[2a - 39 lines; 2b - 47 lines]
1)[line 2]מזכירין גבורות גשמיםMAZKIRIN GEVUROS GESHAMIM- we make mention of the might of [HaSh-m as is evidenced from that which He sends the] rains. This refers to the reciting of the phrase, "Morid ha'Geshem" in the second Berachah of Shemoneh Esrei.
2a)[line 3]מיום טוב הראשון של חגYOM TOV HA'RISHON SHEL CHAG- the first day of Sukos
b)[line 4]מיום טוב האחרון של חגYOM TOV HA'ACHARON SHEL CHAG- the day following Sukos; Shemini Atzeres
3)[line 7]לשאולLI'SH'OL- to request [that HaSh-m send rain, through the recitation of "v'Sen Tal u'Matar li'Verachah" in the ninth Berachah of Shemoneh Esrei (Birkas ha'Shanim)]
4)[line 7]משיב הרוח ומוריד הגשם בעונתוMASHIV HA'RU'ACH U'MORID HA'GESHEM B'ONASO- [that HaSh-m] causes the wind to blow and the rain to fall at the proper time
5)[line 10]העובר לפני התיבהHA'OVER LI'FNEI HA'TEIVAH- (lit. he who passes before the Ark) the Shali'ach Tzibur; he who leads the congregation in prayer
6a)[line 11]האחרוןHA'ACHARON- the Chazan for Musaf
b)[line 12]הראשוןHA'RISHON- the Chazan for Shacharis
7)[line 14]תנא היכא קאיTANA HEICHA KA'I- what source does the author of our Mishnah rely upon [which states that "Morid ha'Geshem" should be recited]
8a)[line 15]בתחיית המתיםTECHIYAS HA'MESIM- "The Resurrection of the Dead;" the second Berachah of Shemoneh Esrei
b)[line 16]בברכת השניםBIRCHAS HA'SHANIM- "The Blessing of the Years;" the ninth Berachah of Shemoneh Esrei
c)[line 17]בחונן הדעתCHONEN HA'DA'AS- "He Who Grants Knowledge;" the fourth Berachah of Shemoneh Esrei
9)[line 16]והבדלהHAVDALAH- [the prayer which delineates the] distinction [between Shabbos and all other days of the week, among other things; it is recited on Motza'ei Shabbos]
10)[line 18]דשבקיהSHAVKEI- it was left
11)[line 19]סליקSALIK- left off
12)[line 24]"[עשה גדלות ואין חקר נפלאות עד אין מספר.] הנתן מטר על פני ארץ ושלח מים על פני חוצות""[OSEH GEDOLOS V'EIN CHEKER NIFLA'OS AD EIN MISPAR.] HA'NOSEN MATAR AL PNEI ARETZ, V'SHOLE'ACH MAYIM AL PNEI CHUTZOS"- "[He performs incomprehensibly great actions and innumerable wonders.] He places rain upon Eretz Yisrael, and delivers water to [lands] outside [of Eretz Yisrael]" (Iyov 5:9-10).
13)[line 27]אתיא חקר חקרASYA CHEKER CHEKER (GEZEIRAH SHAVAH)
(a)In a Beraisa found in the introduction to the Sifra (the Halachic Midrash on Vayikra), Rebbi Yishmael lists the thirteen methodologies employed by Chazal when determining Halachah from the verses of the Torah. One of these is Gezeirah Shavah, through which two identical words (or two words that share the same root) appearing in two different sections of the Torah teach us that Halachos of one apply to the other and vice versa.
(b)One may apply a Gezeirah Shavah only if he has received a tradition from his teachers that the connection between the two words exists. Once the connection is established, however, then one may apply it to derive Halachos that one did not necessarily receive a tradition for.
(c)A Gezeirah Shavah is unlimited; one may not pick and choose which Halachos he would like to apply to the other connected subject. This facet of a Gezeirah Shavah is termed "Ein Gezeirah Shavah l'Mechetzah". This rule is waived in the case of an explicit teaching that precludes the application of a specific Halachah.
(d)There are three possible configurations for a Gezeirah Shavah:
1.MUFNEH MI'SHNEI TZEDADIM - If both words are seemingly unnecessary and are not used in the derivation of any other teaching, then all of the rules described above apply.
2.MUFNEH MI'TZAD ECHAD - If the word in only one of the sections is available, some maintain that such a Gezeirah Shavah is no more limited than one that is Mufneh mi'Shnei Tzedadim. Others rule that Halachos may be derived from such a Gezeirah Shavah only if there is no argument against them. This status is known as "Lemedin u'Meshivin".
3.EINO MUFNEH KOL IKAR - If neither word is free, then those opinions who maintain that a Gezeirah Shavah that is Mufneh mi'Tzad Echad is unlimited grant such a Gezeirah Shavah the status of Lemedin u'Meshivin. Those who applied Lemedin u'Meshivin to a Gezeirah Shavah that is Mufneh mi'Shnei Tzedadim rule that this one may not be used to determine any Halachos whatsoever.
14)[line 29]"הלא ידעת אם לא שמעת...""HA'LO YADATA IM LO SHAMATA..."- "For you know [intuitively] - if you have not already heard - that the G-d of the world, HaSh-m, Creator of the ends of the earth, does not tire nor become weary; His understanding is incomprehensible" (Yeshayah 40:28).
15)[line 32]"מכין הרים בכחו נאזר בגבורה""MECHIN HARIM B'CHOCHO; NE'EZAR BI'GEVURAH"- "He readies mountains with His strength; He is fortified with might" (Tehilim 65:7).
16a)[line 35]יורהYOREH- early rains
b)[line 36]ומלקושMALKOSH- late rains
17)[line 37]חיהCHAYAH- a woman in childbirth
18)[line 38]אוצרוOTZARO- His storehouse
19)[line 39]"ויזכר אלקים את רחל; וישמע אליה א-לקים ויפתח את רחמה""VA'YIZKOR EL-KIM ES RACHEL; VA'YISHMA ELEHA EL-KIM..." - "And HaSh-m remembered Rachel and he listened to her (i.e. accepted her prayers)..." (Bereishis 30:22) (HASH-M REMEMBERS RACHEL)
After seven years of childlessness, HaSh-m answered Rachel's prayers and blessed her with a baby. This was mainly due to her wonderful act of Chesed, when she divulged the Simanim which Yakov had told her secretly (Nidah, Chalah, and Hadlakas ha'Ner), to her sister Leah, in order to spare her the embarrassment when Yakov would discover that she was not Rachel but Leah.
20)[line 1]רחמהRACHMA- her womb
21)[line 2]"וידעתם כי אני ה', בפתחי את קברותיכם ובהעלותי אתכם מקברותיכם, עמי""VI'DA'ATEM KI ANI HASH-M, B'FISCHI ES KIVROSEICHEM UV'HA'ALOSI ESCHEM MI'KIVROSEICHEM, AMI" - "Then you will know that I am HaSh-m, when I open your graves and when I raise you up from your graves, My nation" (Yechezkel 37:13) (YECHEZKEL AND TECHIYAS HA'MESIM)
Yechezkel was told to inform Klal Yisrael that HaSh-m would open the graves of His people, resurrect them, and bring them to Eretz Yisrael. He was shown a valley full of dry bones, and instructed to bring them back to life.
22)[line 3]במערבאMA'ARAVA- Eretz Yisrael
23)[line 4]"פותח את ידך [ומשביע לכל חי רצון]""POSE'ACH ES YADECHA [U'MASBI'A L'CHOL CHAI RATZON]"- "You open your hand, [and satisfy the need of every living being]" (Tehilim 145:16)
24a)[line 8]מלולב גמר להMI'LULAV GAMAR LAH (ARBA'AS HA'MINIM)
(a)Every adult Jewish male must hold four types of branches or fruits on the first day of Sukos. These four species consist of Pri Etz Hadar (an Esrog; a citron), Kapos Temarim (a Lulav; a branch from a palm tree cut prior to the opening and spreading of its leaves), Anaf Etz Avos (Hadasim; myrtle branches) and Arvei Nachal (Aravos; willow branches) (Vayikra 23:40). One holds one Esrog, one Lulav, three Hadasim, and two Aravos. The Esrog is held in the left hand, whereas the other three species are held together in the right.
(b)According to Torah law, these species are held only on the first day of Sukos outside of the Beis ha'Mikdash, and all seven days inside the Beis ha'Mikdash. When the Beis ha'Mikdash was destroyed, Rebbi Yochanan ben Zakai decreed that all of Klal Yisrael should take them for all seven days of Sukos in commemoration of the way they were taken in the Beis ha'Mikdash.
(b)Part of the symbolism inherent in the Arba'as ha'Minim, as the Gemara goes on to explain, is that we, as all plants, need water to survive. We therefore beseech HaSh-m to grant us rain, for which Klal Yisrael is judged on Sukos. It therefore stands to reason that the Mitzvah of Arba'as ha'Minim, which begins on the first day of Sukos, serves as the source for Rebbi Eliezer to determine that "Morid ha'Geshem" should be recited on the first day of Sukos.
b)[line 9]מניסוך המים גמר להMI'NISUCH HA'MAYIM GAMAR LAH (NISUCH HA'MAYIM)
(a)One of the ceremonies of the holiday of Sukos in the Beis ha'Mikdash was the Nisuch ha'Mayim (water libation) ceremony, in which water was poured on the Mizbe'ach as a libation instead of wine. Tana'im argue as to whether this ceremony was performed all seven days of Sukos, or only six days (days 2-7) or two days (days 6 and 7). Another opinion holds that it was performed eight days, the seven days of Sukos and Shmini Atzeres (Ta'anis 3a; however see HAGAHOS DIDUKEI SOFRIM ad loc. #3, who suggests that no opinion holds that it was done for only two or six days).
(b)The Nisuch itself was done as follows. Three Lugin of water (approximately 0.9, 1.035 or 1.8 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) was drawn into a golden Tzelochis (flask) at daybreak from the Shilo'ach spring that is located to the south of the Temple Mount and was brought to the Azarah in a joyous procession. When the morning Tamid sacrifice was brought, a Kohen poured the water into one of the "Sefalim" at the top of the Mizbe'ach (the silver libation pipes located in the southwest corner of the Mizbe'ach).
(c)On Shabbos the water could not be drawn and brought to the Beis ha'Mikdash due to the Isur of Hotza'ah (see Background to Menachos 37:37:a-b). The water would therefore be drawn on Erev Shabbos and placed in a golden Kad (jug) that was not sanctified in order that the water should not become Pasul because of Linah (remaining overnight off of the Mizbe'ach; see Background to Me'ilah 6:1).
(d)This ceremony was associated with much rejoicing. On the nights preceding the Nisuch ha'Mayim, people gathered in the Azaros of the Beis ha'Mikdash to rejoice and sing praises to HaSh-m until the morning, when it was time to draw the water. The Leviyim played more musical instruments than usual and the greatest Talmidei Chachamim danced and juggled exultantly. So many torches and lamps were lit in the Mikdash area to provide light for the celebrants that the streets of the nearby city of Yerushalayim were illuminated as bright as day. The Mishnah, describing the Simchas Beis ha'Sho'evah (Sukah 51a), states that anyone who has not seen the rejoicing of the Simchas Beis ha'Sho'evah has not seen rejoicing in his life.
(e)Part of the symbolism inherent in the Nisuch ha'Mayim is a request that HaSh-m judge us favorably and send rain. It therefore stands to reason that the Mitzvah of Nisuch ha'Mayim, which begins on the first day of Sukos, serves as the source for Rebbi Eliezer to determine that "Morid ha'Geshem" should be recited on the first day of Sukos.
25)[line 12]מאורתאME'URTA- occurs at night
26)[line 12]"ומנחתם ונסכיהם...""U'MINCHASAM V'NISKEIHEM..." (NESACHIM)(a) Nesachim are wine libations offered along with a Korban Shelamim or Olah, whether these Korbanos are offered by the Tzibur (Bamidbar 28:11-15, 20-21) or an individual (Bamidbar 15:3-16). All Nesachim are offered along with a meal offering known as a Minchas Nesachim.
(b)The amount of wine necessary for the libation, as well as the amount of flour and oil mixed together for the Minchas Nesachim, vary depending upon what kind of animal is being offered.
(c)The words quoted in our Gemara are written regarding the Korban Musaf of the second day of Sukos. They refer to the Nesachim and accompanying Minchah offering of the Korban.
27)[line 15]גמרא גמיר להGEMARA GAMIR LAH- received it as a tradition
28)[line 19]משעת הנחתוMI'SHA'AS HANACHASO- from the time that it is set down. This refers to either the seventh day of Sukos or Shemini Atzeres; see Insights
29)[line 20]לרצותL'RATZOS- to curry favor
30)[line 28]אם בא להזכירIM BA L'HAZKIR- if he wishes to mention it
31a)[line 39]דכולי יומא זמניה הואD'CHULEI YOMA ZEMANEI HU- for any point of [any given] day is [potentially] the time designated [for the Resurrection of the Dead]
b)[line 39]כל אימת דאתיין זמנייהו היא?KOL EIMAS D'ASYAN ZIMNAIHU HI?- is any time that it arrives a suitable time?
32)[line 41]"הלוא קציר חטים היום, אקרא אל ה' ויתן קלות ומטר; ודעו וראו כי רעתכם רבה אשר עשיתם בעיני ה', לשאול לכם מלך""HA'LO KETZIR CHITIM HA'YOM, EKRA EL HASH-M VA'YITEN KOLOS U'MATAR; U'DE'U U'RE'U KI RA'ASCHEM RABAH ASHER ASISEM B'EINEI HASH-M, LI'SH'OL LACHEM MELECH" - " Take note that today is the wheat harvest season. I shall call to HaSh-m and He will produce thunder and rain; and you will know and see that the evil that you have done is great in the eyes of HaSh-m, namely, that which you have requested for yourselves a king" (Shmuel I 12:17) (KLAL YISRAEL REQUESTS A KING)
(a)Following the period of the Shoftim (judges) and the period during which Shmuel ha'Navi led Klal Yisrael, the nation decided that they desired a king. They brought their request to Shmuel.
(b)Shmuel felt strongly that this was the wrong direction to take. He considered it an act of rebellion against HaSh-m, who was Klal Yisrael's true and only King, as well as against himself, as he had led them faithfully for almost fifty years. Sharply rebuking Klal Yisrael, Shmuel reminded them of the faithfulness and loyalty of their earlier leaders, and of the miracles that HaSh-m had wrought through them. Clearly, it was not necessary to have a king for effective leadership!
(c)To make his point, Shmuel requested that HaSh-m demonstrate His displeasure. Shmuel requested a thunderstorm in the middle of the summer, when it was unseasonable and a bad sign for the harvest.
33)[line 43]נאמר בשני ונסכיהםNE'EMAR B'SHENI V'NISKEIHEM... (KORBENOS MUSAF OF SUKOS)
(a)Following the Korban Tamid, additional (Musaf) offerings are brought as public offerings on Shabbos, Rosh Chodesh, and the festivals. These are purchased with public funds and are generally Korbenos Olah. Many of them atone for specific sins.
(b)The Korbenos Musaf offered on Sukos consist of two rams and fourteen sheep as Korbenos Olah, along with one goat as a Chatas. Additionally, thirteen bulls are offered the first day as Korbenos Olah, twelve bulls on the second, eleven bulls on the third, ten on the fourth, nine on the fifth, eight on the sixth, and seven on the seventh.
(c)On Shemini Atzeres, the Korban Musaf is similar to that of Sukos, although fewer animals of each kind are offered. Only one ram and seven sheep are offered as Korbenos Olah, and just one goat is offered as a Chatas. Instead of six bulls as Korbenos Olah (which would fit the pattern of the previous days), only one bull is offered (Bamidbar 28:12-39).
(d)The Midrash Rabah and the Zohar explain that the bulls offered on the seven days of Sukos total seventy, and these represent the seventy nations of the world. On Shemini Atzeres, HaSh-m wishes to be secluded with Klal Yisrael in a private celebration, as it were. The one bull offered represents His chosen nation alone.
(e)The Torah uses the same formula to describe the Korbenos Musaf of each of the seven days of Sukos. In this formula, the verses refer to the Nesachim and accompanying Minchah offering of the daily Korban Tamid as "its Minchah and Nesachim." This phrase includes the word "v'Niskah," except for the description of the second day, in which it appears as "v'Niskeihem" - "their Nesachim" - and that of the sixth day in which it appears as "u'Nesacheha" - "and its [multiple] Nesachim." Additionally, the Nesachim and accompanying Minchah offering offered along with each animal are described as "according to the law." This word appears as "ka'Mishpat" in the description of every day other than the seventh, in which it appears as "k'Mishpatam" - "according to their law." These changes result in an extra "Mem" written in the second and seventh days, and an extra "Yud" in the sixth, spelling the word "Mayim," an allusion to the water libations of Sukos.
34)[line 46]מדכרינןMADCHERINAN- we mention ["Morid ha'Geshem"]
35)[last line]דחמראCHAMRA- wine