלויי מליוהMELUYEI MALYUHA- they filled it; i.e., it had thirty days
10)[line 20]"קרא עלי מועד לשבור בחורי""KARA ALAI MO'ED LISHBOR BACHURAI..."- "[HaSh-m has trampled all of my mighty ones amongst me;] He designated a time against me to break my young men...." (Eichah 1:15) - Abaye interprets this verse to mean, "He designated a festival (that of Rosh Chodesh Av in the desert, one day later than usual) to break my young men...." This additional day caused the spies to return on the ninth of Av.
11)[line 26]נבוזראדן רב טבחיםNEVUZARADAN RAV TABACHIM- Nevuzaradan the chief butcher. This was the general sent by Nevuchadnetzar to destroy Yerushalayim, set fire to the Beis ha'Mikdash, and transport any remaining survivors to Bavel.
12)[line 32]הציתו בו את האורHITZISU BO ES HA'UR- they set fire to it
13)[line 32]דולקDOLEK- burning
14)[line 33]"אוי לנו כי פנה היום כי ינטו צללי ערב""OY LANU KI FANAH HA'YOM, KI YINATU TZILELEI AREV."- "['Wage war against her, stand and we shall rise in the afternoon!'] Woe is to us for the day has turned late, for the shadows of evening have extended." (Yirmeyahu 6:4) - The Navi in this verse first quotes the enemy, and then bemoans the fate of Yerushalayim.
15)[line 34]אלמליILMALEI- if only
16)[line 35]אתחלתא דפורענותא עדיפאATCHALTA D'FUR'ANUSA ADIFA- the beginning of a calamity is most significant
17)[line 36]מגלגלין זכות ליום זכאי וחובה ליום חייבMEGALGELIN ZECHUS L'YOM ZAKAI, V'CHOVAH L'YOM CHAYAV- [HaSh-m] causes auspicious events to occur on dates that have a history of auspicious events, and inauspicious ones to occur on dates that have a history of inauspicious events
18)[line 37]ומוצאי שבתMOTZA'EI SHABBOS- Sunday
19)[line 37]ומוצאי שביעיתMOTZA'EI SHEVI'IS
(a)The Torah requires farmers to desist from working the land every seventh year (Vayikra 25:1-7). This year is termed Shemitah or Shevi'is. Produce which grows during the seventh (Shevi'is) year is holy, which in this context means: 1. It is considered ownerless; anyone may enter a field and pick that which he wishes to eat. 2. The fruits may not be bought and sold in a normal fashion (see Insights to Sukah 40:1). 3. Shevi'is produce may be consumed only in the manner considered normal for that type of food, or burned to provide illumination in the case of oil. It may not be wasted, used for medicinal purposes, fed to animals, etc.
(b)The destruction of the Beis ha'Mikdash took place on the year following Shemitah.
20)[line 38]ומשמרתה של יהויריבMISHMARTA SHEL YEHOYARIV (MISHMAROS)
(a)See Background to Ta'anis 26:3.
(b)Yehoyariv was the first family of Kohanim to serve in the Beis ha'Mikdash.
21)[line 38]שירהSHIRAH- This does not refer to the song sung by the Leviyim to accompany the Korban Tamid (see Background to Sukah 50:14). Rather, this chapter of Tehilim was one that they happened to sing at the time of the destruction (Erchin 12a).
22)[line 38]דוכנםDUCHANAM- their platform [that they stood upon while singing Shirah]
23)[line 39]"וישב עליהם את אונם...""VA'YASHEV ALEIHEM ES ONAM..."- "And He returned their sin upon them, and in their evil will destroy them; destroy them, HaSh-m our G-d." (Tehilim 94:23) - The end of the verse makes it clear that it is referring to the enemies of Klal Yisrael; however, this point was left unmade before the Romans burst into the Beis ha'Mikdash.
24)[line 40]וכבשוםKIVSHUM- vanquished them
25)[line 41]טורנוסרופוס הרשעTURNUSRUFUS HA'RASHA- Turnusrufus the wicked; the Roman procurator of Yerushalayim at the time of the emperor Hadrian
26)[line 41](אדון אחד) [אותו הגמון](ADON ECHAD) [OSO HEGMON]- a certain Roman nobleman
27)[line 42]בעל החוטם מתבקשBA'AL HA'CHOTAM MISBAKESH- the one with the nose is sought. With this cryptic statement, the nobleman wished to convey that the Roman government wished to kill Raban Gamliel. He alluded to the nose because (a) it is the most distinctive feature of the face, and Raban Gamliel was a distinguished man of stature; (b) without it, the face loses its form; so, too, Raban Gamliel was the leader of the generation who held it in form; (c) it is through the nose that one breathes, allowing him to live; so did Raban Gamliel give spiritual life to his generation (MAHARSHA)
28)[line 42]אזל טשא מינייהוAZAL TASHA MINAIHU- [Raban Gamliel] went and hid from them
29)[line 42]אזל לגביה בצנעאAZAL L'GABEI B'TZIN'A- [the Roman nobleman] went to him in secret
30)[line 43]מייתית לי לעלמא דאתי?MAISIS LI L'ALMA D'ASI?- will you bring me to Olam ha'Ba?
31)[line 43]סליק לאיגראSALIK L'IGRA- he went up to the roof
32)[line 44]וגמיריGEMIRI- we have a tradition
33)[line 44]חד מינייהוCHAD MI'NAIHU- one of those [who originally passed the decree]
34)[line 44]מבטלי לגזרתייהוMEVATLEI L'GEZEIRASAIHU- they nullify their decree [since they view it is a Heavenly sign that it was not found to be favorable]
35)[line 45]נתקבצו כיתות כיתות של פרחי כהונהNISKABTZU KITOS KITOS SHEL PIRCHEI KEHUNAH- groups of young Kohanim gathered
36)[line 46]גזברין נאמניםGIZBARIN NE'EMANIM- trustworthy treasurers
37)[line 47]פיסת ידPISAS YAD- a disembodied hand
38)[line 48]האורHA'UR- the fire [consuming the Beis ha'Mikdash]
39)[line 48]קונןKONEN- lamented
40)[line 48]"משא גיא חזיון""MASA GEI CHIZAYON..."- "A prophecy of the Valley of Vision: What is with you, that you have all gone up to the roofs? Full of commotion, a tumultuous city, an ebullient city; your corpses are not casualties of the sword, nor dead in battle." (Yeshayah 22:1-2) - Yerushalayim is referred to as the Valley of Vision because (a) all look to her (RASHI here); (b) many prophecies were received regarding her (RASHI to Yeshayah 22:2)
41)[line 50]"מקרקר קיר ושוע אל ההר""MEKARKAR KIR V'SHO'A EL HA'HAR"- "[For it is a day of tumult, trampling, and confusion by HaSh-m, Lord of Hosts, in the Valley of Vision;] one of breaking walls and an outcry to the mountains." (Yeshayah 22:5)
42)[line 1]דאית ליה דינא בהדי נכריD'IS LEI DINA BA'HADEI NOCHRI- who has a court case with a Nochri [in a Nochri court]
43)[line 2]לישתמיט מיניהLISHTAMIT MINEI- should avoid it
44)[line 3]דריע מזליהD'RI'A MAZALEI- for it is [a month] of ill fortune
45)[line 3]ולימצי נפשיהV'LIMTZI NAFSHEI- and make himself available
46)[line 3]דבריא מזליהD'VARYA MAZALEI- for it is [a month] of good fortune
47)[line 4]"לתת לכם אחרית ותקוה""LASES LA'CHEM ACHARIS V'SIKVAH"- "[For I know that which I am thinking about you, says HaSh-m; thoughts of peace, and not for evil,] to grant you a hopeful future." (Yirmeyahu 29:11) - This Derashah and the next are unrelated to the previous ones; they are mentioned here since they are authored by Rav Yehudah brei d'Rav Shmuel bar Shilas in the name of Rav.
48a)[line 6]דקליםDEKALIM- palm trees (which were abundant in Bavel; see 9b)
b)[line 6]וכלי פשתןKLEI PISHTAN- linen clothing (which were easily obtainable in Bavel)
49)[line 6]"ויאמר ראה ריח בני כריח שדה אשר ברכו ה'""VA'YOMER RE'EH REI'ACH BENI K'REI'ACH SADEH ASHER BERCHO HASH-M"- "[And he (Yakov) approached him (Yitzchak) and he (Yitzchak) said he smelled the scent of his clothes,] and he said, 'See the scent of my son; it is like that of a field that HaSh-m has blessed.'" (Bereishis 27:27) - This was uttered by Yitzchak Avinu when Yaakov entered to receive the blessings in place of Esav.
50)[line 9]שדה של תפוחיםSADEH SHEL TAPUCHIM- an apple orchard. This refers to Gan Eden, which contained the Etz ha'Da'as. That tree was an Esrog tree (which are sometimes referred to as apples). Yakov was wearing the clothing of Esav (which Esav had stolen from Nimrod after murdering him); they had originally belonged to Adam ha'Rishon (TOSFOS DH Shel as explained by the MAHARSHA).
51)[line 12]ולהניחL'HANI'ACH- to place aside [until after Tish'ah b'Av]
52)[line 14]קצרי דבי רבKATZREI D'VEI RAV- launderers employed by Rav
53)[line 17]השבת כולהHA'SHABBOS KULAH- the rest of the week
54)[line 19]חלוקCHALUK- a shirt
55)[line 24]וגיהוץ שלנו ככיבוס שלהןGIHUTZ SHELANU K'CHIBUS SHELAHEN- our ironing [here in Bavel] is [required in order to be] as [effective] as their washing [in Eretz Yisrael, and it is therefore permitted to wash clothing in Bavel without ironing it]
56)[line 25]אין בהם משום גיהוץEIN BA'HEM MISHUM GIHUTZ- there is no prohibition against ironing them
57)[line 29]לפניוLEFANAV- [those days in the week that fall] before Tish'ah b'Av
58)[line 34]מן המנחה ולמעלהMIN HA'MINCHAH UL'MAILAH- after the first six and a half [Halachic] hours of the day [when each hour is one twelfth of the day; this is the equivalent to 12:30 on a day in which sunrise and sunset both occur at 6:00]
59)[line 34]לייט עלהLAYIT ALAH- placed a curse
60)[line 35]אהאA'HA- on [one who washed his clothing on Tish'ah b'Av]
61a)[line 35]קורין שלשהKORIN SHELOSHAH- three read [from a Sefer Torah]
b)[line 36]ומפטיר אחדU'MAFTIR ECHAD- and [the last] one reads the Haftarah
62)[line 39]כסעודת שלמה בשעתוSE'UDAS SHLOMO B'SHA'ATO- the feast of Shlomo ha'Melech in his time [that he was king, when vast amounts of food were served]
63)[line 41]אותה שבת בלבדOSAH SHABBOS BILVAD- that week only [including the days following Tish'ah b'Av]
64)[line 42]אבלEVEL- mourning
65)[last line]"והשבתי כל משושה חגה חדשה ושבתה וכל מועדה""VA'HISHBATI KOL MESOSAH, CHAGAH, CHADSHAH V'SHABATAH" - " And I will negate all its joyfulness, its Chagim (Pesach, Shavuos, and Sukos), its Rosh Chodashim, its Shabbasos, [and its festivals (Rosh Hashanah, Yom Kippur, and Shemini Atzeres).]" (Hoshea 2:13) (REMOVING THE DIVINE BLESSING FROM YOM TOV)
(a)The people were exploiting the Yamim Tovim, celebrating them in honor of Avodah Zarah, the Malbim explains. Why did they do that? They believed that the blessings on those days emanated from the stars, in which case they would be blessed with success.
(b)How did HaSh-m respond? He withdrew His blessings from those days, so that all their efforts were doomed to failure.