THE DISPUTE WITH THE TZEDOKIM
The Beraisa teaches that the Kohen Gadol puts the Ketores on the coals only inside the Kodesh ha'Kodoshim, not like the Tzedokim who would have him do it prior to his entry.
Question: What is the basis for the Tzedoki error?
Answer: The Pasuk "Ki be'Anan... "
The Chachamim responded that the Pasuk already taught "Lifnei Hash-m" (and the Pasuk "Ki be'Anan" teaches that he should add Ma'aleh Ashan to the Ketores).
Question: How do we know that Ma'aleh Ashan must be added?
Answer: "ve'Chishah Anan ha'Ketores" (whence we learn that one who omits Ma'aleh Ashan or another of the ingredients is Chayav Misah).
Question: The Chiyuv Misah should be obvious since he would then be entering the Kodesh ha'Kodoshim without cause!?
Answer: He was a Shogeg regarding entering for naught, but he intentionally omitted an ingredient.
Alternate Answer (R. Ashi): He was Meizid by both, but the Pasuk speaks where he went in with two Ketoros, one proper and one defective.
Question: Why do we need "ve'Chisah" (to know that he includes Ma'aleh Ashan) over and above "Ki be'Anan"?
Answer: To teach that we may even include the root, not only the leaf, of the Ma'aleh Ashan.
Question: But the Beraisa teaches that the root is superior (causes the smoke to rise straight up).
Answer: The second Pasuk ("ve'Chisah") permits even the leaf.
Alternate Answer (R. Sheishes): "ve'Chisah" teaches the rule of Ma'aleh Ashan even beyond the Mishkan in the desert.
Question: But this extension is learned from "ve'Chein Ya'aseh!"
Answer: Rather, "ve'Chisah" teaches that the requirement of Ma'aleh Ashan is year-round (not only Yom Kipur).
Alternate Answer (R. Ashi): One Pasuk is for the Mitzvah; one is to teach that Ma'aleh Ashan is Me'akev.
Alternate Answer (Rava): One Pasuk is for Onesh; one is for Azharah (as cited in the name of R. Elazar in the Beraisa).
The Beraisa goes on to negate the possibility that the prohibition is only prior to the incident of the sons of Aharon.
Similarly, the Pasuk is used to preclude the suggestion that it is only after the incident.
Question: How are these compatible?
Answer: The Azharah preceded the incident and the Onesh followed.
Question: How does the Pasuk imply that the Azharah preceded the incident?
Answer: The future "Eira'eh".
THE SONS OF AHARON
Question: (Given that the Onesh was not yet given,) why were Aharon's sons punished?
Answer: They issued a ruling in the presence of their teacher, Moshe.
Question: On what basis did they determine to bring the fire from Hedyot?
Answer: The Pasuk says "ve'Nasnu B'nei Aharon Eish!"
HE LEFT AS HE CAME
Question: What is the source for not turning around to leave?
Answer: The Pasuk "mi'Givon Yerushalayim" teaches that he left Givon the way he came (facing the Bamah).
The same holds for the Levi'im and Yisre'elim in the Mikdash as well as a student taking leave of his Rebbe (e.g. R. Elazar leaving R. Yochanan).
When R. Yochanan wished to leave, R. Elazar stood...
When R. Elazar wished to leave he would reverse his steps...
Rava would take leave of R. Yosef in like manner.
When R. Yosef was informed of this he blessed Rava.
STEPPING BACK FROM PRAYER
One who has prayed must take three steps back and extend Shalom.
He must pause there, like a student taking leave of his Rebbe (as supported by the Beraisa) as turning away immediately would be an insult.
He extends Shalom to the right, then left, as supported by two Pesukim.
Question: Why do we need the second Pasuk?
Answer: The Luchos might be carried in the right as that is the common manner, while the second Pasuk underscores the importance of the right.
Rava corrected Abaye by pointing out that right means the right of Hash-m (our left).
It was reported that Abaye and Rava bowed as they stepped back.
THE BRIEF PRAYER
Question: What was his Tefilah?
Answer: 'Yehi Ratzon... Geshumah u'Shechunah'.
Question: Is a hot year a good thing?
Answer: It should be balanced.
R. Acha b. Rava citing R. Yehudah added to the Tefilah of the Kohen Gadol:
'Let not the rulership pass from the upright house of Yehudah.
Let not one Jew need to be sustained by another.
Let not the prayers of wayfarers be accepted'.
R. Chanina b. Dosa was able to petition for rain to stop and restart.
The Tefilah of the Kohen Gadol was no contest for the Tefilah of R. Chanina.
In one incident the Kohen Gadol lengthened his Tefilah, leading to the concern mentioned in the Mishnah.
MISHNAH: THE ZERIKOS
The Even ha'Shesiyah stood where the Aron once stood.
He went in (with the Dam which was being stirred) and did the Zerikas Dam ha'Par in the Kodesh ha'Kodoshim.
The Haza'ah was one upward and seven downward (not on the Paroches but on the ground below) while counting aloud.
He brought that Dam out and went back in with the Dam Sa'ir and repeated the Zerikah.
There is a Machlokes whether there was one or two shelves.
He did a set of Zerikos in the Heichal with each Dam as well.
He then poured the remaining Dam of the Par into the Dam of the Sa'ir, and then poured its contents back.