YOMA 53 - Two weeks of study material have been dedicated by Mrs. Estanne Abraham Fawer to honor the Yahrzeit of her father, Rav Mordechai ben Eliezer Zvi (Rabbi Morton Weiner) Z'L, who passed away on 18 Teves 5760. May the merit of supporting and advancing Dafyomi study -- which was so important to him -- during the weeks of his Yahrzeit serve as an Iluy for his Neshamah.

[a - 49 lines; b - 49 lines]

b)[line 1]שמא תכוהSHEMA TICHVEH- a) for you may become burned [as the smoke rises from the Ketores already placed] (RASHI); b) for you may become burned [from the coals or the Ketores; rather, begin placing the Ketores at a point at some distance from you]] (RABEINU CHANANEL; RAMBAM)

1)[line 2]יתקןYESAKEN- place the Ketores upon the coals

2a)[line 3]להוציא מלבןL'HOTZI MI'LIBAN- lit. to remove from the hearts; to counteract the assertion

b)[line 3]צדוקיןTZEDUKIM

(a)The Tzedukim were students of Tzadok, and the Beitusim were students of Beitus. Both of these individuals rejected the Oral Torah (Avos d'Rebbi Nasan 5:2).

3)[line 5]מלמדMELAMED ...- The Tzedukim interpret this verse to mean that the Kohen Gadol should enter the Kodesh ha'Kodashim on Yom ha'Kipurim only with a cloud of Ketores; that is, after he has allowed its smoke to rise.

4)[line 9]מעלה עשןMA'ALEH ASHAN- an ingredient placed in the Ketores that caused its smoke to rise straight up in the air; probably Leptadenia Pyrotechnica (due to the nitric acid it contains)

5)[line 11]או שחיסר אחת מכל סמניהO SHE'CHISER ACHAS MI'KOL SMANEHA- or if he left out any of its ingredients (see Background to 38:17). (This is derived from that which the Torah refers to "ha'Ketores" as opposed to simply "Ketores".

6)[line 12]דקא מעייל ביאה ריקניתD'KA ME'YEIL BI'AH REIKANIS- that he has entered the Kodesh ha'Kodashim without performing an Avodah [which carries with it the death penalty (Vayikra 16:20)]

7a)[line 13]שגג בביאהSHAGAG B'BI'AH- he was unaware that it was prohibited to enter the Kodesh ha'Kodashim

b)[line 13]הזיד בהקטרהHIZID B'HAKTARAH- he was aware that the Ketores must contain Ma'aleh Ashan

8)[line 20]קרא לקרא?KRA L'KRA?- [why is one] verse [necessary as a support] for [another] verse?

9a)[line 21]עלהALEH- the leaf

b)[line 22]עיקרIKAR- the root

10)[line 23]איפכאIPCHA- the opposite (i.e., that the root of Ma'aleh Ashan is more effective than its leaf)

11)[line 24]מתמר ועולה כמקלMETAMER V'OLEH K'MAKEL- would rise up straight as a palm tree, like a stick

12)[line 25]שמי קורהSHMEI KORAH- the sky of the beam; the ceiling

13)[line 25]ממשמש ויורד בכותליםMEMASHMESH V'YORED B'KOSALIM- it would move slowly (lit. grope its way) down the walls

14a)[line 28]שילהSHILOH- The city of Shiloh was in the portion of Efrayim. Mishkan Shiloh was built there following the fourteen years necessary to conquer and apportion Eretz Yisrael; it stood for 369 years (Seder Olam Rabah 11)

b)[line 28]בית עולמיםBEIS OLAMIM- the Beis ha'Mikdash, called the "Eternal Dwelling" since - once chosen - it became the permanent dwelling place of the Shechinah

15)[line 29]"וכן יעשה לאהל מועד השכן אתם ..."V'CHEN YA'ASEH L'OHEL MO'ED, HA'SHOCHEN ITAN ..."- "... and so shall he do for the Ohel Mo'ed, that dwells with them ..." (Vayikra 16:16). This verse refers to the Avodah of Yom ha'Kipurim. It is clear from the wording that it is applicable to any building that Hash-m's presence dwells upon.

16)[line 30]בשאר ימות השנהBI'SH'AR YEMOS HA'SHANAH- [for the daily Ketores offered] during the rest of the year

17)[line 32]מיתת בני אהרןMISAS BNEI AHARON (MISAS NADAV V'AVIHU)

(a)The Mishkan in the desert was dedicated on Rosh Chodesh Nisan, during the second year following the Exodus from Egypt. On that day, Aharon and his sons were initiated as Kohanim (servants) of Hash-m. They offered special sacrifices for the consecration (Korbenos ha'Milu'im), along with the Korbanos that were to be offered every day. The latter group included the daily Tamid sacrifice, and, since it was the first of the month, the additional sacrifices (Korbenos Musaf) of Rosh Chodesh.

(b)As a display of their unbounded love for Hash-m, Nadav and Avihu (righteous sons of Aharon) decided to offer Ketores (incense) in the Kodesh ha'Kodashim. Such an action had not been sanctioned by Hash-m. When they proceeded to do so, a fire descended from the sky and entered their nostrils, consuming their souls but leaving their bodies intact.

18)[line 34]"אראה""ERA'EH"- "I shall be seen" (Vayikra 16:2)

19)[line 35]מאי תלמודא?MAI TALMUDA?- how is it implied [that this Parshah preceded the death of Nadav and Avihu]?

20)[line 36]שהורוSHE'HORU- that they ruled

21)[line 40]"ויבא שלמה לבמה אשר בגבעון ירושלים [מלפני אהל מועד וימלך על ישראל]""VA'YAVO SHLOMO LA'BAMAH ASHER B'GIV'ON, YERUSHALAYIM ..." - "And Shlomo came to the Bamah which was in Giv'on, Yerushalayim, from before the Ohel Mo'ed, and he ruled over Yisrael" (Divrei ha'Yamim II 1:13) (The wisdom of Shlomo)

(a)The first thing the twelve-year-old Shlomo did after being crowned king was to pay a visit to the Bamah (altar; see Background to Pesachim 91:4) in Giv'on, accompanied by the entire nation. The verse describes this visit. Although his father David had already moved the Aron to Yerushalayim, the Ohel Mo'ed remained in Giv'on, where the copper Mizbe'ach that had been built by Betzalel was situated. Shlomo proceeded to sacrifice one thousand Olos to Hash-m.

(b)That night, Hash-m appeared to Shlomo in a dream and offered to grant him anything that he desired. Shlomo requested wisdom and an understanding heart in order to best serve Am Yisrael as king. This request so pleased Hash-m that He granted him not only what he asked for, but unparalleled wealth as well.

(c)Following this, Shlomo went on to Yerushalayim to assume the leadership of Klal Yisrael.

22)[line 43]לוים בדוכנןLEVIYIM B'DUCHANAN (DUCHAN)

(a)While the Kohanim offer obligatory public Korbenos Olah or the Korbenos Shelamim of Shavu'os, the Leviyim stand upon a raised platform facing the Sanctuary, with their backs to the Ezras Yisrael. Some Leviyim sing songs of praise to Hash-m from Tehilim, while others accompany the song with musical instrumentation.

23)[line 43]ישראל במעמדןYISRAEL B'MA'AMADAN (MA'AMADOS)

(a)The Mishnah (Ta'anis 26a) teaches that all of Bnei Yisrael were divided into twenty-four Ma'amados (groups) by the early prophets. Each Ma'amad includes Kohanim, Leviyim and Yisraelim. The Ma'amados are responsible to see that the Korbanos in the Beis ha'Mikdash are sacrificed properly for one week at a time. Thus each Ma'amad is on duty approximately twice a year.

(b)The Kohanim and Leviyim of each Ma'amad travel to the Beis ha'Mikdash for their week of duty in order to perform the divine service. Although most of the Yisraelim in the Mishmar stays at home, some travel to Yerushalayim and represent the entire Ma'amad. Their job is to stand in the Beis ha'Mikdash during the Avodah and pray for the Korbanos to be accepted by Hash-m. On Monday through Thursday they fast. During the Avodah, they read certain portions of the Torah, and recite the special Shemoneh Esrei of communal fast days (see Background to Shabbos 24:1).

24a)[line 44]מחזיריןMACHZIRIN- turn away

b)[line 44]מצדדיןMETZADEDIN- turn towards

25)[line 46]כד הוה מיפטר מיניה דר' יוחנןKAD HAVAH MIFTAR MINEI D'REBBI YOCHANAN- when he would take leave of Rebbi Yochanan

26)[line 46]לסגוייL'SAGUYEI- to walk away

27a)[line 46]הוה גחין קאי ר' אלעזר אדוכתיהHAVAH GACHIN KA'I REBBI ELAZAR A'DUCHTEI- Rebbi Elazar would bow in place

b)[line 47]עד דהוה מיכסי ר' יוחנן מיניהAD D'HAVAH MICHSI REBBI YOCHANAN MINEI- until Rebbi Yochanan was hidden from his sight

28)[line 48]לאחוריהLA'ACHOREI- while facing backward

29a)[last line]דמנגפן כרעיהD'MENAGFAN KAR'EI- his feet were battered

b)[last line]ומתווסן אסקופתא דבי רב יוסף דמאU'MITAVSAN ISKUFTA D'BEI RAV YOSEF DAMA- and the stoop of Rav Yosef's house became stained with blood

53b----------------------------------------53b

30)[line 1]אמרו ליה לרב יוסףAMRU LEI L'RAV YOSEF- Rav Yosef was blind, and was therefore unaware of the honor accorded him until he was notified.

31a)[line 2]יהא רעואYEHEI RAIVA- may it be [Hash-m's] will

b)[line 2]דתרום רישך אכולה כרכאD'TARUM REISHACH A'KULA KERACHA- that your head shall be raised over the entire city. This means a) that you shall become the Rosh Yeshiva (RASHI); b) that the Halachah should always follow your opinion (RABEINU CHANANEL, citing Yesh Omrim)

32)[line 4]שיפסיעSHE'YAFSI'A- that he step

33)[line 5]יתן שלוםYITEN SHALOM- take his leave [from Hash-m]

34)[line 7]למיקםL'MEIKAM- to [remain] standing [for a bit]

35)[line 8]לאלתרL'ALTER- immediately

36)[line 8]ששב על קיאוSHE'SHAV AL KI'O- that returns to [eat] its vomit

37)[line 10]ראוי לוRA'UY LO- it would have been better for him

38)[line 11]"... מִימִינוֹ, אשדת (אֵשׁ דָּת) לָמוֹ.""MI'YEMINO, ESH DAS LAMO"- "... from His right hand, His fiery Law to them" (Devarim 33:2)

39)[line 11]"יִפֹּל מִצִּדְּךָ אֶלֶף, וּרְבָבָה מִימִינֶךָ ...""YIPOL MI'TZIDCHA ELEF U'REVAVA MI'MINECHA ..."- "One thousand should fall from your [left] side, and ten thousand from your right side ..." (Tehilim 91:7).

40)[line 12]למיתבL'MEISAV- to give

41)[line 16]בכריעה אחתBI'KERI'AH ACHAS- while bowing continuously

42a)[line 18]גשומהGESHUMAH- rainy

b)[line 18]שחונהSHECHUNAH- hot

43)[line 20]לא יעדי עביד שולטן מדבית יהודהLO YAIDEI AVID SHULTAN MID'VEIS YEHUDAH- may leadership not depart from the House of Yehudah; this is the Targum Onkelos to Bereishis 49:10

44)[line 21]תפלת עוברי דרכיםL'FARNES- to [be] supported

45)[line 21]תפלת עוברי דרכיםTEFILAS OVREI DERACHIM- the prayer of those traveling [who would prefer that no rain fall]

46)[line 22]שדא מטרא עליהSHADA MITRA ALEI- rain fell upon him

47)[line 24]וחנינא בנחתV'CHANINA B'NACHAS?- and [only I,] Chanina, should be comfortable [since I am under a roof and own no fields]?

48)[line 26]נמנוNIMNU- refrained

49)[line 30]נביאים ראשוניםNEVI'IM RISHONIM- David ha'Melech and Shmuel ha'Navi

50)[line 32]ממרסMEMARES- stirring

51a)[line 32]מקום שנכנסMAKOM SHE'NICHNAS- the Kodesh ha'Kodashim

b)[line 32]מקום שעמדMAKOM SHE'AMAD- between the poles of the Aron

52)[line 33]ממנוMI'MENU- from [the blood of his bull]

53)[line 34]כמצליףK'MATZLIF- similar to one who administers lashes a) in that he places the first blow high upon the back, and each subsequent one a bit below the previous one. This is the meaning of "above" and "below" - that each droplet of blood fell before the next [on the floor in front of the Paroches] (RASHI, RABEINU CHANANEL to 15a); b) in that the last seven sprinklings were accomplished with the Kohen Gadol holding his hand with his palm facing downwards, similar to the position in which one holds a whip. [The first sprinkling, however, was accomplished in the opposite manner, with the Kohen Gadol holding his hand with his palm facing upwards (TOSFOS YESHANIM to 15a, ARUCH Erech Neged II, in the name of REBBI MOSHE HA'DARSHAN MI'NARVONA)]

54)[line 34]אחת ואחתACHAS V'ACHAS- one [above] and one [below]

55)[line 35]כןKAN- a stand

56)[line 36]מזרקMIZRAK- a [sanctified] bowl [from which the blood would later be sprinkled in the Kodesh and Kodesh ha'Kodashim]

57)[line 39]נטל דם הפרNATAL DAM HA'PAR- [Rav Yehudah explains how one stand was able to hold two bowls:] he removed the [bowl containing] the blood of the bull

58)[line 40]על הפרוכתAL HA'PAROCHES- in front of the Paroches

59)[line 42]עירהIRAH- he poured

60)[line 44]"ולתשובת השנה שלח המלך נבוכדנאצר ויביאהו בבלה עם כלי חמדת בית ה'""VE'LI'TESHUVAS HASHANAH SHALACH HA'MELECH VAYEVI'EIHU BAVELAH IM K'LEI CHEMDAS BEIS HASH-M ..." (Nevuchadnetzar crowns Tzidkiyahu king)

(a)After Nevuchadnetzar King of Bavel - who had defeated Klal Yisrael - removed Yehoyakim from his position as King of Yehudah, Yehoyakim's eighteen-year-old son Yehoyachin ascended the throne. He had reigned for only three months when Nevuchadnetzar deposed him at the behest of his ministers, who claimed that a puppy was liable to turn out as wild as its father. "And at the turn of the year, King Nevuchadnetzar sent for him and took him to Bavel, together with the precious vessels from the House of Hash-m, and he crowned his [Yehoyakim's] brother Tzidkiyahu king over Yehudah and Yerushalayim [Divrei ha'Yamim II 36:10). This was the fulfillment of Yeshayah's prophecy to Chizkiyahu (see next entry).

(b)Nevuchadnetzar then sent Yehoyachin, one thousand of the greatest Torah scholars in Yerushalayim at that time, and certain vessels from the Beis ha'Mikdash (which some interpret to include the Aron ha'Kodesh) to Bavel. Yehoyachin was placed in jail, where he remained until the day following Nevachadnetzar's death.

61)[line 45]"... לא יותר דבר אמר ה'""... LO YIVASER DAVAR AMAR HASH-M" - "[Hear the word of Hash-m. Behold! Days are coming, and everything in your house, as well as all that your ancestors stored away until this point, will be taken to Bavel;] nothing will remain, Hash-m has said. [And he (the King of Bavel) will take some of your sons ... and they will be servants in the palace of the King of Bavel.]" (Melachim II 20:17-18; Yeshayah 39:6-7). (King Chizkiyahu brings trouble upon himself)

(a)King Chizkiyahu recovered from a life-threatening illness. As a sign of that recovery, Hash-m miraculously caused the sun to move backward by ten degrees. Berodach Bal'adan ben Bal'adan, king of Bavel, was greatly impressed by this, and he sent emissaries with letters of peace and gifts to Chizkiyahu upon his recovery. Chizkiyahu, flattered by the visit, gave his guests a guided tour of all of his treasuries, which were located in Yerushalayim as well as throughout the rest of the country.

(b)Yeshayah ha'Navi queried Chizkiyahu as to who his guests were and why they had come. He replied haughtily, saying that they had come all the way from Bavel, and that there was nothing in his treasuries that he had neglected to show them. The Navi responded with this following prophecy.

(c)The opinion mentioned at this point of our Gemara maintains that that which was not to remain included the Aseres ha'Dibros stored in the Aron.

62)[line 48]פעם ראשונה ושניהPA'AM RISHONAH U'SHENIYAH- from two different verses

63)[last line]"וַיֵּצֵא מן בת- (מִבַּת-) צִיּוֹן כָּל-הֲדָרָהּ ...""VA'YETZEI MI'BAS TZIYON KOL HADARAH ..."- "And all of the grandeur of the daughter of Tziyon left her ..." (Eichah 1:6).

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