[77a - 31 lines; 77b - 43 lines]

*********************GIRSA SECTION*********************

We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos

[1] Rashi 77a DH Tanina ד"ה תנינא:

"Al Revi'is, Al Log she'Hu Revi'is" על רביעית על לוג שהוא רביעית

In certain new editions of the Gemara (e.g. the Wagshal edition), the word "Al" על is emended to read "Shel Log she'Hu Revi'is" של לוג שהוא רביעית. This is, however, an inappropriate emendation. The Girsa of the older editions is correct.

[2] Gemara 77b [line 23]:

The words "Kol Chalelei Alma Havah Amar Lei, Amar Lei" כל חללי עלמא הוה אמר ליה אמר ליה

should be "Kol Chalelei Alma Havah Amar Li, v'Amri Lei" כל חללי עלמא הוה אמר לי ואמרי ליה

(Dikdukei Sofrim #3)

[3] Gemara 77b [line 26]:

"Mishum d'Achal Kisi משום דאכל כיסי

The Girsa of the Ritva is "Mishum d'Azal Beinei Kisi" משום דאזל ביני כיסי


1)[line 4]דלא דרי על חד תלת מיאD'LO DARI AL CHAD TELAS MAYA- that is not diluted with three parts water to one part undiluted wine

2)[line 6]המזוגHA'MAZUG- diluted wine

3)[line 7]היין השירוניHA'YAYIN HA'SHEIRONI- undiluted wine that comes from Sharon, a district of Eretz Yisrael located on the coastal plain between Haifa and Tel Aviv

4)[line 7]מים מכד ומצטרפין?MAYIM B'CHAD U'MITZTARFIN?- "When the water is still in the pitcher, would you say that it combines with the undiluted wine to yield an important drink whose measure (in its undiluted form) is smaller than all other drinks?" Abaye claims that the Chachamim had a different reason for why undiluted wine of this small amount was considered important, and not because it will eventually be diluted to yield a Revi'is.

5)[line 10]רפיRAFI- it is weak

6)[line 10]משום חזותאMISHUM CHAZUSA- in order to achieve the proper color for checking blood stains. Wine of the proper dilution according to Rava (3:1) would be too light to use to check blood. (For an explanation of why Rashi calls this color "Yarok," see Insights to Nidah 19:1.)


(a)A Neveilah is a carcass of a Kosher animal that died without a Halachic slaughtering (or that was slaughtered improperly). A k'Zayis or more of a Neveilah makes a person or an object Tamei through Maga (contact). It is Metamei a Kli Cheres (an earthenware utensil) if it enters the utensil's interior and is Metamei a person with Tum'as Masa (by carrying it) to cause him, in turn, to be Metamei the clothes that he is wearing (RAMBAM Hilchos She'ar Avos ha'Tum'ah 1:1).

(b)If a person became Tamei through Tum'as Neveilah, he can immediately go to the Mikvah. He becomes Tahor at sundown and may eat Terumah or Kodshim.

8)[line 21]לקרוש ולעמוד על כזיתLI'KROSH VELA'AMOD AL K'ZAYIS- to solidify (congeal) and become a k'Zayis

9)[line 24]קלישKALISH- it is watery (lit. thin, weak)

10)[line 31]"הגמיאיני נא מעט מים מכדך""HAGMI'INI NA ME'AT MAYIM MI'KADECH"- "Let me have a little water from your pitcher." (Bereishis 24:17) - Eliezer, the slave of Avraham, asks Rivka for a drink of water using the word "Hagmi'ini," spelled with the letter Alef.


11)[line 1]"ונגרע מערכך""V'NIGRA ME'ERKECHA"- "and it shall be subtracted from the estimation." (Vayikra 27:18) - The word "v'Nigra" ("and it shall be subtracted") is associated with the Gar'inim (pits), which are removed from the fruit. The Gemara uses this word, which is spelled with the letter Ayin, to prove that the word Gar'inim should also be spelled with an Ayin.

12)[line 2]אוממותOMEMOS- dying coals that are getting dimmer and dimmer

13)[line 3]"ארזים לא עממוהו בגן אלקים""ARAZIM LO AMEMUHU B'GAN ELOKIM"- "the cedars in the garden of HaSh-m did not obscure it." (Yechezkel 31:8) - The word "Amemuhu" (obscure it) is spelled with the letter Ayin, proving that Omemos should also be spelled with an Ayin.

14)[line 4]מאמציןME'AMTZIN- to close [the eyes of a dead body]

15)[line 6]"... ועוצם עיניו מראות ברע""… V'OTZEM EINAV ME'RE'OS B'RA"- "… and shuts his eyes from seeing evil." (Yeshayah 33:15) - This proves that Me'amtzin is spelled with the letter Ayin, as in Otzem.

16)[line 8]לובן של ביצהLOVEN SHEL BEITZAH- an egg-white

17)[line 8]משיפאMESHIFA- lotion

18)[line 12]פי כתיתPI KATIS- there is an argument as to whether this refers to the entire wound or only the upper tip of the wound (the place where a scab forms). The Korban Nesanel (1:5) rules that honey that is taken into Reshus ha'Rabim should follow the smaller measurement (since we are more stringent with cases that are d'Oraisa when there is no conclusion in the Gemara), while honey that is taken into a Karmelis (see Background notes, Introduction to Maseches Shabbos 2c) may follow the larger measurement. (Apparently the size of the wound that would develop was well-known, since the Gemara deduces from it a standard amount of honey.)

19)[line 13]אמורשא קמאA'MORSA KAMA- on the upper tip of the wound (where a scab forms)

20)[line 14]הודרנאHUDRANA- all around [the wound]

21)[line 17]שבלולSHABLUL- a snail or slug

22)[line 17]צירעהTZIR'AH- a hornet

23)[line 17]יתושYETUSH- a mosquito or gnat

24)[line 17]חפפיתCHAFAFIS- sore

25)[line 17]וסממיתSAMAMIS- (a) a spider (RASHI); (b) a lizard (ARUCH)

26)[line 18]חדא אוכמאCHADA UCHMA- one black one

27)[line 18]חדא חיוראCHADA CHIVRA- one white one

28)[line 18]שייפי ליהSHAIFI LEI- spreads it on

29)[line 19]אימותEIMOS- dreads

30)[line 19]מפגיעMAFGI'A- (a) a small beast which frightens the lion with its shriek (RASHI); (b) a type of bird or insect that lodges in the lions head and bores into his skull (RITVA)

31)[line 19]הפילHA'PIL- an elephant

32)[line 20]סנוניתSENUNIS- a swallow

33)[line 20]כילביתKILBIS- a small non-kosher fish (stickleback?)

34)[line 21]"המבליג ...""HA'MAVLIG ..."- "Who sends forth the weak against the strong." (Amos 5:9) - This verse states that HaSh-m incorporated into creation certain destructive forces that work against strong creatures.

35)[line 21 רבי זירא אשכח לרב יהודה REBBI ZEIRA ASHKACH L'RAV YEDUDAH - The Gemara discusses this here, since it was discussing previously other Agados of Rav Yehudah. 36) [line 22]אפיתחא דבי חמוהA'PITCHA D'VEI CHAMUHA- at the entrance to his father-in-law's house

37)[line 22]הוה בדיחא דעתיהHAVAH BEDICHA DAITEI- he was in very high spirits

38)[line 22]אי בעי מיניה כל חללי עלמאIY BA'I MINEI KOL CHALELEI ALMA- and if he asked him any question in the world

39)[line 23]עיזי מסגן ברישאIZEI MASGAN B'REISHA- [black] goats travel at the head of the flock

40)[line 23]הדר אימריHADAR IMREI- [white] sheep follow (see Insights)

41)[line 24]דברישא חשוכא והדר נהוראDEV'REISHA CHASHOCHA V'HADAR NEHORA- since at the beginning of creation there was darkness and only afterwards light

42)[line 24]הני מכסיין והני מגלייןHANEI MECHASYAN V'HANEI MEGALYAN- these (sheep) are covered [by a fat-tail] while those (goats) are uncovered (they do not have a fat-tail) (see Insights)

43)[line 25]מכסינן מינייהוMECHASINAN MINAIHU- we clothe (lit. cover) ourselves with them (i.e. their wool)

44)[line 25]גמלא זוטר גנובתיהGAMLA, ZUTAR GENUVTEI- the camel's tail is small

45)[line 26]כיסיKISEI- foliage with lots of thorns

46)[line 26]תורא אריכא גנובתיהTORA, ARICHA GENUVTEI- a bull has a long tail

47)[line 26]דייר באגמיDAYAR B'AGMEI- it lives in the marshes

48)[line 27]לכרכושי בקיL'CHARKUSHEI BAKI- to swat away the gnats

49)[line 27]קרנא דקמצא רכיכאKARNA D'KAMTZA REKICHA- the antennae of a locust (alt. an ant) are soft

50)[line 27]חילפיCHILFEI- a species of willow

51)[line 28]אי קשיאIY KASHYA- if they were hard

52)[line 28]נדיא ומתעווראNADYA U'MIS'AVRA- they would be dislocated and the locust or ant would be blinded

53)[line 28]דבעי דליסמיה לקמצאD'VA'I D'LISMEI L'KAMTZA- who wants to blind a locust or ant

54)[line 29]לשלופינהו לקרניLI'SHLUFINHU L'KARNEI- should pull out its antennae

55)[line 29]תימרא דתרנגולתאTIMRA D'TARNEGOLTA- the [lower] eyelid of a hen

56)[line 29]מדלי לעילאMADLI L'EILA- closes upward

57)[line 29]דיירי אדפיDAIREI A'DAPEI- it lives on [dusty] boards

58)[line 30]עייל קטראAYIL KATRA- and if the dust rises (into their eyes)

59)[line 30]דשאDASHA- a door

60)[line 30]דרגאDARGA- a ladder

61)[line 30]מתכוליתאMASKOLISA- (a) relish, of which people ask: (1) "When this finishes, what will we eat?"; (2) "When will this finish?" (RASHI); (b) [according to the Girsa "MESUCHILTA"] a beam of the loom, as is the custom of people who begin to work to ask, "When will this job end?" (ARUCH, citing RABEINU HAI GA'ON)

62)[line 31]ביתאBEISA- a house

63)[line 31]ביקתאBIKTA- a small hut

64)[line 31]בי עקתאBEI AKSA- a place of distress

65)[line 31]כופתאKUFTA- (a) a mortar; (b) a container to measure wheat; (c) a stool made out of a piece of tree trunk

66)[line 31]כוף ותיבKOF V'SIV- lay it down and sit on it

67)[line 31]לבניLIVNEI- bricks

68)[line 31]לבני בניL'VNEI BANEI- its lasts for grandchildren

69)[line 32]הוצאHUTZA- hedge; prickly shrubbery used as a fence

70)[line 32]חציצהCHATZITZAH- an intervening object (that is not permanent)

71)[line 32]חצבאCHATZBA- a pitcher

72)[line 32]כוזהKUZA- a small cup

73)[line 32]כזהK'ZEH- "just this"

74)[line 32]שוטיתאSHUTISA- a myrtle branch used in a dance that entertains a bride (see Kesubos 17a)

75)[line 32]משיכלאMASHICHLA- a large bowl

76)[line 33]מאשי כולהMASHI KULAH- many people wash from it (lit. it washes all)

77)[line 33]משכילתאMASHKILTA- a small fancy bowl

78)[line 33]משיא כלתאMASHYA KALATA- it washes a bride

79)[line 33]אסיתאASISA- a mortar

80)[line 33]חסירתאCHASIRTA- it (the mortar) is hollowed out

81)[line 33]בוכנהBUCHNA- a pestle

82)[line 33]בוא ואכנהBO V'AKENAH- come, and I will strike it

83)[line 34]גלימאGELIMA- poncho

84)[line 34]גלםGELEM- unfinished vessel; solid block which is not fully carved out yet

85)[line 34]גולתאGULTA- a fancy wrapping cloak

86)[line 34]גלי ואיתיבGALI V'EISIV- fold up the cloak (lit. uncover yourself) before you sit

87)[line 34]פוריאPURYA- a bed

88)[line 35]בור זינקאBOR ZINKA- an empty pit; a dry cistern

89)[line 35]סודראSUDRA- a scarf that is wound around the head and hangs down over the neck

90)[line 35]אפדנאAPADNA- (a) a reception room in a palace (RASHI); (b) a mansion (ARUCH); (c) a courtyard (ARUCH)

91)[line 35]אפיתחא דיןA'PISCHA DEIN- through this opening