THE SHI'UR OF HOTZA'AH FOR WINE
(Rav Nachman): One must put a quarter Revi'is of [raw] wine in the Kos of Berachah, so that after it is mixed there will be a Revi'is.
Support (Rava - Mishnah): Enough wine to mix to comprise a cup;
(Beraisa): This refers to the amount of wine to mix a nice cup.
(Seifa of Mishnah): The Shi'ur for all other liquids is a Revi'is. (This shows that a Revi'is of raw wine is not required - it does not show that the proper mixing is three parts water for one part of raw wine.)
This is as Rava holds elsewhere:
(Rava): If one measure of [raw] wine cannot be mixed with three measures of water (for then it will be too weak), it is not [proper] wine. (Some explain, if it has not been diluted with three parts of water, it is not wine, i.e. it is too strong to drink. However, Rava's teaching is brought (Bava Basra 96B) to show that wine made from dregs is considered wine if there are at most three parts water for each part of wine - if it is more concentrated, all the more so it is considered wine! Most people drink it stronger (see Tosfos) - it is unreasonable to base Halachah on a Diyuk from an individual (which the Gemara never spoke out), i.e. because Rava holds that less than three parts water per part of wine is too strong, anything weaker is not wine at all!)
Objection #1 (Abaye - Mishnah): [Dam Nidah is Tamei if it is the color of] two measures of water mixed with one measure of Sharoni wine.
Objection #2 (Abaye): It is unreasonable that one should be liable for [Hotza'ah of raw] wine on account of water in a jug [which could be mixed with it, but he was not Motzi it]! (Rashi - Abaye agrees that the Shi'ur is a quarter Revi'is, but he does not require a Kos Shel Berachah to be a Revi'is after it is mixed. Ri - he holds that the Shi'ur for raw wine is a Revi'is, both for Kos Shel Berachah and for Hotza'ah.)
Answer #1 (to Objection #1 - Rava): Sharoni wine is weaker than regular wine.
Answer #2 (to Objection #1 - Rava): For drinking it is proper to mix wine with three measures of water - but this is not the right color to compare to Dam Nidah.
Answer (to Objection #2 - Rava): One is liable for Hotza'ah of something important - the wine is important [because it can be mixed to make a Revi'is]!
(Beraisa - R. Noson): The Shi'ur for congealed wine is a k'Zayis.
(Rav Yosef): R. Noson and R. Yosi b'Rebbi Yehudah say the same thing:
(Beraisa - R. Yehudah): The following [is one of] six places in which Beis Shamai are more lenient than Beis Hillel - Beis Shamai Metaher Dam Neveilah, Beis Hillel Metamei.
R. Yosi b'Rebbi Yehudah says, Beis Hillel Metamei only when there is a Revi'is, since it can congeal to a k'Zayis.
Rejection (Abaye): They could argue with each other!
Perhaps R. Noson is Mechayev for a k'Zayis regarding wine [which is not thick], for a Revi'is congeals to a k'Zayis - but [perhaps he would Metamei] less than a Revi'is of blood [for it] congeals to a k'Zayis!
Or, perhaps R. Yosi is Metamei a Revi'is of blood because it congeals to a k'Zayis - but wine is thinner, perhaps he would Mechayev for less than a k'Zayis, for it comes from a Revi'is!
QUESTIONS OF SPELLING
(Mishnah): Kedai Gemi'ah of milk.
Question: Is Gemi'ah spelled with an Aleph, or with an Ayin?
Answer (Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): It is spelled with an Aleph, like "Hagmi'ini Na Me'at Mayim mi'Kadech".
Question: Is Gar'inin (pits) spelled with an Aleph, or with an Ayin?
Answer (Rabah bar Ula): "V'Nigra (will be reduced, just like pits are removed from food) me'Erkecha" (it is spelled with an Ayin).
Question: Is Omemos (dimming) spelled with an Aleph, or with an Ayin?
Answer (R. Yitzchak bar Avodimi): "Arazim Lo Amemahu (it is not dimmed (outshined) by nicer cedars) b'Gan Elokim" (it is spelled with an Ayin).
Question: Is Me'amtzim (to close the eyes) spelled with an Aleph, or with an Ayin?
Answer (R. Chiya bar Aba): "V'Otzem Einav me'Re'os b'Ra" (it is spelled with an Ayin).
SHI'URIM OF HOTZA'AH FOR LIQUIDS
(Beraisa): If one was Motzi Kedai Gemi'ah of animal milk he is liable;
The Shi'ur for human milk or egg white is to put on the brush used to apply Kilor;
The Shi'ur for Kilor is enough to rub it into water [and apply to two eyes (Rashi; Me'iri - one eye)].
Question (Rav Ashi): Is this including the amount that sticks to one's finger, or not?
This question is not resolved.
(Mishnah): Enough honey to put on Kasis.
(Beraisa): This means enough to put on the surface of the wound.
Question (Rav Ashi): Does it mean, to put on the entire surface - or just on the mouth (where a scab forms), but not the surrounding area?
This question is not resolved.
HASH-M'S REASONS FOR CREATING CERTAIN THINGS
(Rav Yehudah): Hash-m did not create anything for naught!
A snail (or slug) was created for Kasis, the fly was created for [healing a sting of] a hornet [one grinds the fly and puts it on the wound], the mosquito was created for [healing a bite of] a snake, the snake was created for [healing] boils, Samamis (a particular spider) was created for [healing the bite of a] scorpion. (Maharsha - surely, damagers were created for punishment - Rav Yehudah teaches about things without an apparent reason.)
Question: How is the snake cure done?
Answer: One cooks together a black and white snake, and rubs it on the wound.
(Beraisa): There are five cases where the weak strong the weak:
The lion fears the Mafgi'a (a small animal that makes noise like a large animal), the elephant fears the mosquito (lest it enter its nose), the scorpion fears the Semamis (lest it enter its ear), the eagle fears the swallow (lest it enter under its wing), the Livyasan fears the Kilbis (a small Sheretz, lest it enter its ear).
(Rav Yehudah): The Tana learns from "Ha'Mavlig Shod Al Az" (Hash-m strengthens the weak to overcome the strong).
R. Zeira found Rav Yehudah very jovial, he was sure that he would answer any question.
Question (R. Zeira): Why do goats go at the front of the herd, and sheep afterwards? (Maharsha - goats represent the Yevanim, their kings ruled in Bayis Sheni before those of Yisrael (represented by sheep).)
Answer (Rav Yehudah): This is like the creation of the world - darkness preceded light (usually, goats are black and sheep are white).
Question (R. Zeira): Why is [the Ervah of] a sheep covered [by its tail], whereas goats are exposed?
Answer (Rav Yehudah): People are covered [clothed] through sheep, therefore they are covered; people are not covered through goats, therefore they are not covered. (Maharsha - why was the [length of the] exile following Churban Bayis Sheni hidden, whereas the exile following Churban Bayis Rishon was known (through prophecy, it would be 70 years? The sin of [the people in] Bayis Sheni was hidden [Sin'as Chinam], therefore their Galus was hidden; the sins of Bayis Rishon were open (idolatry, Arayos and murder) therefore their Galus was revealed.)
Question (R. Zeira): Why do camels have short tails?
Answer (Rav Yehudah): They eat foliage with thorns (if they had long tails, they would get caught in thorns. Maharsha - he asked why Bavel fell suddenly, the way one punishes an enemy; he answered, because they ravished Yisrael.)
Question (R. Zeira): Why do oxen have long tails?
Answer (Rav Yehudah): They live in swamps, so they need long tails to chase away mosquitoes. (Maharsha - why was the fall of Malchus Yisrael so slow (over 200 years, even though all the kings served idolatry)? This is because Hash-m punishes them bit by bit.)
Question (R. Zeira): Why do ants have soft antennae?
Answer (Rav Yehudah): They live in the wilderness among willows - if their antennae were hard, they would get dislocated, blinding them. (Maharsha - why is the autonomy of Yisrael during Galus (the Reish Galusa in Bavel and the Nasi in Eretz Yisrael) submissive? Because they are among a harsh kingdom, if they displayed eminence Yisrael would lose their sagacious leadership.)
(Shmuel): If the antennae of an ant are removed, it becomes blind.
Question (R. Zeira): When a hen closes its eye, why does the bottom lid (normally, the top lid goes down)?
Answer (Rav Yehudah): They live on [high] boards - if the bottom lid did not go up to keep out smoke, they would be blinded. (Maharsha - why do Yisrael look up in prayer - the Shechinah descended, to the Beis ha'Mikdash! After the Churban, the Shechinah went back to Shomayim, Yisrael look up and request salvation lest the Galus cloud their wisdom.)
THE SIGNIFICANCE OF WORDS
[In Arame'ic] door is called Dasha - this is an acronym for Derech Sham (the way is through there);
A ladder is called Darga - Derech Gag (the way to the roof);
A dip is called Maskulisa - Matai Tichleh Da (when will this be finished? - dips are consumed very slowly);
A house is called Beisa - Bo v'Eisiv Bah (come and sit in it);
A tiny hut is called Biksa - Bei Aksa (a narrow house);
A mortar (alternatively - a measure of wheat, or a wooden seat) is called Kufsa - Kof v'Siv (turn it over and sit on it);
Bricks are called Livnei - li'Vnei Bani (they endure for generations);
A fence of thorny shrubs is called Hotza - Chatzitzah (a blockage);
A jug is called Chatzva - something used to Chotzev (draw) water from the river;
A small cup is called Kuza - ka'Zeh (all I request is that you fill this tiny cup with wine)!
Myrtle (held while dancing in front of a bride) is called Shutisa - Shetusa (the dancer looks like a fool);
A big bucket is called Mashichla - Mashi Kula (everyone washes their hands and feet from it);
A small elegant bucket is called Mashchilta - Mashya Kalata (a bride or distinguished person washes from it);
A mortar is called Asisa - Chaserta (it is missing the part that was hollowed out, into which one pounds; Aruch - it is Chasidta, it receives blows like a Chasid that is shamed [and does not respond]).
A pestle is called Buchna - Bo v'Akenah (come and I will hit it);
An outer garment is called Levushah - Lo Bushah (it averts shame, i.e. if the inner garments are torn);
A cloak is called Glima - it makes one like a Golem (without delineation of limbs; alternatively, he sits idly like one who does not know how to do anything);
A nice mantle is called Gulsa - Gali v'Siv (one exposes himself before sitting - he does not want to sit on top of it, lest it get soiled or ruined);
A bed is called Purya - Peru u'Revu (procreation) is done on it.
A pit [for water] that dried up is called Bor Zinka - Bor Zeh Naki (this pit is empty);
A hat (worn by Chachamim) is called Sudra - Sod Hash-m li'Re'av (Hash-m's secrets are to those who fear Him);
A palace is called Afdana - a'Pischa Dein (everyone comes through this opening).
(Beraisa): There are three that keep getting stronger as they age - a fish, a snake and a pig.
THE SHI'UR OF HOTZA'AH FOR OIL
(Mishnah): The Shi'ur for oil is to anoint Ever Katan (a small limb).
(D'vei R. Yanai): This is to anoint a small limb (Rashi - a bone of the pinky; Rambam - the small toe) of a newborn baby.
Question (Beraisa): The Shi'ur for oil is to anoint a small limb [or] a limb of a newborn.
Suggestion: This means, to anoint a small limb of an adult, or a big limb of a newborn!
Answer: No, it means to anoint a small limb of a newborn.
Suggestion: Tana'im argue about D'vei R. Yanai's teaching:
(Beraisa - R. Shimon ben Elazar): The Shi'ur for oil is to anoint a small limb [or] a limb of a newborn;
R. Noson says, it is to anoint Ever Katan.
Assumption: R. Shimon means, to anoint a small limb of a newborn; R. Noson means, to anoint a small limb of an adult or a big limb of a newborn, but not to anoint a small limb of a newborn!
Rejection: No, both disagree with D'vei R. Yanai;
R. Shimon holds that a small limb of an adult equals a big limb of a newborn; R. Noson is Mechayev for a small limb of an adult, but not for a big limb of a newborn.
Question: What was the conclusion?
Answer (Beraisa - R. Shimon ben Elazar): The Shi'ur for oil is to anoint a small limb of a newborn (like D'vei R. Yanai, and R. Noson argues).