[26a - 36 lines; 26b - 47 lines]
1)[line 2]לבי כנישתא דאבי גוברL'VEI CHENISHTA D'ABEI GOVAR- a very large synagogue that was located in the Techum of Mavrachta, a caravan station and market near Mechoza
PEREK #4 BI'SHELOSHAH PERAKIM
(a)Our Mishnah states that the early prophets divided Bnei Yisrael into 24 groups, or Ma'amados. Each Ma'amad consisted of Kohanim, Leviyim and Yisraelim (according to Rashi; according to the RITVA here, the Ma'amad consisted solely of Yisraelim). The Ma'amados worked in a 24-week rotation in conjunction with the Mishmeros Kehunah (see next entry), and took responsibility for the Korbanos of one week, twice each year.
(b)When each Ma'amad's turn arrived, the Kohanim and Leviyim would travel to the Beis ha'Mikdash to do the divine service. Some of the Yisraelim also traveled to Yerushalayim (or lived there permanently), and it was their duty to be in Yerushalayim during their turn in order to witness and oversee the offering of the Korbenos Tamid and the other public offerings. (According to Rashi DH Korban Musaf, the members of the Ma'amad who were Kohanim actually helped offer the public Korbanos as well.) However, most of the Yisraelim in the Ma'amad stayed in their own cities. It was the role of these Yisraelim to pray that the week's Korbanos should be accepted by HaSh-m. They fasted, and gathered together in the public areas to pray, read special portions of the Torah and recite the special Shemoneh Esreh of Ta'aniyos (see Background to Shabbos 24:1).
(a)The Kohanim were divided into 24 shifts according to their families (Mishmaros), each of which served in the Mikdash for two weeks out of a year. The Mishmaros changed on Shabbos, when the outgoing Mishmar did the Avodah in the morning and the incoming Mishmar did the Avodah in the afternoon.
(b)Every Mishmar was further divided into six Batei Avos, with the Kohanim of each Beis Av serving on a different day of the week. On Shabbos, all the Batei Avos of the Mishmar did the Avodah together (Rashi Menachos 107b). Some contend that the Mishmaros were divided into seven, and not six, groups, and only one group served on Shabbos (Rashi, Ta'anis here — for more on this, see Insights to Shekalim 18:1).
(c)The 24 Mishmaros, as listed in Divrei ha'Yamim I 24:7-18, are:
4)[line 28]זמן עצי כהנים והעםZEMAN ATZEI CHOHANIM VEHA'AM (KORBAN ETZIM)
(a)Certain families donated wood to the Beis ha'Mikdash for burning sacrifices when the second Beis ha'Mikdash was built and wood was needed. In recognition of the Mitzvah they did at the time, those families and their descendants were granted the privilege of bringing wood to the Beis ha'Mikdash at certain appointed times during the year, as described in Nechemyah 10:35.
(b)The day they were to bring their Korban Etzim, the appointed family would bring Olos Nedavah to be sacrificed on the Mizbe'ach. That day was considered a personal Yom Tov for the family; the custom was to not fast, deliver a eulogy, or engage in Melachah. (RAMBAM Hilchos Klei ha'Mikdash 6:9)
(c)The families who brought Korban Etzim and the times at which they brought their Korban Etzim are listed in our Mishnah.
5)[line 32]מי שטעה בשבטוMI SHE'TA'AH V'SHIVTO- anyone who did not know to which tribe or family he belonged
6a)[line 32]ובני גונבי עליBNEI GONVEI ELI- the descendants of "the deceivers [who tricked the guards] with a pestle"
b)[line 32]ובני קוצעי קציעותU'VNEI KOTZ'EI KETZI'OS- and the descendants of "those who cut cakes of dry figs" (the Gemara (28a) explains the sources of these strange nicknames)
7)[line 1]והובקעה העירHUVKE'AH HA'IR- the wall of Yerushalayim was breached (just before the Churban Bayis Sheni)
8)[line 2]אפוסטמוסAFOSTEMUS- probably an officer of Antiyochus
9)[line 5]ביתרBEITAR- a town to the southwest of Yerushalayim, renowned as the center of the Bar Kochva rebellion
10)[line 11]ישנהYESHANEH- he should act differently (and eat less than usual or in a more modest manner)
11)[line 12]בכפיית המטהKEFIYAS HA'MITAH- turning over one's bed (so that he may not sleep in it)
12)[line 17]וחולותV'CHOLOS- and dance
13)[line 18]"שקר החן והבל היפי אשה יראת ה' היא תתהלל. תנו לה מפרי ידיה ויהללוה בשערים מעשיה""SHEKER HA'CHEN V'HEVEL HA'YOFI, ISHAH YIR'AS HASH-M HI SIS'HALAL. TENU LAH MI'PRI YADEHAH, VI'HALELUHA BA'SHE'ARIM MA'ASEHAH"- "Grace is false and beauty is vain, a woman who has Yir'as Shamayim — she is praiseworthy. Give her [reward] for the work of her hands and her good deeds will praise her in the gates." (Mishlei 31:29-30)
14)[line 20]"צאינה וראינה בנות ציון במלך שלמה בעטרה שעטרה לו אמו ביום חתנתו וביום שמחת לבו""TZE'ENAH U'RE'ENAH BENOS TZIYON BA'MELECH SHLOMO, BA'ATARAH SHE'ITRAH LO IMO B'YOM CHASUNASO UV'YOM SIMCHAS LIBO"- "Go out and see, daughters of Zion, the king Shlomo, the crown which his mother made for him on the day of his wedding and on the day when his heart rejoiced." (Shir ha'Shirim 3:11).
15a)[line 36]הלכהHALACHAH- we teach publicly that Rebbi Meir's ruling is to be followed
b)[line 37]נהגו העם כרבי מאירNAHAGU HA'AM K'REBBI MEIR- the people on their own conduct themselves according to the words of Rebbi Meir; i.e. we do not even tell an individual to follow his ruling, but we neither rebuke someone who rules according to his opinion nor revoke the results
c)[line 37]מנהגMINHAG- the accepted custom; i.e. we tell an individual to follow his ruling, but this is not taught publicly
16)[line 38]דרשינן לה בפירקאDARSHINAN LAH B'FIRKA- we teach it publicly at a Derashah (public lecture)
17)[line 39]אורויי מורינןOROYEI MORINAN- we tell an individual who asks us to follow Rebbi Meir's ruling, but this is not taught publicly
18)[line 46]בחרצןCHARTZAN- a grape seed