[4a - 34 lines; 4b - 54 lines]

1a)[line 1]לודLOD- the town of Lod, located in the present day city by that name, southeast of Tel Aviv. During the time of the Gemara it was located on the road that led from Yerushalayim to Caesarea, and it had a mixed population.

b)[line 1]ואונוONO- a Jewish town three Mil away from Lod

c)[line 1]וגיא החרשיםGEI HA'CHARASHIM- a town near Lod and Ono, the name of which suggests that it lies in a forested valley. Rebbi Pinchas is of the opinion that the two towns of Lod and Ono were known collectively as "Gei ha'Charashim" (Yerushalmi Megilah 1:1). All three of these cities are mentioned among the cities of Binyamin (Nechemyah 11:35).

2)[line 2]בננהיBANANHI- built it

3)[line 5]"ויבן ערי מצורה ביהודה; כי שקטה הארץ ואין עמו מלחמה בשנים האלה, כי הניח ה' לו. ויאמר ליהודה נבנה את הערים האלה ונסב חומה ומגדלים דלתים ובריחים, עודנו הארץ לפנינו כי דרשנו את ה' א-לקינו דרשנו וינח לנו מסביב; ויבנו ויצליחו""VA'YIVEN AREI METZURAH BI'YEHUDAH; KI SHAKTAH HA'ARETZ V'EIN IMO MILCHAMAH BA'SHANIM HA'ELEH, KI HENI'ACH HASH-M LO. VA'YOMER LI'YEHUDAH, NIVNEH ES HE'ARIM HA'ELEH V'NASEV CHOMAH U'MIGDALIM DELASAYIM U'VERICHIM, ODENU HA'ARETZ LEFANENU KI DARASHNU ES HASH-M EL-KEINU, DARASHNU VA'YANACH LANU MI'SAVIV; VA'YIVNU VA'YATZLICHU" - "And he (Asa) built fortified cities in Yehudah, for the land was quiet and there were no wars during those years, because HaSh-m gave him peace. And he said to Yehudah, 'Let us build up these cities and surround them with walls and towers , double doors, and bolts. The land is still before us because we have sought out HaSh-m our G-d, we have sought Him out and He has granted us rest all around; and they built and were successful" (Divrei ha'Yamim II 14:5-6) (THE FORTIFIED CITIES THAT KING ASA BUILT)

(a)The chapter begins by describing Asa as a king who did what was good and right in the eyes of HaSh-m. He removed all foreign altars and eliminated all forms of idolatry from his kingdom. He also urged his subjects to seek HaSh-m and to keep Torah and Mitzvos. In addition, he removed the Bamos and sun-images that abounded throughout the land.

(b)HaSh-m graced the beginning of his reign in peace, allowing him to build fortifications to protect the cities of Yehudah. Later in the chapter, the Navi records how he soundly defeated Zerach ha'Kushi, who attacked Yehudah with a vastly superior army, and from whom he captured vast amounts of spoils.

4)[line 8]פילגש בגבעהPILEGESH B'GIV'AH - The Concubine of Giv'ah

(a)A civil war ensued after the tribe of Binyamin sympathized with certain men from the city of Giv'ah who performed abhorrent acts with the concubine of a Levi. The Levi dissected her dead body and sent the limbs to all of the tribes of Bnei Yisrael to protest the iniquity. The apathy of the men of the tribe of Binyamin and their unwillingness to root out the evil in their midst caused Bnei Yisrael to gather together and swear that no one would give their daughters to the men of Binyamin as a wife. They then waged war against the tribe of Binyamin, with confidence that they would achieve victory and avenge the iniquity.

(b)HaSh-m, however, caused Bnei Yisrael to incur huge losses in the first two battles of the war because of various sins of lack of faith, first and foremost their unwillingness to avenge the honor of HaSh-m regarding Pesel Michah (the idol constructed by Michah - see Shoftim 17-18). After they repented, He let them vanquish Binyamin to the extent that only six hundred men remained from the entire tribe of Binyamin. The other tribes regretted the loss and sought to find wives for these men, to rebuild their tribe. The events of this tragic time in Jewish history are recorded in Shoftim 19-21.

5)[line 9]הדור אינפולHADAR INFUL- they fell into disrepair again

6)[line 10]שפצינהוSHAPTZINHU- he repaired them

7)[line 17]שואלין ודורשיןSHO'ALIN V'DORSHIN- the Rav of the community gives a lecture about the Halachos of the coming holiday. Usually the lecture was delivered to a Meturgeman (translator) in Hebrew, who translated it and conveyed it loudly to the public.

8)[line 24]ולמיתנא מתניתיןUL'MISNA MASNISIN- and to learn all of the Mishnayos of Maseches Megilah

9)[line 27]אעבור פרשתא דא ואתנייהE'EVOR PARSHASA DA V'ESNAYEI- I will finish this chapter and review it

10)[last line]כדי שיספקוKEDEI SHE'YESAPKU- so that they could [be unhindered in order to] supply


11)[line 1]למימרא דתקנתא דכרכין הוי?LEMEIMRA D'TAKANTA D'KERACHIN HEVI?- is that to say that it is an institution for the benefit of the walled-city dwellers?

12)[line 17]סידורא דירחאSIDURA D'YARCHA- the order of the days of the month

13)[line 51]ארבע אמותARBA AMOS BI'RESHUS HA'RABIM

(a)HOTZA'AH is the last of the thirty-nine Avos Melachos of Shabbos. It involves either:

1.transferring objects from a Reshus ha'Yachid to a Reshus ha'Rabim,

2.Hachnasah, which refers to transferring objects from a Reshus ha'Rabim to a Reshus ha'Yachid,

3.Ma'avir Arba Amos b'Reshus ha'Rabim, or carrying an object from one place in Reshus ha'Rabim to another over a distance of at least four Amos,

4.Moshit, which involves passing an object from one Reshus ha'Yachid to another through Reshus ha'Rabim (as described in the Mishnah in Shabbos 96a, see Background to Shabbos 4a). These are all Torah prohibitions.

(b)AKIRAH & HANACHAH - In order to transgress the Torah prohibition of Hotza'ah, certain conditions must be met. An Akirah (initiation of movement) and a Hanachah (putting the object to rest) must be performed on the object by the same person. If one person does the Akirah and another does the Hanachah, only a Rabbinical prohibition is involved, as the Gemara states in Shabbos 3a.