[13a - 40 lines; 13b - 48 lines]

1)[line 1]איפוך אנאEIPUCH ANA- perhaps it should be the other way around [with the first half of the fast split between reading from the Torah and Haftarah and prayer, and the second half spent in communal introspection]

2)[line 2]"ואלי יאספו כל חרד בדברי אלקי ישראל על מעל הגולה [ואני ישב משומם עד למנחת הערב. ובמנחת הערב קמתי מתעניתי ובקרעי בגדי ומעילי ואכרעה על ברכי ואפרשה כפי אל ה' אלקי]""V'ELAI YE'ASFU KOL CHARED B'DIVREI ELOKEI YISRAEL AL MA'AL HA'GOLAH, [VA'ANI YOSHEV MESHOMEM AD L'MINCHAS HA'AREV. UV'MINCHAS HA'EREV KAMTI MI'TA'ANISI, UV'KAR'I VIGDI U'ME'ILI, VA'ECHRE'AH AL BIRKAI, VA'EFRESAH CHAPAI EL HASH-M ELOKAI.]" - "And all who trembled at the word of the G-d of Yisrael gathered around me to remove the sin committed in exile, [and I was sitting speechless until midafternoon. And in midafternoon I arose from my fast, my clothes and my coat torn, and I knelt on my knees and spread out my hands to HaSh-m my G-d.]" (Ezra 9:4-5) (EZRA REACTS TO THE SIN OF INTERMARRIAGE)

(a)Word reached Ezra ha'Sofer, the leader of the Jews returning to Eretz Yisrael to rebuild the Beis ha'Mikdash, that many in Klal Yisrael had assimilated to the point of intermarrying with their heathen neighbors. This group included Kohanim, Leviyim, and even princes and leaders of the nation.

(b)Ezra followed these actions with a fervent prayer, confessing the sin of Klal Yisrael. The sinners wept bitterly with him, and resolved to mend their ways.

3)[line 5]כל שהוא משום אבלKOL SHE'HU MISHUM EVEL- any [Rabbinically ordained fast upon which washing is forbidden] due to [that which we are in] mourning

4)[line 6]אבלAVEL (AVEILUS: SHIV'AH U'SHELOSHIM)

(a)One who loses his father, mother, brother, sister, son, daughter, or spouse is obligated to bury his dead relative and then observe specific laws of mourning. Until the burial, one has the status of an Onen (see Background to Yoma 13:23). After the burial, his status changes to that of an Avel.

(b)For the following twelve months, an Avel may not buy new clothing nor attend weddings or other celebrations. For the first thirty days, in addition to these restrictions, he may not receive a haircut nor iron his clothing. Additionally, for the first seven days, he must refrain from bathing and washing his clothing.

5a)[line 6]בחמיןCHAMIN- hot water

b)[line 7]בצונןTZONEN- cold water

6)[line 7]משום תענוגMI'SHUM TA'ANUG- so as [to refrain from] pleasure [in order to create an environment more conducive to dong Teshuvah]

7)[line 10]סוכרין את הנהרות מבעי ליה למיתני?!SOCHRIN ES HA'NEHAROS MIBA'EI LEI L'MISNEI?!- should our Mishnah then have taught that we dam the rivers?! (Since this is obviously impossible, what can be inferred from the fact that the Mishnah details the only possible option?)

8)[line 15]חייבי טבילותCHAYVEI TEVILOS (NIDAH, YOLEDES)

(a)NIDAH

1.By Torah Law, a woman is a Nidah for seven days following her period. It makes no difference whether she saw blood only one time or for the entire seven days. At the end of seven days, after nightfall, she may immerse in a Mikvah to become Tehorah.

2.One may not have relations nor engage in intimate contact with his wife while she is a Nidah. The Chachamim enacted many far-ranging additional ways in which one must keep his distance from his wife when she is Teme'ah.

(b)YOLEDES

1.Following birth, a woman may not enter the Beis ha'Mikdash nor eat Kodshim immediately. How long she must wait is divided into two stages: (1) During the initial stage, she has the status of a Nidah, whether or not she has had a show of blood. If she gave birth to a boy, this lasts for seven days. If she had a girl, this stage lasts for two weeks. At the end of this period, she may go to the Mikvah. (2) During the second stage, a show of blood does not render her a Nidah as it normally would. Such blood is termed Dam Tohar. (The current practice is to consider a woman a Nidah even during the period of Dam Tohar; see Insights to Nidah 25:2.) She must still refrain from eating Kodshim or entering the Beis ha'Mikdash during this period, however. This status lasts for an additional thirty-three days after the birth of a boy, and sixty-six days after the birth of a girl. Thus, the total waiting period following the birth of a boy is forty days and following that of a girl, eighty days.

2.Once these stages conclude, the new mother offers a Korban Yoledes. This Korban consists of a male sheep offered as a Korban Olah and either a turtledove or common dove offered as a Korban Chatas. If she cannot afford a sheep, she may offer two turtledoves or two common doves, one as an Olah and one as a Chatas. At this point she may eat Kodshim and enter the Beis ha'Mikdash.

(c)Rashi lists these two as the only examples of those who must immerse themselves in a Mikvah discussed in our Beraisa. Presumably this is because the Beraisa discusses Tish'ah b'Av, and is therefore set in a time following the destruction of the Beis ha'Mikdash. A Nidah and a Yoledes are the only individuals who retain their obligation to immerse in a Mikvah even when they are Tamei, as all are following the destruction of the Beis ha'Mikdash.

9)[line 18]שאובין נינהוSHE'UVIN NINHU (MIKVAH)

(a)If a person (or utensil) becomes Tamei, then he (or it) must be immersed in either a Mikvah (a cavity of gathered rainwater) or a spring as part of the purification process.

(b)A Mikvah must contain at least forty Se'ah of rainwater for it to be Metaher. This is equal to approximately 288, 331.78 or 576 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions.

(c)Rainwater cannot be Metaher when it is flowing. This is derived from the verse which describes a "Mikvei Mayim" - an accumulation of water (Vayikra 11:36). Furthermore, the rainwater in the Mikvah must have fallen into it directly or have flown into it along the ground. Any water that has been drawn in a vessel is termed "Mayim She'uvin" and is disqualified for use as a Mikvah. After a Mikvah has forty Se'ah in it already, Mayim She'uvin may be added. If three Lugin (approximately 36, 41.47, or 72 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) are added prior to that stage, however, then they render the Mikvah invalid.

(c)Our Gemara assumes that a Mikvah containing heated water must be She'uvin, since the only way to heat the water would be to first place it in pots over a fire and then pour it back into the Mikvah.

10)[line 20]לא נצרכה אלא לחמי טבריאLO NITZRECHAH ELA L'CHAMEI TEVERYA- the purpose [of the Beraisa] is [to teach that a Nidah or Yoledes may not immerse themselves in] the hot springs of Tiberias

11)[line 21]סגן הכהניםSEGAN HA'KOHANIM- the Segan Kohen Gadol [who has been designated as the understudy in case the Kohen Gadol becomes unfit to perform the Yom Kippur service (RASHI Sotah 40b)].

12)[line 21]כדי הוא בית אלהינוKEDAI HU BEIS ELOKEINU- [the destruction of] the House of our G-d is significant enough

13)[line 24]באתרא דלא שכיח צונןB'ASRA D'LO SHECHI'ACH TZONEN- [the Beraisa is discussing] a land in which cold [Mikva'os] are uncommon [due to the availability of hot springs]

14)[line 28]יוצא לדרךYOTZEI LA'DERECH- when one [leaves the city and] begins his journey

15)[line 30]ורגליוRAGLAV- his feet

16)[line 31]במנודהMENUDAH- one who has been excommunicated

17)[line 34]להושיטL'HOSHIT- to extend

18)[line 35]אשארא קאיA'SHE'ARA KA'I- [that which the Beraisa ascribes the Halachos discussed therein to a mourner and one who has been excommunicated] refers to the rest [of the Halachos]

19)[line 37]תכפוהו אבליוTAKFUHU AVEILAV- his periods of mourning occurred one immediately after the other

20a)[line 38]הכביד שערוHICHBID SA'ARO- if his hair became heavy

b)[line 38]מיקל בתערMEIKEL B'TA'AR- he may lighten it [by cutting some off the end] with a razor

21)[line 38]ומכבס כסותוMECHABES KESUSO- he may wash his clothing

22)[line 39]במספריםMISPARAYIM- a pair of scissors

23)[line 39]בנתרNESER- (O.F. creide) chalk-like soil or stone used as a cleaning agent

24)[line 39]בחולCHOL- sand [used to scrub dirty clothing]

25)[last line]מידי דהוה אבשרא וחמראMIDI D'HAVAH A'BISRA V'CHAMRA- just as [he is able to partake of] meat and wine

13b----------------------------------------13b

26a)[line 1]הבוגרתBOGERES- a[n unmarried] girl six months after reaching physical maturity (defined as the appearance of two pubic hairs after the age of twelve)

b)[line 2]נערהNA'ARAH- a[n unmarried] girl during the first six months after reaching physical maturity (defined as the appearance of two pubic hairs after the age of twelve)

27)[line 1]רשאהRESHA'AH- permitted. TOSFOS DH Ein explains that in this context, it is to be interpreted as required.

28)[line 1]לנוול את עצמהL'NAVEL ES ATZMAH- to allow herself to become unappealing [so as not to turn away potential suitors]

29a)[line 5]אכיחולKICHUL- applying Kechol (a blue tinted powder with medicinal properties) around one's eyes

b)[line 5]ופירכוסPIRKUS- (a) washing one's hair (RASHI here); (b)braiding one's hair (RASHI to Kesuvos 17a)

30)[line 13]באהלOHEL- aloe

31)[line 15]לפכוחי פחדיהL'FAKUCHEI PACHADEI- to ease his worry

32)[line 20]זאת אומרתZOS OMERES- this [that an Avel may not generally apply Kechol or wash his hair] implies

33)[line 21]בתכבוסתTACHBOSES- washing his clothing

34)[line 24]לסוךLA'SUCH- to anoint [with oil or cream]

35)[line 25]לעבר את הזוהמאL'AVER ES HA'ZUHAMA- to counteract odor

36a)[line 25]צלותא דתעניתאTZELUSA D'TA'ANISA- the prayer of a fast; that is, the prayer of "Aneinu"

b)[line 26]היכי מדכרינןHEICHI MADKERINAN?- how should one recite it?

37)[line 26]אדבריהADBEREI- took him for a walk

38)[line 28]בין גואל לרופאBEIN GO'EL L'ROFEI- [as a separate Berachah] between "Go'el [Yisrael," the seventh Berachah of Shemoneh Esreh] and "Rofei [Cholei Amo Yisrael," the eighth Berachah of Shemoneh Esreh]

39)[line 30]בשומע תפלהB'SHOME'A TEFILAH- in [the middle of] "Shome'a Tefilah," the sixteenth Berachah of Shemoneh Esreh

40a)[line 32]שמונה עשרהSHEMONEH ESREH- eighteen [Berachos]. There are actually nineteen in an unadulterated Shemoneh Esreh, since the Anshei Keneses ha'Gedolah added the Berachah of "vela'Malshinim."

b)[line 33]תשע עשרהTESHA ESREH- nineteen [Berachos, with the addition of Aneinu]. Including "vela'Malshinim," this total would be twenty. See Insights for a further discussion of this topic.

41a)[line 34]יחיד ממשYACHID MAMASH- an individual praying his own silent prayer

b)[line 34]שליח צבורSHALI'ACH TZIBUR- the public repetition of the Shemoneh Esreh

42)[line 35]עשרין וארבע הווESRIN V'ARBA HAVU!- there should be twenty-four! This is because the Mishnah (15a) details an additional six Berachos that were added to the Shemoneh Esreh of a public fast.

43)[line 36]ליחיד שקבל עליו תענית צבורYACHID SHE'KIBEL ALAV TA'ANIS TZIBUR- (a) an individual who accepts upon himself [a fast as severe as] a public fast (RASHI); (b) according to the Girsa of RABEINU CHANANEL, the distinction drawn by our Gemara is between one who prays with the Tzibur and one who prays outside of the synagogue.

44)[line 41]מצליMATZLI- prays

45)[line 44]תנא ושיירTANA V'SHIYER- [the Tana] taught [certain differences] and left out [others]

46)[line 44]מאי שייר דהאי שיירMAI SHIYER D'HA SHIYER?- What [else did the Tana] leave out, that [one can suggest that] he left this [difference] out [as well]? It is illogical for the Tana to have left out a single Halachah, as one could easily then reach the conclusion that it is not an exception.

47)[line 44]והא אין בין קתני(V'SU, V'HA "EIN BEIN" KA'TANI)- (Furthermore, the Beraisa taught "there is no difference..." [which implies that no exceptions exist].) RASHI says that these words do not belong in the Gemara. The BACH explains that this is because it is clear that the Gemara at this point has already assumed that the wording of "Ein Bein" does not preclude exceptions, as is evident from the answer of "Tana v'Shiyer."

48)[line 46]שניותSHENIYOS- second [set of fasts]

49)[line 47]שבאלוELU- these [last seven fasts]

50)[line 47]מתריעיןMASRI'IN- we blow blasts [with a Shofar]

51)[line 47]ונועלין את החנויותNO'ALIN ES HA'CHANUYOS- we lock up the shops

52)[last line]ותסבראV'TISBERA- is it logical?

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