THE TORAH PORTIONS READ DURING THE MA'AMAD (cont.)
The Mishnah said that the larger sections would be read by two people, the smaller by one,
...at Shacharis, at Musaf and at Minchah, everyone would recite it for themselves.
Question: Does this mean that the reading would be done at Shacharis and Musaf, and at Minchah everyone would recite it themselves, or does it mean that it would be done at Shacharis, and at Musaf and Minchah everyone would recite it themselves?
Answer: A Beraisa states the latter.
(R. Yosi): An individual may not recite Torah by heart in public; rather, everyone would recite it together.
The Mishnah said that on any day where there was a Korban Eitzim, there was no Ma'amad for Ne'ilah.
Question: Why did it push aside the Ma'amad of Ne'ilah, but not that of Minchah?
Answer: Minchah is d'Oraisa, Ne'ilah is d'Rabanan.
THE DAYS OF THE WOOD-DONORS
The Mishnah said that there were seven occasions when people would donate wood for the pyres and bring Korbanos.
(Beraisa): These people donated wood when the returnees from Bavel did not find wood in the Lishkah.
The Nevi'im decreed that even when the Lishkah would have wood, these people should still be privileged to donate it.
Two of the groups mentioned are the pestle-smugglers and the fig-harvesters:
A decree was once passed that the Jews could not bring wood for the pyre or Bikkurim to Jerusalem, and guards were placed on the routes (like those of Yeravam).
Certain righteous people outwitted the guards by placing the Bikkurim in baskets and covering them with figs, claiming that they were to be processed with their pestle and mortars.
It is taught that the ladder-people acted similarly.
A decree was once passed that the Jews could not bring wood for the pyre and guards were stationed.
The God-fearing men made the wood into ladders and told the guards that they were going to take birds from the dovecotes.
Regarding such people, the Pasuk says that "the Tzadik is remembered for blessing."
Regarding Yeravam ben Nevat and company, the Pasuk states that "the name of the wicked shall rot."
The Mishnah listed the Bnei Pachas Moav ben Yehudah as another group.
(R. Meir): These are the descendants of King David (Pachas Moav=Ruth).
(R. Yosi): They are the descendants of Yoav (a descendant of Ruth).
The Mishnah listed the Bnei Adin ben Yehudah as another group.
(R. Yehudah): These are the descendants of King David (Adin, soft and humble).
(R. Yosi): They are the descendants of Yoav.
Question: Who is the Mishnah, which singles out the Bnei Parosh as having an additional wood-donating day, following?
It cannot be R. Meir, as he would hold that the Bnei David (i.e. the Bnei Pachas Moav) also had another day.
It cannot be R. Yehudah, as he would hold that the Bnei David (i.e. the Bnei Adin) also had another day.
It cannot be R. Yosi, as he would hold that the Bnei Yoav (Bnei Pachas and Bnei Adin) also had two days.
Answer: It follows R. Yosi, and there is a dispute as to whether he held that Bnei Pachas were Bnei Yoav or Bnei Adin were Bnei Yoav.
PUSHING ASIDE THE MA'AMAD
Question: Why did the Mishnah say that Hallel at Shacharis pushes aside the Ma'amad for Shacharis, whereas a Korban Musaf pushes aside the Ma'amad for Minchah?
Answer: If the Korban Musaf pushes aside the Ma'amad for a different Tefillah, it certainly pushes aside the Ma'amad for its own Tefillah as well.
Question: The intent of the question was, let it only push aside the Ma'amad of Musaf?
Answer: Such indeed is the opinion of R. Yosi, who said that on any day where there is Musaf, there is a Ma'amad:
This cannot refer to the Ma'amad of Shacharis, as then it would be identical to the Tana Kama's view.
It cannot refer to the Ma'amad of Musaf, because it is impossible that it wouldn't push aside its own Ma'amad.
So it must mean that there is a Ma'amad of Minchah and Ne'ilah.
Question: Why did not the Mishnah also say that on the 1st of Nisan there was no Ma'amad, as there was Hallel, Korban Musaf and Korban Eitzim?
Answer: We see here that Hallel on Rosh Chodesh is not d'Oraisa:
There are eighteen days when we say the whole Hallel: eight of Sukos, eight of Chanukah, one of Pesach and one of Shavuos.
In the Diaspora, there are twenty-one days: nine of Sukos, eight of Chanukah, two of Pesach and two of Shavuos.
When Rav saw Hallel recited on Rosh Chodesh in Bavel, he was going to stop it.
But when he saw that they skipped paragraphs, he realized that it was only a custom.
(Beraisa): An individual should not begin Hallel on Rosh Chodesh; but if he did, he should finish it.
THE TRAGEDIES OF THE 17TH OF TAMUZ
Question: The Mishnah said that the Luchos were broken on the 17th of Tamuz - how do we know this?
Answer: From the following Beraisa:
(Tana Kama): The Ten Commandments were given on the sixth of Sivan.
(R. Yosi): They were given on the seventh.
According to both, Moshe went up that day to get the Luchos.
He was there for forty days, descending on the 17th and smashing the Luchos.
That the Tamid was annulled on the 17th of Tamuz is known from a received tradition.
Question: The Mishnah said that the walls of Yerushalayim were breached on the 17th of Tamuz; but the Pesukim say that it was on the ninth!?
Answer: In the time of the first Beis ha'Mikdash, they were breached on the ninth; in the second, on the seventeenth.
That Apostemus burned a Torah on the 17th of Tamuz is known from a received tradition.
That an idol was placed in the Heichal on the 17th of Tamuz is known from a Pasuk about the abomination.
Question: Another Pasuk refers to two of them!?
Answer: Two were placed there, and one fell and broke the other's hand.