[74a - 47 lines; 74b - 31 lines]
1)[line 12]"... וּבָא בְּכָל אַוַּת נַפְשׁוֹ... וְשֵׁרֵת...""... U'VA B'CHOL AVAS NAFSHO... V'SHERES..."- "... And he may come whenever he desires... and serve..." (Devarim 18:6-7).
2)[line 15]"וְכִפֶּר הַכֹּהֵן עַל הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַשֹּׁגֶגֶת בְּחֶטְאָה בִשְׁגָגָה...""V'CHIPER HA'KOHEN AL HA'NEFESH HA'SHOGEGES B'CHET'AH BI'SHEGAGAH..."- "And the Kohen shall atone for the unintentionally-sinning soul when he sins unintentionally..." (Bamidbar 15:28).
3)[line 19]זדון שבועהZEDON SHEVU'AH (SHEVU'AS HA'EDUS)
(a)One of the litigants in a court case has the right to force a person to take an oath when he feels that the person is concealing testimony about the case. The oath that the alleged witness takes to claim that he is not harboring any testimony is called a Shevu'as ha'Edus (Vayikra 5:1).
(b)For example, a person asks two witnesses to testify on his behalf, in order to oblige the opposing litigant to pay him. The witnesses deny all knowledge of the case and even swear in court to that effect. If they admit afterwards that they did know testimony, they must bring a Korban Oleh v'Yored. If they are wealthy they each bring a female sheep or female goat as a Korban Chatas. If they cannot afford the animal, they each bring two turtledoves or two common doves, one as a Chatas and one as an Olah. If they cannot even afford birds, they each bring an offering of 1/10 of an Eifah of flour as a Minchas Chatas (ibid. 5:5-13).
(c)Shevu'as ha'Edus applies only if they denied in court the fact that they knew testimony. The witnesses are obligated to bring a Korban Oleh v'Yored even if they intentionally make a false Shevu'ah. They are also obligated if they are Shogeg with regard to the Shevu'ah (that is, they do not know that this Shevu'ah will obligate them to bring a Korban - see Shevuos 31b), if they intentionally make a false Shevu'ah while they actually know testimony. However, they are not obligated to bring a Korban if they are Shogeg with regard to the testimony (that is, they forgot at the time of the Shevu'ah that they know testimony - Shevu'os 30a).
4)[line 23]מתפזריןMISPAZRIN- it is spread, sprinkled
5)[line 23]בית הדשןBEIS HA'DESHEN
(a)There are four places associated with the Beis ha'Mikdash that are called "Beis ha'Deshen" (ash-pile):
1.The first Beis ha'Deshen, also known as Mekom ha'Deshen, was located southeast of the outer Mizbe'ach alongside the ramp, at a distance of three Tefachim (approximately 22.8, 24 or 28.8 cm, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) from the ramp and 10 Amos north (approximately 4.56, 4.8 or 5.76 meters) of the foot of the ramp. The Terumas ha'Deshen (a shovel-full of ashes lifted from the bonfire of the outer Mizbe'ach) and ashes from the Menorah and the inner Mizbe'ach were put there every morning. Additionally, when a bird was offered as an Olas ha'Of, the Kohen cut out the crop and surrounding feathers of the bird (or, according to some Tana'im, the crop and the intestines - Zevachim 65a) and threw them onto this Beis ha'Deshen.
2.The second Beis ha'Deshen was located immediately to the east of the outer Mizbe'ach. It was used for burning the parts of certain Korbanos that became Pesulim, where the Pesul occurred before the Zerikas ha'Dam. These parts were the meat and the Eimurim of Kodshei ha'Kodashim, the Eimurim of the Kodshim Kalim, and the Parim and Se'irim ha'Nisrafim (the bulls and goats, the remains of which were burned) (Pesachim 24a, Zevachim 104b).
3.The third Beis ha'Deshen was located on Har ha'Bayis and was used for burning the Parim and Se'irim ha'Nisrafim that became Pesulim, where the Pesul occurred after the Zerikas ha'Dam (according to Rav Nachman Amar Rabah bar Avuha) or after they were taken out of the Azarah (according to Tani Levi).
4.The fourth Beis ha'Deshen was also called the Shefech ha'Deshen. Most of the ashes from the sacrifices burned on the outer Mizb'ach were cleared away to the Tapu'ach, a large pile of ashes in the middle of the Mizbe'ach. The Torah states that when this pile becomes excessively large, the ashes must be cleared away to the Shefech ha'Deshen, the ritually clean place outside the camp in the desert or outside of Yerushalayim where the ashes from the Mizbe'ach are deposited (Vayikra 4:12, 6:4). The Parim and Se'irim ha'Nisrafim that did not become Pesulim during their Avodah were also burned in this Beis ha'Deshen.
(b)The Beis ha'Deshen mentioned in our Gemara is either the one next to the Kevesh (see above, a:1 - RASHI) or the one next to the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon (see above, a:2 - SHITAH MEKUBETZES #6). (The words "Shefech ha'Deshen" mentioned in RASHI KESAV YAD seem to be an error.)
6)[line 24]הוי בה רבי יוחנןHAVI BAH REBBI YOCHANAN- Rebbi Yochanan asked a question about it (Rebbi Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon's statement)
7)[line 25]דלמעלהDIL'MA'ALAH- of above (that is, on the fires of the Mizbe'ach itself - RASHI KESAV YAD)
8)[line 25]היינו אבוהHAINU AVUHA- then it (his opinion) is [exactly like] his father [Rebbi Shimon's opinion]
9)[line 26]דלמטהDIL'MATAH- below (see above, entry #5:b)
10)[line 26]יש לך דבר שקרב למטהYESH LECHA DAVAR SHE'KAREV L'MATAH?!- Is there anything that is offered (i.e. burned as a Korban) below, on the floor of the Azarah?!
11)[line 27]דלמא לאיבודDILMA L'IBUD- perhaps it is simply scattered to waste [on the Beis ha'Deshen next to the Kevesh]
12)[line 27]אחיכו עליהACHICHU ALEI- they laughed at (scoffed, derided) him
13)[line 29]לאכילה הקשתיה ולא לדבר אחרL'ACHILAH HIKASHTIHA V'LO L'DAVAR ACHER- the verse (Vayikra 6:16) compares the Minchah of a Kohen (specifically, the Minchas Chotei of a Kohen) to the Minchas Chavitin (Vayikra 6:15) only for the Halachah that it is not to be eaten, and not for any other Halachah (i.e. and not for the Halachah that the Sheyarim are burned on the Mizbe'ach. Rather, the Sheyarim are scattered on the Beis ha'Deshen - RASHI KESAV YAD)
14)[line 32]סכינא חריפא מפסקא קראי!SAKINA CHARIFA MAFSEKA KERA'EI!- a sharp knife is cutting up the verses! (i.e., you are Doresh the end of the verse before the beginning!)
15)[line 36]תדירה לא חטי בסים ריחיהTEDIRAH LO CHATEI BASIM REICHEI- this is a mnemonic device that stands for the topics that are in common between the Minchas Nedavah of a Kohen and the Minchas Chavitin, as follows:
1.Tedirah refers to the fact that both the Minchas Nedavah of a Kohen and the Minchas Chavitin are Tedirin - offered on a frequent, constant basis. The Minchas Nedavah of a Kohen can be offered on any day and the Minchas Chavitin is offered every morning and afternoon. The Minchas Chotei of a Kohen is not constant, but depends upon whether a Kohen sins, transgressing one of the sins for which a Korban Oleh v'Yored is brought (see Background to Menachos 72:30:a), and whether he is very poor.
2.Lo Chatei refers to the fact that both the Minchas Nedavah of a Kohen and the Minchas Chavitin are not brought because of a Cheit, a sin. The Minchas Chotei of a Kohen is specifically brought because of a sin.
3.Basim Reichei refers to the fact that both the Minchas Nedavah of a Kohen and the Minchas Chavitin (a) both require oil and Levonah, which make its aroma spiced. The Minchas Chotei of a Kohen has no oil or Levonah; (b) have the words Rei'ach Nicho'ach in the verses that command them. The Minchas Chotei of a Kohen does not have these words in its verses.
16)[line 37]עשרון חובהISARON CHOVAH- this is a mnemonic device that stands for the topics that are in common between the Minchas Chotei of a Kohen and the Minchas Chavitin, as follows:
1.Isaron refers to the fact that both the Minchas Chotei of a Kohen and the Minchas Chavitin are brought from one Isaron of flour. The Minchas Nedavah of a Kohen can be offered from any amount of flour that the Kohen desires.
2.Chovah refers to the fact that both and the Minchas Chavitin are brought as a Chovah - they are obligatory offerings. The Minchas Chotei of a Kohen is obligatory when a Kohen sins transgressing one of the sins for which a Korban Oleh v'Yored is brought (see Background to Menachos 72:30:a), and whether he is very poor. The Minchas Chavitin is the obligation of the Kohen Gadol every day.
17)[line 37]הנך נפישןHANACH NEFISHAN- those (the similarities between the Minchas Nedavah of a Kohen and the Minchas Chavitin) are greater in number
18a)[line 40]עליונהELYONAH- (lit. the upper one) the Minchas Chavitin, which is mentioned first (above - Vayikra 6:15)
b)[line 40]תחתונהTACHTONAH- (lit. the lower one) the Minchas Chotei of a Kohen, which is mentioned second (below - Vayikra 6:16)
19)[line 42]כליל כלילKALIL KALIL- the two words "Kalil" in the above two verses: "Kalil Taktar" (Vayikra 6:15) and "Kalil Tiheyeh" (Vayikra 6:16)
(a)The Eimurim are the fats and other parts of a Korban that are burned on the Mizbe'ach. They consist of:
1.the layer of fat covering the stomachs;
2.all other fat attached to the stomachs;
3.the two kidneys;
4.the fat on the kidneys;
5.The Yoseres, which is either the diaphragm (RASHI, RADAK) or a lobe of the liver (RAV HAI GA'ON) (Vayikra 3:3-4).
21)[last line]לאו דזרות לא קא מיבעיא ליLAV D'ZARUS LO KA MIBA'I LI - I am not asking about the negative commandment of a Zar (a non-Kohen) performing the Avodah (AVODAH: ZARUS)
(a)While Benei Yisrael were in the desert after the Exodus from Egypt, HaSh-m chose the Leviyim to officiate in the Divine Service to replace the Bechoros, who had been the Divine servants until then (Bamidbar 3:12, 18:6). He then separated the family of Aharon to become the Kohanim, the ones actually responsible for the performance of the Divine Service, while the Leviyim were to be their helpers (ibid. 18:1-7, Devarim 18:1-5). Anyone other than a Kohen or a Levi is known as a "Zar," "stranger" with regard to the specific actions that may be performed only by the Kohanim or Leviyim.
(b)A Zar who performs certain parts of the Divine Service can be liable to the death penalty according to some of the Tana'im and Misah b'Yedei Shamayim according to others (Mishnah Sanhedrin 81b, Gemara Sanhedrin 84a).
(c)With regard to eating the Eimurim, which are meant to be burned upon the Mizbe'ach, even a Kohen is considered a Zar.
22)[line 5]מנחת כהניםMINCHAS KOHANIM
A voluntary Korban Minchah (see Background to Menachos 72:25-26) that is brought by a Kohen does not need Kemitzah. Similarly, a Korban Minchas Chotei (see Background to Menachos 72:30) that is brought by a Kohen does not need Kemitzah (but Rebbi Shimon argues - Daf 72b). The entire Minchah is burned on the Mizbe'ach. This is learned from the verse, "v'Chol Minchas Kohen, Kalil Tiheyeh, Lo Se'achel" - "And every meal-offering of a Kohen shall be entirely offered; it shall not be eaten" (Vayikra 6:16).
23)[line 5]מנחת כהן משיחMINCHAS KOHEN MASHI'ACH
(a)The Minchas Chavitin is brought by the Kohen Gadol every day. It consists of 1/10 of an Eifah (approximately 2.16, 2.49 or 4.32 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) of wheat flour made into twelve wafers or rolls. They were fried in olive oil in a flat pan after being boiled and baked. Next, the rolls are folded without breaking them (Pesisah). Levonah is added, and Hagashah and Haktarah are performed (see Background to Menachos 72:25a:c).
(b)Half of the rolls were offered in the morning and half towards evening (Vayikra 6:13). The Chavitin had to be brought from the money of the Kohen Gadol, but he did not personally have to offer them on the Mizbe'ach. The amount of oil that was used for each of the Chavitin rolls was one Revi'is (approximately 75, 86.4 or 150 cc, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions).
24)[line 6]מנחת נסכיםMINCHAS NESACHIM
(a)The Minchas Nesachim is a Korban Minchah that is brought together with a Korban Shelamim or Olah, whether the Korban is offered by the Tzibur (Bamidbar 28:11-15, 20-21) or by an individual (Bamidbar 15:3-16). It is called Minchas "Nesachim" because it is normally brought along with the Nesachim (wine libations) that are offered with these Korbanos.
(b)The mixture of flour and olive oil is salted and completely burned on the Mizbe'ach and the wine is poured into one of the Sefalim (the silver libation pipes located at the top of the southwestern corner of the Mizbe'ach) (RAMBAM and RA'AVAD Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 2:1). The amount of flour, oil and wine needed depends upon the animal offered, as specified in Bamidbar (ibid.).
25)[line 7]שתי הלחםSHTEI HA'LECHEM
(a)The Shtei ha'Lechem Minchah brought on Shavu'os (Vayikra 23:16-17) consists of two loaves of bread made from two Esronim of fine wheat flour (approximately 4.32, 4.98 or 8.64 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) mixed with Se'or (sourdough), which causes them to rise and become Chametz. Each loaf is seven Tefachim long (approximately 53.2, 56 or 67.2 cm) and four Tefachim wide (30.4, 32 or 38.4 cm); the corners of the loaves project upward to a height of four Etzba'os (Menachos 96a, RAMBAM Hilchos Temidin u'Musafin 8:10).
(b)In conjunction with the Shtei ha'Lechem, the Kohanim offer in the name of the Tzibur various Korbenos Olah, a goat as a Korban Chatas and two sheep (the Kivsei Atzeres) that are Zivchei Shelamim (Vayikra 23:18-19). Tenufah (waving portions of Korbanos, see Background to Menachos 60:3) of the Shtei ha'Lechem is performed twice; once along with the live sheep and once with the Chaza'os and Shokim (chests and right hind legs) of the sheep.
26)[line 8]לחם הפניםLECHEM HA'PANIM
The Lechem ha'Panim (showbread) is an offering of 12 loaves (that are Matzah), which are arranged in two Sedarim (stacks), six loaves to each Seder, on the Golden Table of the Mishkan or Beis ha'Mikdash. Fresh loaves were arranged on the Table every Shabbos and are left there until the following Shabbos. The Kohanim eat the loaves that are removed (Vayikra 24:5-9), half being given to the Kohen Gadol (learned from the word "l'Aharon") and half to the other Kohanim (from "l'Vanav"). A Kometz of Levonah is placed alongside each stack in a Bazach (bowl). After the loaves are removed, the Levonah is salted and burned on the Mizbe'ach. The offering of the Levonah permits the loaves to be eaten.
(a)A person may offer a Korban Olah, which is burned entirely on the Mizbe'ach, as a voluntary sacrifice (Olas Nedavah, see Vayikra 1:2-17, 6:1-6), as it states in Vayikra 1:2. Many other Korbenos Olah are Korbenos Tzibur (communal sacrifices) and are obligatory, such as the Temidim (Bamidbar 28:1-8) and Musafim (Bamidbar 28:9-29:39).
(b)Korbenos Olah are Kodshei Kodashim and therefore they may only be slaughtered in the northern part of the Azarah. Before its slaughter, the owner (of the Olas Nedavah) presses his hands on the head of the animal (Semichah). Korbenos Tzibur do not require Semichah (Daf 92a). The blood of the Olah is cast on the northeastern and southwestern corners of the Mizbe'ach (Shenayim she'Hen Arba). Nesachim (a flour offering consisting of flour and oil and a wine libation) are brought as part of the Korban (Bamidbar 15:3-12). The flour offering is completely burned on the Mizbe'ach and the wine is poured into one of the Sefalim (the silver libation pipes located at the top of the southwest corner of the Mizbe'ach) (RAMBAM and RA'AVAD Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 2:1). The amount of flour, oil and wine needed depends upon the animal offered, as specified in Bamidbar (ibid., see Background to Sotah 15:9).
(c)The hide of the Olah is given to the Kohanim and the rest of the animal is dismembered and entirely burned on the Mizbe'ach.
28)[line 10]עורה לכהניםORAH LA'KOHANIM- the hide of the Olah is given to the Kohanim
29)[line 11]עולת העוףOLAS HA'OF
(a)The offering of the Olas ha'Of (e.g. in Vayikra 1:14-17) consists of four procedures:
1.MELIKAH - On the Sovev (see Background to Menachos 61:17:c) of the Mizbe'ach, on the southeastern corner, the Kohen cuts the back of the neck of the bird with his right thumbnail, making sure to cut both Simanim (the trachea and the esophagus). (If the southeastern corner of the Sovev is crowded with Kohanim offering the Olas ha'Of, then the additional Olas ha'Of Korbanos are offered on the southwestern corner of the Mizbe'ach.)
2.MITZUY - The Kohen presses the cut part of the head and body of the bird onto the wall of the Mizbe'ach, above the Chut ha'Sikra (red line) that is located halfway up the Mizbe'ach.
3.HAKTARAS HA'ROSH - The Kohen salts the head and throws it into the fire on the Mizbe'ach.
4.HAKTARAS HA'GUF - The Kohen cuts out the crop and surrounding feathers of the bird (or, according to some Tana'im, the crop and the intestines - Zevachim 65a) and throws them to the ash-pile at the side of the ramp of the Mizbe'ach. He then tears the bird apart (Shesiya), salts it, and throws it into the fire.
30a)[line 11]איכא מוראה ונוצהIKA MUR'AH V'NOTZAH- there are the crop and surrounding feathers of the bird (or, according to some Tana'im, the crop and the intestines - Zevachim 65a) [that are not placed upon the Mizbe'ach]
31)[line 12]נסכיםNESACHIM- the wine libations that are part of the Minchas Nesachim (see above, entry #24)
32)[line 12]לשיתין אזליLA'SHITIN AZLEI- they do not remain on the Mizbe'ach, but rather flow down to the Shitin, a hollow dug under the auspices of David ha'Melech, located under the Mizbe'ach of the Beis ha'Mikdash, into which the water and wine libations flowed
33)[line 14]מזלפו על גבי אישיםMEZALFO AL GABEI ISHIM- he sprinkles it on the fire of the Mizbe'ach
34)[line 18]חטאת העוףCHATAS HA'OF
(a)The offering of the Chatas ha'Of (which is brought by a Zav, Zavah, Yoledes and Nazir Tamei, and by a Metzora who is poor, and by a poor person who was Nishba l'Sheker, or who transgressed Shevu'as ha'Edus, or was Metamei Mikdash v'Kodashav; see Background to Kinim 22:9:b for references) consists of three procedures (see, for example, Vayikra 5:8-9): Melikah, Hazayah, and Mitzuy.
1.MELIKAH - Standing on the floor of the Azarah near the southwestern corner of the Mizbe'ach, the Kohen cuts the back of the neck (Orpo - similar to the word Arifah) of the bird with his right thumbnail. He makes sure to cut one Siman (either the trachea or the esophagus), but not to sever the entire neck of the bird.
2.HAZAYAH - The Kohen sprinkles its blood on the Mizbe'ach (directly from the neck of the bird), below the Chut ha'Sikra (red line) that is located halfway up the Mizbe'ach.
3.MITZUY - The Kohen presses the cut neck of the bird to the Mizbe'ach and squeezes its remaining blood onto the Mizbe'ach.
(b)The Chatas ha'Of is eaten by the Kohanim, in the Azarah, on the day that it is offered and the following night. No part of it was burned on the Mizbe'ach ("Ein Mimenu la'Ishim").
35)[line 18]לוג שמן של מצורעLOG SHEMEN SHEL METZORA- the Log of olive oil of the Metzora (for a discussion of the laws of a Metzora, see Background to Menachos 48:26)
36)[line 19]איכא מתנותיוIKA MATNOSAV- (a) there are the applications of oil onto the right ear, thumb and big toe (Vayikra 14:14) [that do not go to the Kohanim] (RASHI); (b) there are the seven sprinklings towards the Kodshei ha'Kodashim (Vayikra 14:16) [that do not go to the Kohanim] (SHITAH MEKUBETZES #2)
37)[line 20]שתי הלחם הבאות בפני עצמן לשריפה אתייןSHTEI HA'LECHEM HA'BA'OS BIFNEI ATZMAN LI'SEREIFAH ASYAN- the Shtei ha'Lechem that are brought without Kivsei Atzeres must be burned
38)[line 22]המנחות הנעשות בכליHA'MENACHOS HA'NA'ASOS BI'CHELI- the Menachos that must be prepared in a Keli Shares, e.g. Minchas Marcheshes
39a)[line 23]יציקהYETZIKAH- pouring in the remainder of the oil onto the dough of the Minchah (the third time that the Kohen pours oil in the preparation of the Menachos)
b)[line 24]בלילהBELILAH- pouring in more oil and mixing the flour and oil (and water) (the second time that the Kohen pours oil in the preparation of the Menachos)
c)[line 24]מתן שמן בכלי קודם לעשייתןMATAN SHEMEN BI'CHELI KODEM LA'ASIYASAN- placing a small amount of oil in the utensil before the flour is added (the first time that the Kohen pours oil in the preparation of the Menachos)
40a)[line 25]חלות בוללן דברי רביCHALOS BOLELAN DIVREI REBBI- Rebbi rules that the Chalos of the Minchas Ma'afeh Sanur (RABEINU GERSHOM) are broken into pieces after they are baked and mixed with oil before the Kemitzah (i.e. the Belilah is not performed before the baking but rather afterwards; Rebbi later retracts his opinion - TOSFOS to Daf 75a DH Shapir)
b)[line 25]וחכ''א סולתVA'CHACHAMIM OMRIM SOLES- and the Chachamim rule that the Belilah is performed before the baking, when the flour is added, as is the case with the Menachos that require oil
41a)[line 26]החלותHA'CHALOS- the Chalos of the Minchas Ma'afeh Sanur (RASHI)
b)[line 26]רקיקין משיחהREKIKIN MESHICHAH- the Rekikin of the Minchas Ma'afeh Sanur
42)[line 27]כמין כיK'MIN KI- like the Greek letter "chi," which is shaped like an "x" (RASHI to Kerisus 5b, RAMBAM Hilchos Kelei ha'Mikdash 1:9)
43)[line 29]"[וְאִם מִנְחַת מַרְחֶשֶׁת קָרְבָּנֶךָ] סֹלֶת בַּשֶּׁמֶן תֵּעָשֶׂה""[V'IM MINCHAS MARCHESHES KORBANECHA] SOLES BA'SHEMEN TE'ASEH"- "(And if your offering is a Minchas Marcheshes) it shall be prepared with fine flour in oil" (Vayikra 2:7) - Since the verse mentions that the flour is placed into the oil, we learn that oil must be poured into the utensil at the onset of the preparation of the Minchah.