[12a - 33 lines; 12b - 49 lines]
1)[line 5]אנשי משמרANSHEI MISHMAR
(a)The Kohanim were divided into 24 shifts according to their families (Mishmaros), each of which served in the Mikdash for two weeks out of a year. The Mishmaros changed on Shabbos, when the outgoing Mishmar did the Avodah in the morning and the incoming Mishmar did the Avodah in the afternoon. Every Mishmar was further divided into six Batei Avos, with the Kohanim of each Beis Av serving on a different day of the week. On Shabbos, all the Batei Avos of the Mishmar did the Avodah together (see also Insights to Shekalim 18:1).
(b)On the Shalosh Regalim (the holidays of Pesach, Shavuos, and Sukos) all of the Mishmaros Kehunah came to Yerushalayim to fulfill the Mitzvah of Aliyah l'Regel. At those times, Kohanim from any Mishmar were permitted to do the Avodah of the Regel.
2)[line 8](סנאב) [סנאה] בן בנימין(SENA'AV) [SENA'AH] BEN BINYAMIN (KORBAN ETZIM)
(a)Sena'ah, of the tribe of Binyamin, was the name of the head of one of the families who brought Korban Etzim.
(b)Certain families donated wood to the Beis ha'Mikdash for burning sacrifices when the second Beis ha'Mikdash was built and wood was needed. In recognition of the Mitzvah they did at the time, those families and their descendants were granted the privilege of bringing wood to the Beis ha'Mikdash at certain appointed times during the year, as described in Nechemyah 10:35.
(c)On the day they were to bring their Korban Etzim, the appointed family would bring Olos Nedavah to be offered on the Mizbe'ach. That day was considered a personal Yom Tov for the family; the custom was not to fast, deliver a eulogy, or engage in Melachah. (RAMBAM Hilchos Klei ha'Mikdash 6:9)
(d)The families who brought Korban Etzim and the times at which they brought their Korban Etzim are listed in Ta'anis 26a.
3)[line 14]לשמוטיה נפשיה מבי נשיאהL'SHAMUTEI NAFSHEI MI'BEI NESI'AH- to avoid having to eat with the household of the Nasi
4)[line 15]אמר שמואל כל תענית שלא קיבל עליו מבעוד יום לאו שמיה תעניתAMAR SHMUEL, KOL TA'ANIS SHE'LO KIBEL ALAV MIB'OD YOM, LAV SHMEI TA'ANIS- Shmuel does not necessarily disagree with Rav Huna who holds that one can fast a "Ta'anis Sha'os."
5)[line 17]דמי למפוחא דמליא זיקאDAMI L'MAPUCHA D'MALYA ZIKA- he is like a bellows that is filled with air, i.e. he accomplishes nothing
6)[line 21]להןLAHEN- but
7)[line 21]דייתי עלוהי מקדמת דנאD'YESEI ALOHI MI'KADMAS DENA- who has a previous obligation to fast from beforehand
8)[line 22]ייסר עצמו בצלוYISAR ATZMO BI'TZELO- he should bind himself with a vow when he prays [Minchah]
9)[line 22]ייסר עצמוYE'ASER ATZMO- it shall be forbidden for him to eat
10a)[line 28]עמוד השחרAMUD HA'SHACHAR- dawn
b)[line 29]קרות הגברKEROS HA'GEVER- the time that the rooster starts to crow (earlier than dawn)
11)[line 31]כשלא סילקKESHE'LO SILEK- when he (or the attendant) did not yet remove the table (upon which he ate)
12)[last line]במתנמנםB'MISNAMNEM- when he was dozing
13a)[line 1]נים ולא ניםNIM V'LO NIM- dozing, but not dozing
b)[line 1]תיר ולא תירTIR V'LO TIR- awake, but not awake
14)[line 1]דקרו ליה ועניD'KARU LEI V'ANI- they call him and he answers
15)[line 1]ולא ידע אהדורי סבראV'LO YADA L'AHADUREI SEVARA- and he is unable to answer a question that requires contemplative thought
16)[line 2]וכי מדכרי ליה מדכרV'CHI MADKEREI LEI, MIDKAR- and when they remind him [about what he heard], he remembers
17)[line 5]היכי ליעבדHEICHI LI'AVAD- how can he declare that he is only fasting a Ta'anis Yachid, and not a Ta'anis Tzibur, so that he will be permitted to wear shoes
18)[line 8]דמסיימי מסנייהוD'MESAIMEI MESANAIHU- who put on their shoes
19)[line 9]לבי תעניתאBEI TA'ANISA- the assembly place for the fast
20)[line 9]איקפדIKPAD- he became irritated
21)[line 11]אפנתאAPANTA- (a) (O.F. escarpet) a light-weight shoe (RASHI); (b) a shoe without a sole (TOSFOS)
22)[line 11]מחלפי דימינאMECHALFEI D'YAMINA LI'SMALA- would switch their right and left shoes
23)[line 16]לוה אדם תעניתו ופורעLOVEH ADAM TA'ANISO U'FORE'A- (lit. a person may borrow his fast, and pay it back [at a later time]) a person may eat on the day that he intended to fast, and fast instead on a different day
24)[line 24]לשלומי ומיזל למחר וליומא אחרינאLI'SHLUMEI U'MEIZAL L'MACHAR UL'YOMA ACHARINA- to pay off his debt tomorrow or another day
25)[line 25]איקלעIKLA- came, visited
26)[line 26]עגלא תילתאIGLA TILTA- (a) a third-grown calf (that has reached one-third of its full growth and is particularly tasty) (RASHI Eruvin 63a); (b) a calf that has reached one-third of its expected lifespan, at which time it has reached its full growth (RASHI Sanhedrin 65b); (c) a calf that is a cow's third offspring which is well developed and fat (RASHI ibid., Shabbos 11a, Pesachim 68b); (d) a calf that is healthy and good to eat (TOSFOS Gitin 56a). See Insights to Shabbos 136:1.
27)[line 28]ולוזיף מר וליפרעV'LOZIF MAR, V'LIFRA- let the master (Rav Yehoshua the son of Rav Idi) borrow the fast (eat today), and pay back [by fasting at a later time]
28)[line 32]כאש לנעורתK'ESH LI'NE'ORES- like fire is to thoroughly beaten flax
29)[line 33]מאי תקנתיה?MAI TAKANTEI?- what can one do to amend for fasting on Shabbos?
30)[line 33]ליתיב תעניתא לתעניתאLEISIV TA'ANISA L'TA'ANISA- he should fast on Sunday to atone for fasting on Shabbos
31)[line 34]אוכלין ושותין מבעוד יוםOCHLIN V'SHOSIN MI'B'OD YOM- it is only permissible to eat and drink on the previous day (before nightfall)
32)[line 38]מתריעיןMASRI'IN- they blow the Shofar (with blasts of Teki'ah, Teru'ah, Teki'ah) during the repetition of Shemoneh Esreh, as described in the Mishnah of the second Perek
33)[line 38]מטיןMATIN- they open the doors a little (of stores that sell food)
34)[line 41]הנזופין למקוםHA'NEZUFIN LA'MAKOM- that have been scorned by the Omnipresent
35)[line 42]"הלוא קציר חטים היום אקרא אל ה' ויתן קלות ומטר ודעו וראו כי רעתכם רבה אשר עשיתם בעיני ה' לשאול לכם מלך""HA'LO KETZIR CHITIM HA'YOM EKRA EL HASH-M V'YITEN KOLOS U'MATAR U'DE'U U'RE'U KI RA'ASCHEM RABAH ASHER ASISEM B'EINEI HASH-M LI'SH'OL LACHEM MELECH" - "Also now stand and see this great thing that HaSh-m is going to do before your very eyes. Is today not the time of the wheat-harvest? I will call to HaSh-m, and He will send thunder and rain, and know and see that the evil that you did by asking for yourselves a king is very great in the eyes of HaSh-m." (Shmuel I 12:17) (SHMUEL REBUKES THE PEOPLE FOR REQUESTING A KING)
36)[line 44]"קדשו צום...""KADSHU TZOM..."- "Sanctify a fast, proclaim a solemn assembly, gather the elders and all the inhabitants of the land into the house of HaSh-m your G-d, and cry out to HaSh-m." (Yoel 1:14)
37)[line 46]מטיהראTIHARA- noon
38)[line 46]ואימא מטיהראV'EIMA MI'TIHARA- (Rashi was not Gores these words; see RITVA and GEVUROS ARI)
39)[line 47]מצפרא כינופיאMI'TZAFRA KINUFYA- the assembly of the people is from the morning
40)[line 48]מעיינינן במילי דמתאME'AININAN B'MILEI D'MASA- (a) we examine the deeds of the city [to amend any reprehensible acts, such as theft] (RASHI); (b) to abolish sins and to warn and isolate thieves and sinners and to humble powerful people (who use their power corruptly) (SHULCHAN ARUCH 577:16 citing the RAMBAM)
41)[line 48]קרינן בספרא ואפטרתאKARINAN B'SIFRA V'AFTARTA- we read in the Sefer Torah ("va'Yechal," Shemos 32:11) and in the Haftarah from the Prophets ("Dirshu," Yeshayah 55:6)
42)[line 49]"ויקומו על עמדם ויקראו בספר תורת ה' אלקיהם רבעית היום ורבעית מתודים ומשתחוים לה' אלקיהם""VA'YAKUMU AL AMDAM VA'YIKRE'U B'SEFER TORAS HASH-M ELOKEIHEM REVI'IS HA'YOM, U'REVI'IS HA'YOM MISVADIM U'MISHTACHAVIM LA'HASH-M ELOKEIHEM" - "And the people remained in their places and they read in the Book of the Torah of HaSh-m their G-d for a quarter of the day, and for the next quarter of the day they confessed and prostrated themselves before HaSh-m their G-d." (Nechemyah 9:3) (YISRAEL REPENTS)
(a)Following their first magnificent Sukos after returning from Galus Bavel (see Sukah 12a), the people confess and sincerely repent for their past sins, primarily for their close relationship with their heathen neighbors and non-Jewish wives.
(b) The rest of the chapter comprises a long Tefilah recited by Yeshu'a and his fellow Leviyim, incorporating a large section of the Pesukei d'Zimrah that we recite daily.