[48a - 49 lines; 48b - 49 lines]

1)[line 1] MESHAMSHIN MI'MESHAMSHIN GAMRINAN- we derive service items from service items

2)[line 1]L'APUKEI- to exclude

3)[line 2] HI GUFAH KEDUSHAH- it itself is sanctified

4)[line 3] MIDI D'URCHEI- something that is normative Jewish practice

5)[line 5]( " " " [" " "] (") ["] ")(SIMAN KIPAH NAFSHEI D'CHATZIVA [B'KIVREI D'YATIR ME'AVIHA] (NECHISA) [B'KISA] D'UMANA)- this is a mnemonic device for remembering the sequence of the following Mishnayos and Beraisos that the Gemara will cite as proof regarding Hazmanah Milsa / Lav Milsa:

1.Kipah refers to "Kipah she'Hu Tamei Midras..." (line 6)

2.Nafshei refers to "Nefesh she'Bena'o l'Shem Chai..." (line 16)

3.d'Chatziva refers to "ha'Chotzev Kever l'Aviv..." (line 22)

4.b'Kivrei refers to "Kever Chadash, Mutar b'Hana'ah" (line 31)

5.d'Yatir refers to "Mosar ha'Mesim, l'Mesim" (line 35)

6.me'Aviha refers to "Hayu Aviv v'Imo Mezarkin Bo Kelim..." (last line)

7.b'Kisa refers to "Kis she'Asa'o l'Hani'ach Bo Tefilin..." (48b, line 5)

8.d'Umana refers to "Amar l'Uman Asei Li Tik Shel Sefer..." (48b, line 8)

6)[line 6]KIPAH- a shawl (sometimes used to sit on or rest the head on - see next entry)

7)[line 7] TAMEI MIDRAS

(a)A Zav (see Background to Bava Kama 24:5), Zavah (see Background to Bava Kama 24:2), Nidah (see Background to Kidushin 80:2b), or Yoledes (see Background to Kidushin 13:16) can cause certain objects that are under them to become Avos ha'Tum'ah like the Zav himself, whether he or she touches them directly or not. Any object made for lying, sitting, or leaning upon (e.g. chair, mattress, shoes) becomes Tamei Midras (lit. an object that is treaded upon), also known as Mishkav or Moshav ha'Zav (or the Tachton of a Zav). Klei Cheres - earthenware objects - are not subject to Tum'as Midras.

(b)The Mishnah (Kelim 27:2) states that an item of clothing can receive Tum'as Midras if it is the size of Sheloshah Al Sheloshah (three Tefachim by three Tefachim). If it is smaller than that, it is not suitable for a Zav to sit upon and does not become Tamei through Midras. For the minimum sizes of other materials, see Background to Bava Basra 20:17.

(c)A person who touches (Maga) or carries (Masa) either a Midras or a Zav or Zavah themselves gets the status of Rishon l'Tum'ah, and so do the clothes he is wearing and other utensils (except for earthenware utensils) that he is touching at the time.

(d)Utensils or clothes that lie above the Zav or Zavah also get the status of a Rishon l'Tum'ah, whether he touches them or not. These are called the Elyon of a Zav or Zavah. In general, any utensil that a Zav or Zavah touches becomes a Rishon l'Tum'ah, except for a Midras found underneath him, which is an Av ha'Tum'ah.

8)[line 7] V'NASENATO L'SEFER- she designated it for [wrapping] a Sefer Torah

9a)[line 7] TAHOR MIN HA'MIDRAS- it becomes Tahor from [its Av ha'Tum'ah status] of Midras (even without Tevilah, because it is no longer fit for sitting on)

b)[line 8] ( ) [ ]AVAL TAMEI (MAGA MIDRAS) [TEMEI MES]- but it remains Tamei (as a Rishon l'Tum'ah) as an object that "touched" a Midras (i.e. the shawl itself), and retains other forms of Tum'ah ,such as Tum'as Mes

10)[line 9] NASENATO V'KARECHATO- she designated it, and wrapped it [around the Sefer]

11)[line 9] ?LAMAH LI NASENATO V'KARECHATO?- why do I need both designating and wrapping? (Would wrapping alone not be sufficient?)

12a)[line 10] HAI SUDRA D'AZMENEI L'MEITZAR BEI TEFILIN- a certain cloth that he designated to wrap Tefilin in

b)[line 10] V'TZAR BEI TEFILIN- and he then wrapped Tefilin in it

13)[line 12] ASUR L'MEITZAR BEI PESHITEI- it is forbidden to wrap coins in it

14)[line 13] SHARI L'MEITZAR BEI PESHITEI- it is permitted to wrap coins in it (because "Hazmanah Lav Milsa" - See Background to Sanhedrin 47:53, and because a one-time usage does not sanctify an object)

15)[line 16]NEFESH- a structure built above a grave

16)[line 17]DIMUS- a layer [of stones]

17)[line 18] RAMA BEI MEIS- a dead body had been placed in it [already, at the time that the layer was added]

18)[line 20]PANYEI- he removed [the body at a later time]

19)[line 21] , IM HAYAH MAKIRO, CHOLETZO- if he recognizes it (the particular layer of stones), he may remove it [and the rest of the structure remains permitted]

20)[line 30] , ?TEVI L'ARIGAH, MI IKA L'MAN D'AMAR?- if one merely prepared spun wool for weaving [a garment for a Mes], is there any opinion [that it would be forbidden]?

21)[line 34] EIN LI'NEFALIM TEFISAS HA'KEVER- a stillborn cannot "hold" a grave [i.e. cannot make it Asur b'Hana'ah]

22a)[line 35] , MOSAR HA'MESIM, LA'MESIM- any funds left over from a general collection for the poor or anonymous deceased should be put aside for the needs of other Mesim

b)[line 36] , MOSAR HA'MES L'YORSHAV- funds left over from a collection for a specific deceased person may be enjoyed by his heirs

23a)[line 41] DIMUS AL KIVRO- a structure upon his grave

b)[line 41] ZILUF LIFNEI MITASO- dripping of wine [to create an aroma] before his bier

24)[line 43] , D'CHAZI LEI TAFIS- [the amount] that is fit for him becomes forbidden

25a)[line 46] KI VAZU LEI- when they disgraced him [by collecting charity on his behalf]

b)[line 46] ACHULEI MACHIL ZILUSEI GABEI YORSHIN- he forgives his disgrace, for the benefit of the heirs

26)[last line] HAYU AVIV V'IMO MEZAREKIN BO KELIM- if the father and mother of the Mes were throwing clothing upon him [in an anguished attempt to dispose of all their possessions to care for the deceased]

27)[last line] MITZVAH AL HA'ACHERIM L'HATZILAN- it is a Mitzvah [of Hashavas Aveidah] upon others to save the items [by removing them from the Mes]

48b----------------------------------------48b

28)[line 1] MISHUM MERARAI'HU- because of their anguish [and it is not valid as Hazmanah]

29a)[line 4] B'MITAH HA'NIKBERES IMO- on the bier that will be buried with him (on which he will be transported to the cemetery)

b)[line 4] D'MICHLEFEI B'SACHRICHEI HA'MES- for they may be confused with actual shrouds [which are normally put onto the Mes on that bed - RASHI]

30a)[line 12] TZIPAN ZAHAV- he plated [the Tefilin] with gold

b)[line 12] O SHE'TALA ALEIHEN OR SHEL BEHEMAH TEME'AH- or covered them with the hide of a non-Kosher species

31)[line 14] LO IBEDAN LISHMAN- he did not tan the hides for the Mitzvah of Tefilin

32a)[line 16] MI IKA DUCHTA...- is there any place...

b)[line 16] , ?D'RAMU BEI MES, V'AREGEI VEGED LA'MES- ... where they place a Mes [in waiting], and they weave a garment for him?

33)[line 18] SHICHVEI D'HARPANYA- the deceased of Harpanya [where the inhabitants were poor, and they would collect funds and make thin shrouds only after a death]

34)[line 20] HARUGEI MALCHUS- those executed by a Jewish king [for treason]

35)[line 23]"[ ] ""... HINEH B'CHEREM NAVOS ASHER YARAD SHAM L'RISHTO" - "[Go down to confront Achav, King of Yisrael in Shomron,] behold, he is in the vineyard of Navos, to which he has descended to inherit it" (Melachim I 21:18) (ACHAV AND NAVOS)

(a)Achav, wicked king of the ten tribes of Yisrael, greatly desired the vineyard of his relative Navos ha'Yizre'eli. His wicked queen Izevel devised a sinister plot, in which false witnesses were hired to testify that Navos had blasphemed HaSh-m, and cursed the king as well. Navos was executed and Achav inherited his vineyard.

(b)HaSh-m instructed Eliyahu ha'Navi to go down Navos' vineyard to confront Achav, who had gone there to inherit it. He was to inform him that if he thought that he would get away with murdering Navos and inheriting his vineyard, he was sadly mistaken. On the very spot where the dogs lapped up the blood of Navos, the dogs were destined to lap up Achav's blood, and dogs would similarly devour his wife Izevel in the valley of Yizre'el. Achav was killed soon thereafter in battle against Aram.

36)[line 27]" [ ', '; ']""IM LO ES DEMEI NAVOS V'ES DEMEI VANAV RA'ISI [EMESH, NE'UM HASH-M...]"- "'Have I not seen the blood of Navos and the blood of his children [spilled] [last evening,' said HaSh-m, 'and I shall pay you back in this very field,' said HaSh-m; and now, carry and cast [Yehoram's body] in that field, according to the word of HaSh-m]" (Melachim II 9:26). Yehu ben Yehoshafat ben Nimshi had just assassinated King Yehoram, son of the wicked Achav. Yehu declared that this was part of HaSh-m's revenge against the House of Achav for the death of Navos. For more regarding Yehu, see Background to Sanhedrin 102:2.

37)[line 29]"[ , ] - ; [ ]""... BERACH NAVOS EL-KIM VA'MELECH..."- "[The two lawless men came and sat opposite him, and the lawless men testified against Navos before the people, saying,] 'Navos blasphemed G-d and [cursed] the king; [and they brought him outside the city and stoned him, and he died]" (Melachim I 21:13).

38)[line 31] L'APUSHEI RITCHA- to intensify the wrath [of the judges]

39)[line 32]"[ , , ;] ' ""[VEHA'SHEMU'AH BA'AH AD YOAV, KI YOAV NATAH ACHAREI ADONIYAH, V'ACHAREI AVSHALOM LO NATAH;] VA'YANAS EL OHEL HASH-M, VA'YACHAZEK B'KARNOS HA'MIZBE'ACH"- "[And the news reached Yoav - for Yoav had supported Adoniyah, but had not supported Avshalom - ] and he fled to the Tent of [the Aron of] HaSh-m, and he grabbed hold of the corners of the Mizbe'ach" (Melachim I 2:28).

40)[line 32]"[ ', ,] ; [ , ]""... VA'YOMER: 'LO, KI FOH AMUS!' [VA'YASHEV BENAYAHU ES HA'MELECH DAVAR LEIMOR, 'KO DIBER YO'AV, V'CHO ANANI']"- "[And Benayahu came to the Tent of HaSh-m, and said to him, 'So says the king: Go out!'] And he said, 'No, for here shall I die!' [And Benayahu returned word to the king, saying, 'So spoke Yoav, and so he answered me']" (Melachim I 2:30).

41)[line 34] L'CHAYEI SHA'AH- to remain alive for a [short] time

42a)[line 34] , ' ...'AMAR LEI, "ZIL, EIMA LEI..."- Yoav said to Benayahu, "Go, say to Shlomo..."

b)[line 35]'' '' ''...TARTEI LO SA'AVID B'HAI GAVRA''- "... do not exact two punishments against 'that man' (i.e. himself, Yoav)"

43a)[line 35] IY KATLIS LEI- if you kill "him"

b)[line 35] KABUL LATUSEI D'LATYEI AVUCH- accept the curse that your father (David) cursed him

44)[line 36]" ; [ ]""VA'YOMER LO HA'MELECH, 'ASEH KA'ASHER DIBER, U'FGA BO U'KVARTO..."- "And the king said to [Benayahu], 'Do as [Yoav] has spoken, and smite him and bury him; [and remove the innocent blood that Yoav has spilt from upon me and from upon my father's house]" (Melachim I 2:31).

45)[line 38]"[ ; ] ""[YACHULU AL ROSH YOAV V'EL KOL BEIS AVIV; V']AL YIKARES MI'BEIS YOAV ZAV U'METZORA U'MACHAZIK BA'PELECH V'NOFEL BA'CHEREV VA'CHASAR LACHEM"- "[(The guilt of Avner's blood) shall rest upon Yoav and all of his father's house; and] let there not cease from Yoav's house a Zav (see Background to Eruvin 27:5), a Metzora, he who leans on a crutch, he who falls [in battle] by the sword, and he who lacks bread [to eat]" (Shmuel II 3:29). Avner had been the commander-in-chief of the army of King Shaul, and he initially crowned Shaul's son, Ish Boshes, as Shaul's successor (Shmuel II 2:8-9). He later wished to unite all of the people under the leadership of David (ibid. 3:8-21), but during his efforts to do so, he was killed by Yoav, David's commander-in-chief (ibid. 3:27). See Background to Sanhedrin 105:12.

46)[line 39]"[ , ;] ""... VEHA'MELECH RECHAV'AM HIS'AMETZ LA'ALOS BA'MERKAVAH LA'NUS YERUSHALAYIM"- "[And King Rechav'am sent Adoram, [minister] in charge of the tax, and all of Yisrael pelted him with stones, and he died;] and King Rechav'am exerted himself to ascend his chariot to flee to Yerushalayim" (Melachim I 12:18). Upon the death of Shlomo ha'Melech, Rechav'am, his son, took the counsel of his young advisors to increase the high tax and hard labor that Shlomo had instituted (Melachim I 12:14). As a result, the people rebelled under the leadership of Yerav'am ben Nevat.

47)[line 40]" ""V'CHOL HA'MERKAV ASHER YIRKAV ALAV HA'ZAV, YITMA" - "And any riding implement that the Zav shall ride upon shall transmit Tum'ah" (Vayikra 15:9). (ZAV / MERKAV HA'ZAV)

See Background to Eruvin 27: 5-7.

48)[line 41]"() [] , ' -; ' ""UCH'CHEZKASO GAVAH LIBO AD L'HASHCHIS, VA'YIM'AL BA'SH-M EL-KAV; VA'YAVO EL HEICHAL HASH-M, L'HAKTIR AL MIZBACH HA'KETORES" - " But as he became strong, his heart became haughty to the point of destruction; and he entered the Heichal of HaSh-m to offer Ketores upon the Mizbe'ach." (Divrei ha'Yamim II 26:16) (UZIYAHU)

(a)Uziyahu was crowned as king of Yehudah at age 16. He was very pious at first, and was granted much military and political power by HaSh-m. He built up Yerushalayim and many cities that he had captured, and he fought many successful battles on behalf of Yehudah, until his fame spread far and wide. However, this verse relates that "as he became strong, his heart became destructively haughty."

(b)Azaryahu the Kohen Gadol entered the Heichal after him, followed by eighty strong Kohanim who pleaded with him to desist, but to no avail.

(c)Uziyahu was punished for his insolence by being stricken with Tzara'as (v. 19, see next entry); for the last twenty-seven years of his life he lived in seclusion outside of Yerushalayim (Melachim II 15:5). (His son, the righteous Yosam, took over the day-to-day running of the kingdom. However, he did not usurp his father's authority; rather, he attributed all of his verdicts and edicts to his father. See Background to Sukah 45:22.)

49)[line 42]"[ , ; ,] [ ', ]""[VA'YIZ'AF UZIYAHU, UV'YADO MIKTERES L'HAKTIR; UV'ZA'APO IM HA'KOHANIM,] VEHA'TZARA'AS ZARCHA V'MITZCHO [LIFNEI HA'KOHANIM B'VEIS HASH-M, ME'AL L'MIZBACH HA'KETORES]"- "[And Uziyahu was infuriated, and in his hand was the shovel of Ketores [ready] to offer; and as he was furious with the Kohanim], the Tzara'as shone on his forehead [before the Kohanim in the House of HaSh-m, over the Ketores Altar]" (Divrei ha'Yamim II 26:19).

50)[line 45] MEICHASH HAVAH CHAYISH BEI- he himself felt (i.e. suffered) from it

51)[line 46]" ' ""SOD HASH-M LI'YREI'AV, U'VERISO L'HODI'AM"- "The secret of HaSh-m is [revealed] to those who fear Him, and to inform them of His covenant" (Tehilim 25:14).

52)[line 47]" [ ]""VA'YORU HA'YORIM LA'MELECH YOSHIYAHU..." - "And the archers shot at King Yoshiyahu..." (Divrei ha'Yamim II 35:23) (YOSHIYAHU HA'MELECH)

See Background to Sanhedrin 47:42, Background to Ta'anis 22:22-23.

53)[line 48]K'CHEVARAH- like a sieve

54)[line 48]YECHANYAH / YEHOYACHIN

(a)The eighteen-year-old Yechanyah (or Yehoyachin), son of Yehoyakim, had ruled for only three months, when Nevuchadnetzar returned to Yerushalayim and demanded his surrender (see Background to Yoma 53:60). This episode took place in the seventh year of Nevuchdnetzar's reign, eleven years before the destruction of the Beis ha'Mikdash, which took place during the reign of Tzidkiyahu, Yehoyachin's uncle and successor.

(c)Nevuchadnetzar sent Yehoyachin, together with one thousand of the greatest Torah scholars in Yerushalayim at that time and certain vessels from the Beis ha'Mikdash, to Bavel. Yehoyachin was placed in jail, where he remained until the day following Nevachadnetzar's death, when he was freed by Nevuchadnetzar's son, Evil Merodach.

(d)Of particular significance were the thousand Talmidei Chachamim who went with Yechanyah to Bavel. They would open Yeshivos and disseminate Torah on a large scale, paving the way for the arrival of the exiles eleven years later, who found a solid Torah community waiting for them. The Babylonian Yeshivos were so successful that they were destined to last for a thousand years, until several generations after Rav Ashi redacted the Talmud there.

55)[last line]" [ ]""VA'ARUCHASO ARUCHAS TAMID NITENAH LO [ME'ES HA'MELECH DEVAR YOM B'YOMO, KOL YEMEI CHAYAV]"- "And his meal was given to him consistently by the king (Evil Merodach) each day, all the days of his life" (Melachim II 25:30).

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