[5a - 43 lines; 5b - 57 lines]
1)[line 16]עשרה בטלניןASARAH BATLANIN- (a) ten people supported by the community to stay in the Beis Keneses throughout the day and be available to make a Minyan for prayer (RASHI here and to 3b); (b) ten people who work during the day but arrive at the Beis Keneses early in the morning and stay late in the evening to be available to make a Minyan for prayer (RAN)
2)[line 17]זמן עצי כהניםZEMAN ATZEI CHOHANIM [VEHA'AM] (KORBAN ETZIM)
(a)Certain families donated wood to the Beis ha'Mikdash for burning sacrifices when the second Beis ha'Mikdash was built and wood was needed. In recognition of the Mitzvah they did at the time, those families and their descendants were granted the privilege of bringing wood to the Beis ha'Mikdash at certain appointed times during the year, as described in Nechemyah 10:35.
(b)The day they were to bring their Korban Etzim, the appointed family would bring Olos Nedavah to be sacrificed on the Mizbe'ach. That day was considered a personal Yom Tov for the family; the custom was not to fast, deliver a eulogy or engage in Melachah. (RAMBAM Hilchos Klei ha'Mikdash 6:9; RASHI here (see RASHI on the RIF) and the RAN write that the term "Korban Etzim" is used to connote the animal Korbanos that were brought together with the wood. The RITVA in Ta'anis 26a cites others who contend that the term refers to an offering of wood that was burned on the Mizbe'ach the day that each family donated wood.)
(c)The families who brought the Korban Etzim and the times at which they brought their Korban Etzim are listed in the Mishnah Ta'anis 26a.
Every Jewish male is obligated to come to the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash on Pesach, Shavuos, and Sukos, and to bring an animal as a Korban Chagigah, as the Torah states, "Shalosh Regalim Tachog Li ba'Shanah" (Shemos 23:14).
All of the Jewish people are obligated in the Mitzvah of Hakhel once every seven years, as it states in Devarim 31:10-13, "At the end of every seven years, in the Shemitah year, during the festival of Sukos, when all of Yisrael comes to appear before HaSh-m in the place which He shall choose, you shall read this Torah before all of Yisrael. Gather the people together, men, women and children... that they may hear, and learn, and fear HaSh-m, your Lord, and observe all the words of this Torah." This takes place in the Beis ha'Mikdash on the second day of Sukos in the year following the Shemitah year. During Hakhel, the King reads from the Torah portions of Devarim, as specified in the Mishnah Sotah 41a.
5)[line 28]שאין מונין ימים לשניםSHE'EIN MONIN YAMIM L'SHANIM- we do not figure a year based on its amount of days; i.e. if a person makes a vow to abstain from wine for a year, he abstains for twelve lunar months or 354 days (the days in a lunar year when the months alternate between 29 and 30 days), and not 365 days (the days in a solar year).
6)[line 37]שלמיםSHELAMIM (SHALMEI YACHID)
(a)A person may offer a Korban in the Beis ha'Mikdash as a voluntary sacrifice, as it states in Vayikra 1:2. Voluntary Korbanos may be Olos (which are burned entirely on the Mizbe'ach, see Vayikra 1:2-17, 6:1-6), Shelamim (parts of which are eaten, see Vayikra 3:1-17, 7:11-21, 7:28-37), or Menachos (flour offerings, see Vayikra 2:1-13, 6:7-11, 7:9-10).
(b)Korbenos Shelamim that are offered by an individual may be brought from male or female sheep, cows or goats. They are Kodshim Kalim, and therefore they may be slaughtered in the entire Azarah (and not only in its northern part). Before its slaughter, the owner presses his hands on the head of the animal (Semichah). The blood of the Shelamim is cast on the northeastern and southwestern corners of the Mizbe'ach (Shenayim she'Hen Arba). Nesachim (a meal offering consisting of flour and oil and a wine libation) are brought as part of the Korban (Bamidbar 15:3-12). The meal offering is completely burned on the Mizbe'ach and the wine is poured into one of the Sefalim (the silver libation pipes located at the top of the southwest corner of the Mizbe'ach) (RAMBAM and RA'AVAD Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 2:1). The amount of flour, oil, and wine needed depends upon the animal offered, as specified in Bamidbar ibid.
(c)The Chazeh (breast) and Shok (thigh) of the Shelamim were given to the Kohen (Vayikra 7:34). Certain fats and other parts of the Korban were offered on the Mizbe'ach (Vayikra 3:3-4, 9-10, 14-15). The owner and his guests (men or women) eat the rest of the Korban inside the borders of the city of Yerushalayim. The meat may be cooked in any fashion and is eaten for two days and the intervening night.
(d)Although the Korban Shelamim that is offered by an individual is generally a voluntary sacrifice (Shalmei Nedavah), some Korbenos Shelamim are obligatory (Shalmei Chovah). Two types of Korbenos Shelamim that are obligatory are the Shalmei Chagigah (see Background to Beitzah 19:9) and the Shalmei Simchah (see Background to Beitzah 19:13). At the time of the Milu'im (when the Mishkan was inaugurated), Shalmei Chovah were offered as well.
Semichah refers to the Mitzvah for a person to press his hands with all his might on the head of his animal sacrifice before it is slaughtered, as described in Vayikra 1:4.
8)[line 37]עולותOLOS (OLAS YACHID)
(a)A person may offer a Korban in the Beis ha'Mikdash as a voluntary sacrifice (Olas Nedavah), as it states in Vayikra 1:2. Voluntary Korbanos may be Olos (which are burned entirely on the Mizbe'ach, see Vayikra 1:2-17, 6:1-6), Shelamim (parts of which are eaten, see Vayikra 3:1-17, 7:11-21, 7:28-37) or Menachos (flour offerings, see Vayikra 2:1-13, 6:7-11, 7:9-10).
(b)Korbenos Olah are Kodshei Kodashim and therefore they may be slaughtered only in the northern part of the Azarah. Before slaughtering the animal, the owner presses his hands on the head of the animal (Semichah). The blood of the Olah is cast on the northeastern and southwestern corners of the Mizbe'ach (Shenayim she'Hen Arba). Nesachim (a meal offering consisting of flour and oil and a wine libation) are brought as part of the Korban (Bamidbar 15:3-12). The meal offering is completely burned on the Mizbe'ach and the wine is poured into one of the Sefalim (the silver libation pipes located at the top of the southwest corner of the Mizbe'ach) (RAMBAM and RA'AVAD Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 2:1). The amount of flour, oil, and wine needed depends upon the animal offered, as specified in Bamidbar ibid.
(c)The skin of the Olah is given to the Kohanim and the rest of the animal is dismembered and entirely burned on the Mizbe'ach.
(d)A Korban Olah offered by an individual that is obligatory (Olas Chovah) is the Olas Re'iyah. Every Jewish male is required to bring a Korban Olas Re'iyah on the three festivals (Devarim 16:16). If the Korban was not brought on the first day of the festival, it may be brought on any of the other days of the festival (i.e. the next six days of Pesach, or the next seven days of Sukos). On Shavuos, if it was not brought on Yom Tov, it may be brought on the six days following the festival (Chagigah 17a).
9)[line 39]שלא חגSHE'LO CHAG- who did not bring a Korban Chagigah
10)[line 41]עצרתATZERES- Shavuos
11)[line 1]בקרונה של צפוריRACHATZ B'KRONAH SHEL TZIPORI- (a) bathed openly in the bathhouse in the marketplace of Tzipori on market day (lit. at the time that the Keronos (wagons) were passing) (RASHI); (b) bathed in the cold (Karim) flowing water of Tzipori (ARUCH)
12)[line 23]יומי פוריאYOMEI PURAYA- the days of Purim
13)[line 28]דהוה קא שדי כיתנאD'HAVAH KA SHADI KISNA- who was planting flax seeds
14)[line 28]ולטייהLATYEI- he cursed him
15)[line 42]בית חתנותBEIS CHASNUS- (a) a special home, with a Chupah inside of it, that was built for the eldest son who became a Chasan (RASHI; presumably it was reused for later children); (b) the main residence at which the Chasan and Kalah stay during the time of the Sheva Berachos (Tosfos Sukah 25b DH Ein Simchah)
16)[line 43]אבורנקי של מלכיםAVARNEKI SHEL MELACHIM- (a) a large tree that shades a leisure area that contains benches (RASHI here and to Eruvin 25b); (b) a covered area or room built by kings in the middle of their orchards (RASHI Eruvin 26a DH l'Hara, citing Teshuvos ha'Ge'onim); (c) a tree that was planted on the day of the birth of the crown prince that was used to build a throne on the day of his coronation (RASHI Ta'anis 14b)
17)[line 48]"אשר לו חומה""ASHER LO CHOMAH"- "that has a wall" (Vayikra 25:30) - The word "Lo" is spelled with an Alef (which translates as, "that does not have a wall"), but is read "Lo" with a Vav. Because of the unusual spelling, the word "Lo" is used to limit various cases, e.g. the case of Shur Iger (see next entry) of our Gemara.
18)[line 48]שור איגרSHUR IGER- a wall formed by joined roofs and walls of adjacent houses
19)[line 48]"[אשר אין להם חמה] סביב""[ASHER EIN LAHEM CHOMAH] SAVIV"- "[which have no] surrounding [wall]" (Vayikra 25:31)
20)[line 48]שימה חומתהSHE'YAMAH CHOMASAH- its sea is its wall, fortification (on one side)
21)[line 50]דהני מיגלוD'HANEI MIGLU- these [cities] are open (without a wall)
22)[line 51]דהני מיגנוD'HANEI MIGNU- these [cities] are protected
23)[line 54]הוצל דבית בנימיןHUTZAL D'VEIS BINYAMIN- Hutzal, a city that was walled from the time of Yehoshua bin Nun. It is identified with (a) the city of Hutzal in Bavel, located between Sura and Neharde'a, where members of the tribe of Binyamin may have settled after they were taken into exile; or (b) an ancient fortress in Eretz Yisrael located in the portion of Binyamin, possibly Beis ha'Etzel (Michah 1:11)
24)[last line]טליאTALYA- a lad
25)[last line]לסבייאSAVAYA- elders