THE ORDER OF HAVDALAH AND KIDUSH
(Rav): When Yom Tov is on Motza'ei Shabbos, one blesses on wine, Kidush, light and Havdalah;
(Shmuel): The order is wine, light, Havdalah and Kidush;
(Rabah): The order is wine, Havdalah, light, and Kidush (Rashbam explains many of the reasons for the different opinions);
(Levi): The order is Kidush, light, wine and Havdalah;
(Rabanan): The order is Kidush, wine, light, and Havdalah;
(Mar brei d'Ravina): The order is light, Kidush, wine and Havdalah;
(Marsa): The order is light, wine, Havdalah and Kidush.
Question (Shmuel's father): What is the order of Havdalah?
Answer (Rebbi citing R. Yehoshua): It is light, Havdalah, wine and Kidush.
(R. Chanina): R. Yehoshua's order (Havdalah precedes Kidush) is like a king (Shabbos) leaving and a governor (Yom Tov) arriving - first they escort the king out, then they go out to greet the governor.
Question: What was the conclusion?
Answer #1 (Abaye): The order is wine, Kidush, Zeman, light and Havdalah (this is like Rav - Abaye adds that Zeman is said right after Kidush, for it is the reason Kidush is said);
Answer #2 (Rava): He says wine, Kidush, light, Havdalah and Zeman (Zeman is last, for it may be said any time during the festival, even without wine).
The Halachah follows Rava (we delay Havdalah, so it will not look like we are eager to end Shabbos).
Rav Huna bar Yehudah visited Rava; Rava blessed on spices first.
Question (Rav Huna): They do not argue about light (all agree that we bless on it first)!
(Mishnah - Beis Shamai): [On a regular Motza'ei Shabbos] we bless on light, Birkas ha'Mazon, spices, and Havdalah;
Beis Hillel say, we bless on light, spices, Birkas ha'Mazon, and Havdalah.
Answer (Rava): That is according to R. Meir - R. Yehudah says, all agree that Birkas ha'Mazon is first and Havdalah is last;
They argue about light and spices - Beis Shamai bless first on light, Beis Hillel bless first on spices.
(R. Yochanan): People follow Beis Hillel, according to R. Yehudah.
WHEN MUST ONE BLESS AGAIN ON WINE?
Rav Yakov bar Aba visited Rava; he saw that he blessed Borei Peri ha'Gafen on the first cup, and again on the cup of Birkas ha'Mazon and drank it.
Rav Yakov: Why did you bless a second time?
Rava: This is how we did in the Reish Galusa's house.
Rav Yakov: We do so in the Reish Galusa's house because we are unsure whether or not we will receive wine - but here, the cup is in front of us, and we plan to have it!
Rava: I did like Talmidim of Rav [after they accepted the words of Rav Yeiva]:
Rav Beruna and Rav Chananel, Talmidim of Rav, were at a meal; Rav Yeiva the elder was serving them. They told him 'give us [wine] and we will bless [Birkas ha'Mazon]'l they reconsidered and said 'give to us and we will drink.'
Rav Yeiva: Rav says that once you said that you will bless, you may no longer drink!
Question: What is the reason?
Answer: You decided not to drink any more.
Rav Acha brei d'Rava was serving Ameimar, Mar Zutra and Rav Ashi; Ameimar blessed on every cup of wine, Mar Zutra blessed only on the first and [that of Birkas ha'Mazon, the] last, and Rav Ashi blessed only on the first.
(Rav Acha): Whom should we follow?
Ameimar: I [blessed on each because] I kept deciding not to drink more, and changed my mind;
Mar Zutra: I hold like Rav's Talmidim (even deciding to say Birkas ha'Mazon mandates a new Berachah before drinking more);
Rav Ashi: The Halachah does not follow Rav's Talmidim, for when Yom Tov is on Motza'ei Shabbos, Rav says to bless on wine, Kidush, light and Havdalah (Tosfos - just like these Berachos are not considered an interruption between Borei Peri ha'Gafen and drinking the wine, Birkas ha'Mazon is not an interruption)!
This is wrong! Saying Birkas ha'Mazon shows that he decided not to drink any more; saying Kidush and Havdalah does not show this.
[When Rav Yakov was visiting Rava and] the time for Havdalah came, Rava's attendant lit a torch from the lamp.
Rav Yakov (to Rava): Why do you need a torch? You could have used the lamp!
Rava: I did not tell him to do so (see note 56 in Appendix).
Rav Yakov: Had you not said that it is proper, he would not do so on his own!
Rava: It was taught that the ideal Mitzvah is with a torch - don't you agree?!
Rava blessed '...Who distinguishes between Kodesh and profane, between light and dark, between Yisrael and the nations, between Shabbos and the six days of action.'
Rav Yakov: Why must you say so much? Rav Yehudah taught that '...Who distinguishes between Kodesh and profane' is the Havdalah of Rebbi!
Rava: I hold like R. Elazar, who says that one may not say less than three or more than seven [pairs that Hash-m distinguishes].