WHICH HAVDALOS DO WE SAY?
Rav Yakov: If so, you should say three or seven - but you said four!
Rava: 'Between Shabbos and the six days of action' is not counted, because it is like the Chasimah (closing Berachah, 'Baruch Atah Hash-m ha'Mavdil Bein Kodesh l'Chol'), and Rav Yehudah taught that just before the Chasimah must resemble the Chasimah.
(Chachamim of Pumbedisa): Just before the Chasimah must resemble the beginning of the Berachah.
Question: What is the difference between Rav Yehudah and Pumbedisai (the Chasimah is the same as the opening)!
Answer: They argue about Yom Tov that follows Shabbos - then, the Chasimah is Ha'Mavdil Bein Kodesh l'Kodesh:
Pumbedisai do not require saying 'You distinguished between the Kedushah of Shabbos and the Kedushah of Yom Tov', but Rav Yehudah requires it.
(R. Elazar): One may not say less than three or more than seven.
Question (Beraisa): One says Havdalos on Motza'ei Shabbos, Motza'ei Yom Tov or Motza'ei Yom Kipur, even when Motza'ei Shabbos is Yom Tov or Motza'ei Yom Tov is Chol ha'Mo'ed, but not when Motza'ei Yom Tov is Shabbos;
If one is used to saying Havdalos, he may say many; if not, he says only one.
Answer: Tana'im argue about this:
(R. Yochanan): The son of Kedoshim says one; people are used to saying three.
Question: Who is 'the son of Kedoshim'?
Answer: It is R. Menachem ben Sim'ai - he is called this because he never looked at the image on a coin [and his father was also Kadosh. Tosfos (Shabbos 149A) - since it is not made for idolatry, letter of the law it is permitted.]
Rav Shmuel bar Idi told his brother Chananyah to say only one Havdalah.
The Halachah does not follow him.
(R. Yehoshua ben Levi): One who makes Havdalah must say Havdalos like those in the Torah.
Question (Beraisa): The order of [seven] Havdalos (one is excluded - we will explain why) is 'between Kodesh and profane, between light and dark, between Yisrael and the nations, between Shabbos and the six days of action, between Tamei and Tahor, between the sea and the dry land, between the upper and lower waters, between Kohanim, Leviyim and Yisraelim'; the Chasimah is 'Who arranges the creation'.
Others say, the Chasimah is 'Who forms the creation';
R. Yosi b'Rebbi Yehudah says, it is 'Mekadesh Yisrael'.
Summation of question: The Torah does not mention distinction 'between the sea and the dry land'!
Answer: We must delete this.
Question: If so, there are only six - we do not count 'between Shabbos and the six days of action', for it is like the Chasimah 'Who arranges the creation'!
Answer: 'Between Kohanim, Leviyim and Yisraelim' counts like two;
Hash-m distinguished between Leviyim and Yisraelim - "Ba'Es ha'Hi Hivdil Hash-m Es Shevet ha'Levi";
He distinguished between Kohanim and Leviyim - "Va'Yibadel Aharon Lehakdisho Kodesh Kodoshim."
Question: What is the Chasimah?
Answer #1 (Rav): It is 'Mekadesh Yisrael'.
Answer #2 (Shmuel): It is 'Ha'Mavdil Bein Kodesh l'Chol'.
Abaye cursed those who ruled like Rav. (R. E. M. Horowitz - because heretics 'sanctify' Yom Rishon, we must declare that it is profane.)
(Beraisa - R. Yehoshua): If one ends 'Mekadesh Yisrael veha'Mavdil Bein Kodesh l'Chol', his days and years will be lengthened.
The Halachah does not follow him.
Ula visited Pumbedisa; Rav Yehudah told his son Yitzchak to bring fruits to him and observe how he makes Havdalah. Yitzchak did not go; rather, he asked Abaye to go. Abaye returned and said 'He said only 'Ha'Mavdil Bein Kodesh l'Chol' [and did not Chosem].' Yitzchak told his father that he sent Abaye, and what Abaye reported.
Rav Yehudah: Your [feeling of] authority and refusal [to obey] caused that this teaching was not said in your name!
Question (against Ula - Beraisa): All Berachos begin and end with 'Baruch', except for Berachos (Rishonos) on Mitzvos, on food, a Berachah that follows another Berachah, and the last Berachah of Kri'as Shma;
Some of these begin with 'Baruch' but do not end with 'Baruch' (e.g. for food), and some end with 'Baruch' but do not begin with 'Baruch' (such as a Berachah that follows another Berachah; Tosfos - also a Berachah after verses need not begin with Baruch, for it is clear where it begins);
Ha'Tov veha'Metiv (the fourth Berachah of Birkas ha'Mazon) begins with 'Baruch' but does not end with 'Baruch'.
Answer: Havdalah is also like a Berachah on a Mitzvah;
The reason Berachos on Mitzvos need not end with 'Baruch' is because all of it is praise (there is no interruption from the beginning Baruch) - Havdalah is also praise!