[14a - 41 lines; 14b - 45 lines]
1)[line 1]תיבהTEIVAH- the Aron Kodesh [containing the Sifrei Torah, which is brought into the town square for a public prayer during the last seven fasts only (Mishnah 15a)]
2a)[line 2]מילי דצינעאMILI D'TZIN'A- that which is done in private; i.e., the blowing of the Shofar and the Shemoneh Esreh of twenty-four blessings, which take place in the synagogue
b)[line 2]מילי דבפרהסיאMILI D'FARHESYA- that which is done in public; i.e., the prayer involving the Aron Kodesh in the town square
3)[line 9]דקא חשיב לה באידך פרקאD'KA CHASHIV LAH B'IDACH PIRKA- it is mentioned in the next Perek. TOSFOS DH Lav points out that the Gemara could theoretically just as easily have given the same answer offered above; namely, that our Mishnah is not concerning itself with that that is done in public.
4)[line 10]השתא דאתית להכיHASHTA D'ASIS L'HACHI- now that it has come to this [explanation]
5)[line 12]מאי הוי עלה?MAI HAVEI ALAH?- what is the Halachah [regarding when one who accepts upon himself a private fast should recite Aneinu]?
6a)[line 17]עוברותUBEROS- pregnant women
b)[line 17]ומיניקותMEINIKOS- nursing mothers
7a)[line 20]נקוט אמצעייתא בידךNEKOT EMTZA'AISA B'YADECH- grab onto the middle [set of three fasts] with your hand
b)[line 22]דמיתרצון כולהוD'MITARTZUN KULHU- for it answers all of them. Rav Ashi means that the middle three fasts can be described flexibly. Relative to the first three fasts, they are described as "Acharonos," whereas relative to the last seven, they are termed "Rishonos." The Halachah is that the first three fasts are not severe enough to require these women, who find it difficult to fast, to refrain from eating; this explains the second Beraisa. The last seven are severe, but it is too much to ask of these women to fast seven times; this explains the first Beraisa. They are required to fast the middle three, however; this is the interpretation of the third Beraisa.
8)[line 27]בעננוB'ANEINU- through [crying out the prayer of] (a) Aneinu [HaSh-m Aneinu, Aneinu E-lokeinu Aneinu ..., recited currently at the end of Selichos]; (b) Aneinu [Borei Olam..., recited currently in Eretz Yisrael in Shema Koleinu during a persistent drought]
9)[line 30]שבהן י''ח התרעותSHEBA'HEN SHEMONEH ESREH HASRA'OS- that include eighteen blasts [upon the Shofar, three blown during each of the six added Berachos to Shemoneh Esreh] (see Insights)
10)[line 31]יריחוYERICHO (THE CAPTURE OF YERICHO)
(a)Just after Klal Yisrael had entered Eretz Kena'an under the leadership of Yehoshua, they encamped before the highly fortified city of Yericho.
(b)Yehoshua outlined the procedure for capturing the city. For six days, the army was to walk around the town once a day, led by seven Kohanim. The Kohanim walked in front of the Aron (Holy Ark), carrying seven ram's horns. They blew the Shofaros once at the conclusion of each circuit.
(c)On the seventh day, they walked around the city seven times, while the Kohanim blew their Shofaros. After the seven revolutions, the Kohanim blew an extended blast on the Shofaros. The entire nation then shouted loudly, and the wall of the city sank into the ground. Each soldier was then able to enter the city where he stood. The city was overtaken.
(d)The Beraisa compares the "Hasra'os" that take place on a fast day to what occurred at Yericho. From the comparison it is evident that one is meant to blow the Shofar, as opposed to crying out in prayer. (See Insights for how various Rishonim understand the comparison to Yericho.)
11)[line 33]דקרי לה התרעהD'KARI LEI HASRA'AH- that it is referred to as "Hasra'ah" [and that that is what our Mishnah is discussing, as is evident from the Beraisa]
12)[line 34]קרי לה התרעהKARI LEI HASRA'AH- it is [also] referred to as "Hasra'ah" [when that term is used in reference to fasts decreed for other distressing situations]
13)[line 36]פורעניות המתרגשותPUR'ANIYOS HA'MISRAGSHOS- calamitous situations that occur
14a)[line 36]חיכוךCHIKUCH- an outbreak of painfully itchy sores
b)[line 36]חגבCHAGAV- a plague of locusts
c)[line 36]זבובZVUV- a plague of flies
d)[line 36]וצירעהTZIR'AH- a plague of hornets
e)[line 37]ויתושיןYITUSHIN- a plague of gnats
f)[line 37]ועקרביםAKRAVIM- scorpions
15)[line 39]שהקיפוה גייסSHE'HIKIFUHA GAYAS- that a marauding army surrounded it
16)[line 39]נהרNAHAR- an [overflowing] river [that threatens to submerge fields or houses]
17)[line 39]ספינה המטורפת ביםSEFINAH METUREFES BA'YAM- a storm-tossed boat
18a)[line 39]לעזרהL'EZRAH- (a) for [human] help; (b) [solitarily in one's home] for [HaSh-m's] help
b)[line 40]לצעקהLI'TZE'AKAH- (a) to cry out [in prayer]; (b) to cry out [in public prayer]
19)[last line]צעראTZA'ARA- a calamitous situation
20)[line 1]תלת עשרהTELAS ESREH- thirteen [divided into three sets of three, three, and seven]
21)[line 1]איעניI'ANI- answered
22)[line 5]לגרמיה הוא דעבדL'GARMEI HU D'AVAD- (a) acted such for his own purposes [since he did not wish for additional fasts] (RASHI here); (b) acted solitarily; no one else agreed with him (RASHI to Berachos 48a)
23)[line 14]לא מן השם הוא זהLO MIN HA'SHEM HU ZEH- your reasoning is not the best approach (RASHI to Sotah 8a, Makos 4b)
24)[line 15]שיצא זמנה של רביעהYATZA ZEMANAH SHEL REVI'AH- the time for the rains has passed
25a)[line 16]בתקופת תמוזBI'TEKUFAS TAMUZ- at the summer solstice
b)[line 16]בעינן מיטראBA'INAN MITRA- we require rain
26)[line 16]היכי נעבידHEICHI NA'AVID- how should we [recite v'Sen Tal u'Matar li'Verachah]?
27)[line 19]אימתי?EIMASAI?- when [are the thirteen fasts decreed due to lack of rain]?
28)[line 19]שהשנים כתיקנןHA'SHANIM K'TIKNAN- the years are in order [and the planting season is in Cheshvan and the harvest in Nisan]
29)[line 19]שרוין על אדמתןSHERUYIN AL ADMASAN- dwell in their land [of Eretz Yisrael]
30)[line 21]רבי תנא הוא ופליגREBBI TANA HU U'PALIG- Rebbi [Yehudah ha'Nasi, who compiled - and is often quoted in - the Mishnah,] has the status of a Tana, and may therefore disagree [with another Tana on a matter of Halachah]
31)[line 24]ובחמישי כל היוםUVA'CHAMISHI [MATIN] KOL HA'YOM- and on Thursday [the door may be left partially open] the entire day
32)[line 27]פותח אחד ונועל אחדPOSE'ACH ECHAD V'NO'EL ECHAD- he may leave one open and the other closed [even on Monday]
33)[line 27]אצטבאITZTEVA- a stone platform [placed in the doorway of the store, blocking entry, utilized to sit upon or as a counter for goods]
34)[line 30]בית חתנותBEIS CHASNUS- (a) a house containing a Chupah (RASHI); (b) the house in which a bride and groom live during their first week of marriage (TOSFOS to Sukah 25b DH Ein Simchah)
35)[line 31]אבוורנקי של מלכיםAVARNEKI SHEL MELACHIM- (a) a tree planted upon the birth of the crown prince, cut down and used as the material with which to build his throne on the day of his coronation; (b) a large tree intended to provide shade over a leisure area (RASHI to Eruvin 25b)
36a)[line 31]חבריםCHAVERIM- Talmidei Chachamim
b)[line 32]עמי הארץAMEI HA'ARETZ- those who are unlearned and lax in their Mitzvah observance
37a)[line 32]בשפה רפהSAFAH RAFAH- a soft tone
b)[line 32]ובכובד ראשKOVED ROSH- solemnly
38)[line 33]מתעטפיןMIS'ATFIN- wrap themselves [in a garment]
39a)[line 33]כאבליםAVELIM- mourners
b)[line 33]וכמנודיןMENUDIN- those who have been excommunicated
40)[line 33]הנזופיןHA'NIZUFIN (NEZIFAH)
(a)One who has been sternly reprimanded by a respected Torah scholar is termed a Nazuf. This status obligates the Nazuf to behave in certain ways. A Nazuf must distance himself from people out of shame, and must not show himself to he who rebuked him. He must speak, laugh, and conduct his business only minimally, and demonstrate public distress. Even if one merely senses that a great Talmid Chacham bears resentment against him, he must act as a Nazuf.
(b)A Nazuf may eat and drink with others, and ask after their welfare. He need not act as if he is in mourning, nor need he ask forgiveness of he toward whom he acted arrogantly. The period of Nezifah concludes automatically after seven days in Eretz Yisrael, and after one day in Chutz la'Aretz.
41)[line 33]למקוםMAKOM- HaSh-m
42)[line 34]רשאיRASHAI- permitted
43)[line 35]אלא אם כן נענה כיהושע בן נוןELA IM KEN NA'ANEH K'YEHOSHUA BIN NUN- unless [those who know him are certain that] he is [illustrious enough] to be answered similar to [the way in which] Yehoshua bin Nun [was]. This is to make certain that the honor of HaSh-m and His Torah will not be denigrated if he is indeed, for any reason, not answered.
44)[line 35]"ויאמר ה' אל יהושע קֻם לך; למה זה אתה נפל על פניך""VA'YOMER HASH-M EL YEHOSHUA, 'KUM LACH; LAMAH ZEH ATAH NOFEL AL PANECHA?'" - "And HaSh-m said to Yehoshua, 'Get up; why do you fall upon your face?'" (Yehoshua 7:10) (KLAL YISRAEL'S FIRST DEFEAT)
(a)Partaking of the spoil of Yericho was forbidden. The traitorous Achan ignored this directive, and, unbeknown to the others, helped himself to some of the booty. As a result of this transgression, Klal Yisrael lost the battle that ensued at Ai, and thirty-six men perished.
(b)Yehoshua reacted to this development by tearing his garments and falling on his face before the Aron (Holy Ark) in prayer. HaSh-m instructed him to arise, draw lots to uncover the guilty party, and sentence him to death.
45)[line 36]לחגור שקLA'CHGOR SAK- to don Sak, a garment woven from goat's hair
46)[line 37]"ויהי כשמע המלך את דברי האשה ויקרע את בגדיו והוא עבר על החמה וירא העם והנה השק על בשרו מבית""VA'YEHI CHI'SHMO'A HA'MELECH ES DIVREI HA'ISHAH, VA'YIKRA ES BEGADAV; V'HU OVER AL HA'CHOMAH, VA'YAR HA'AM V'HINEH HA'SAK AL BESARO MI'BAYIS" - "And when the king heard the words of the woman, he rent his garments; and he was walking along the wall, and the nation saw that he was wearing sackcloth over his skin underneath his clothing" (Melachim II 6:30) (A MORBID PACT)
(a)The Assyrians laid siege to the Shomron, the capital of the Ten Tribes, and food was unavailable. The situation became so dire that a donkey's head was sold for eighty Shekalim, and people were willing to eat anything that they could get their hands on.
(b)At this time, a woman came to complain to Yehoram, wicked son of the evil Ach'av. She explained that she had entered into an agreement with another woman. The woman proposed that she kill her son and share his meat with her, and on the following day, she would do the same with her son. The woman now brought the one who had first suggested the agreement to the king, complaining that while she had kept her side of the bargain, the other had hid her son and refused to kill him.
(c)The wicked Yehoram blamed Elisha ha'Navi for the drought. Elisha responded that on the following day, grain would be so plentiful that it would be sold for next to nothing. HaSh-m caused the massive Assyrian army, who were camped outside of Yerushalayim, to hear a tremendous noise such as that made by an advancing army. Panicking, they fled, leaving behind all of their supplies.
47a)[line 39]לא הכל בקריעהLO HA'KOL B'KERI'AH- not everyone [merits to have their prayers answered] through [mere] bowing
b)[line 40]ולא הכל בנפילהV'LO HA'KOL B'NEFILAH- and not everyone [is required] to fall upon their faces [in order to have their prayers answered]
48)[line 40]"ויפל משה ואהרן על פניהם [לפני כל קהל עדת בני ישראל]. ויהושע בן נון וכלב בן יפנה [מן התרים את הארץ] קרעו בגדיהם""VA'YIPOL MOSHE V'AHARON AL PENEIHEM... VI'YEHOSHUA BIN NUN V'CHALEV BEN YEFUNEH [MIN HA'TARIM ES HA'ARETZ] KAR'U BIGDEIHEM" - "And Moshe and Aharon fell upon their faces [before the entire congregation of Bnei Yisrael]. And Yehoshua bin Nun and Kalev ben Yefuneh [from those who spied upon the land] tore their garments" (Bamidbar 14:5-6) (THE DIFFERENT REACTIONS TO THE REPORT OF THE SPIES)
(a)The people accepted the negative report of the ten spies against that of Yehoshua and Kalev, and, after accusing Moshe and Aharon of having forsaken them to die by the hand of the sword, they announced that they would appoint their own leader and return to Egypt.
(b)That was when Moshe and Aharon, at a loss what to do (SEFORNO), fell on their faces. Yehoshua and Kalev, who had seen the land, and who therefore felt the pain more deeply, reacted in a much more forceful way (see OR HA'CHAYIM), and then went on to refute the spies' arguments.
49)[line 44]לא הכל בקימהLO HA'KOL B'KIMAH- not everyone [will honor Klal Yisrael in the future when the truth of HaSh-m's rule will be apparent] through rising
50)[line 44]ושריםSARIM- ministers
51)[last line]"כה אמר ה'...""KO AMAR HASH-M..."- "So says HaSh-m, redeemer of Yisrael and his Holy One, to the ashamed soul, to the despised of nations, to the servant of rulers: 'Kings shall see [you] and rise; ministers, and prostrate themselves; [because of HaSh-m, Who is faithful, the Holy One of Yisrael Who has chosen you]" (Yeshayah 49:7).