1)

(a)What is the minimum number of items that the Berachah of Havdalah should contain, and what is the maximum?

(b)Then what is the problem with our Nusach (which is the Nusach that Rava used) 'ha'Mavdil Bein Kodesh l'Chol, Bein Or l'Choshech, Bein Yisrael la'Amim, Bein Yom ha'Shevi'i l'Sheshes Yemei ha'Ma'aseh'?

(c)How does the Gemara resolve this problem?

1)

(a)The Berachah of Havdalah should contain not less than three items and not more than seven.

(b)The problem with our Nusach ('ha'Mavdil Bein Kodesh l'Chol, Bein Or l'Choshech, Bein Yisrael la'Amim, Bein Yom ha'Shevi'i l'Sheshes Yemei ha'Ma'aseh') - is that this is neither three items nor seven, and, since Chazal explicitly mentioned those two numbers, the Nusach ought to comprise either the one or the other.

(c)The fourth item ('Bein Yom ha'Shevi'i l'Sheshes Yemei ha'Ma'aseh', is not really an intrinsic part of Havdalah, but is inserted because it is the Minhag to insert a final item that resembles the final Berachah.

2)

(a)The Gemara gives arbitrary guide-lines for the Nusach of the Berachos, which was not yet fixed in those days. What does Rav Yehudah Amar Shmuel say about the last item in Havdalah before the final Berachah?

(b)The Pumbedisa'i disagree. What do they hold?

(c)Is this Machlokes confined to Havdalah?

(d)What is the difference between the two opinions?

2)

(a)Rav Yehudah Amar Shmuel says that the last item in Havdalah before the final Berachah must resemble the final Berachah (as we just explained).

(b)According to the Pumbedisa'i, the last item in Havdalah before the final Berachah must resemble, not the final Berachah, but the first item in the list (which in the case of the regular Havdalah, duplicates with the final Berachah).

(c)This Machlokes is not confined to Havdalah, but will apply equally to all Berachos that comprise a number of items.

(d)The difference between the two opinions manifests itself on a Yom-Tov which falls on Motzei Shabbos, when the text of the final Berachah reads 'Hamavdil Bein Kodesh l'Kodesh'. The opening item on the list remains unchanged ('Hamavdil Bein Kodesh l'Chol'); whereas according to Rav Yehudah Amar Shmuel, we will have to add just before the final Berachah 'Bein Kedushas Shabbos li'Kedushas Yom-Tov Hivdalta' etc.

3)

(a)Why is there no Havdalah between Yom-Tov and Shabbos and between Chol ha'Moed and Yom-Tov?

(b)We learned above that Havdalah should not contain less than three items and not more than seven. Rebbi Yochanan quotes Rebbi Menachem bar Sima'i (B'nan shel Kedoshim), who disagrees. What does he say?

(c)Why did Rebbi Menachem bar Sima'i bear the title 'B'nan shel Kedoshim'?

3)

(a)There is no Havdalah between Yom-Tov and Shabbos and between Chol ha'Moed and Yom-Tov - because Havdalah comes to divide between a more stringent Kedushah to a lesser one, and not vice-versa.

(b)According to Rebbi Menachem bar Sima'i, the Berachah for Havdalah contains only one item (like the opinion of Rebbi).

(c)Rebbi Menachem bar Sima'i bore the title 'Benan shel Kedoshim' - because he never looked at the image on a coin (due to a Chumra in Avodah-Zarah) - see Tosfos DH 'de'Lo'.

4)

(a)The Tana of the Beraisa supplements the seven possible items contained in the Berachah with the following four: 1. Bein Tamei l'Tahor; 2. Bein ha'Yam l'Charavah; 3. Bein Mayim ha'Elyonim l'Mayim ha'Tachtonim; 4. Bein Kohanim la'Leviyim l'Yisraelim'. If, as Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi says, the items must all be mentioned in the Torah, which one of these must be omitted?

(b)That leaves us with only six items. How do we then account for the one missing item? What is the connection between that and the Pesukim "ba'Eis ha'Hi Havdil Hash-m es Shevet ha'Levi" (Eikev), and "Bnei Amram, Aharon u'Moshe, va'Yavdel Aharon l'Hakdisho"?

(c)The only one of all the Havdolos that is not mentioned in the Torah is the last one: 'Bein Yom ha'Shevi'i l'Sheshes Yemei ha'Ma'aseh' Why is that acceptable?

(d)Some say that one concludes 'Baruch Soder Bereishis', others 'Baruch Yotzer Bereishis', and yet others, 'Baruch Mekadesh Yisrael'. Why would we say ...

1. ... 'Baruch Soder Bereishis' - on Motzei Shabbos?

2. ... 'Baruch Mekadesh Yisrael' - to conclude Havdalah? How does that fit into the concept of Havdalah?

4)

(a)Of the four additional items mentioned, Bein ha'Yam l'Charavah is not mentioned in the Torah, and must therefore be omitted from the list.

(b)'Bein Kohanim la'Leviyim l'Yisraelim' - is not one distinction, but two, between the Kohanim and the Leviyim, and between the Leviyim and the Yisraelim; both of these are mentioned in the Torah, the former, in Divrei ha'Yamim "Bnei Amram, Aharon u'Moshe, va'Yavdel Aharon l'Hakdisho", and the latter, in Eikev "ba'Eis ha'Hi Havdil Hash-m es Sheivet ha'Levi".

(c)The only one of all the Havdolos that is not mentioned in the Torah is the last one: 'Bein Yom ha'Shevi'i l'Sheshes Yemei ha'Ma'aseh'. This is quite in order - because it is not an intrinsic part of Havdalah, but the section that is inserted there because it is similar to the final Berachah.

(d)We might say ...

1. ... 'Baruch Soder Bereishis' on Motzei Shabbos - because it was on Motzei Shabbos that the world that had just been completed (on Shabbos) first began to operate.

2. ... 'Baruch Mekadesh Yisrael' to conclude Havdalah - because Yisrael is the only nation that Hash-m sanctified; He divided them from the rest of the world..

5)

(a)According to Rebbi Yosi b'Rebbi Yehudah, one concludes Havdalah with 'Mekadesh Yisrael', and Rav agrees with him. Abaye cursed anyone who uses that Nusach. Presumably he follows the opinion of Shmuel (which is also how we rule). What does Shmuel hold?

(b)What did Rebbi Yehoshua ben Chananya say about anyone who concludes 'Mekadesh Yisrael veha'Mavdil Bein Kodesh la'Chol'?

(c)Why do we not rule like ...

1. ... Rebbi Yehoshua?

2. ... Rav (rather than Shmuel)?

5)

(a)Abaye cursed anyone who uses the Nusach of 'Mekadesh Yisrael'. Presumably he follows the opinion of Shmuel - according to whom the Nusach of the final Berachah of Havdalah is 'Baruch ... Hamavdil Bein Kodesh l'Chol'.

(b)Rebbi Yehoshua ben Chananya says about anyone who concludes 'Mekadesh Yisrael v'h'Mavdil Bein Kodesh la'Chol' - that he will live a long time.

(c)We do not rule like ...

1. ... Rebbi Yehoshua - because of the principle 'Ein Chosmin bi'Shenayim' (one does not conclude a Berachah with two issues).

2. ... Rav (in preference to Shmuel) - since Abaye issued a curse on anybody who concludes like Rav.

6)

(a)How do we conclude Havdalah on Motzei Yom-Tov that falls on Shabbos?

6)

(a)On Motzei Yom-Tov that falls on Shabbos - we conclude 'Hamavdil Bein Kodesh l'Kodesh.

104b----------------------------------------104b

7)

(a)What did Abaye learn from Ula when he (Ula) came to Pumbedisa?

(b)Why was Rav Yehudah angry with his son Rav Yitzchak?

(c)What did Abaye gain by the fact that this Halachah was now quoted in his name, and not in that of Rav Yitzchak b'Rav Yehudah?

7)

(a)Abaye learn from Ula when he (Ula) came to Pumbedisa - that one only needs to recite 'Baruch ... Hamavdil Bein Kodesh l'Chol' for Havdalah and no more (like Rebbi and Rebbi Menachem ben Sima'i on the previous Daf).

(b)Rav Yehudah was angry with his son Rav Yitzchak - because, instead of going himself to make this discovery, he sent Abaye.

(c)By the fact that this Halachah was now quoted in Abaye's name, and not in that of Rav Yitzchak b'Rav Yehudah - Abaye gained that whenever this would be quoted after his death, his lips would move (and repeat Divrei Torah) in the grave.

8)

(a)Why do Birchos ha'Mitzvos and Birchos ha'Peiros not end with a Berachah?

(b)Which group of Berachos end with a Berachah but do not begin with one?

(c)Considering that the Berachah of 'Ga'al Yisrael' follows the Shema (and not another Berachah), why is it counted in this latter group?

(d)Why does the fourth Berachah of Birchas ha'Mazon ('ha'Tov v'ha'Meitiv') begin with a Berachah - in spite of the fact that it follows the third Berachah of Birchas ha'Mazon (Boneh Yerushalayim)?

8)

(a)Birchos ha'Mitzvos and Birchos ha'Peiros do not end with a Berachah - because they are too short to insert another Berachah.

(b)Berachos ha'Semuchos la'Chavertan end with a Berachah but do not begin with one.

(c)Despite the fact that the Berachah of 'Ga'al Yisrael' follows the Shema, it is nevertheless considered a Berachah ha'Semuchah la'Chavertah - because it also follows the Berachah before the Shema (and the Shema is not considered a break between the two Berachos).

(d)The fourth Berachah of Birchas ha'Mazon ('ha'Tov v'ha'Meitiv') begins with a Berachah - in spite of the fact that it follows the third Berachah of Birchas ha'Mazon - because, due to the fact that it is mid'Rabanan (as opposed to the other three Berachos, which are d'Oraisa), it is considered an independent Berachah.

9)

(a)Seeing as the Berachah of Havdalah does not appear to fit into any of the above-mentioned categories, why did Ula (whose Birchas Havdalah consisted exclusively of 'ha'Mavdil Bein Kodesh l'Chol') not end with a Berachah?

9)

(a)Despite the fact that the Berachah of Havdalah does not appear to fit into any of the above-mentioned categories - Ula (whose Birchas Havdalah consisted exclusively of 'ha'Mavdil Bein Kodesh l'Chol') nevertheless did not end with a Berachah, because, like the Birchos ha'Mitzvos, it is too short to add a second Berachah.