HALACHOS OF READING EARLY
(Beraisa): Even when villages read early, the festive meal is on the 14th.
(Rav): When the Megilah is read in the proper time, an individual may read it. It may be read early only in a Minyan.
(Rav Asi): A Minyan is always required l'Chatchilah.
A case occurred and Rav was stringent like Rav Asi.
Question: Rav contradicts himself!
(Rav Yehudah citing Rav): When Purim falls on Shabbos, Friday is the time.
Objection: If it falls on Shabbos, Shabbos is the time!
Answer: He must mean that Keri'as ha'Megilah not in its time is like reading it in its time, i.e. an individual may read! (Above he required a Minyan when reading early.)
Answer: No; rather, Rav teaches that we read on Friday, unlike Rebbi who says that we read on Thursday.
WHICH MITZVOS MAY BE DONE EARLY?
(Mishnah): If there are less than 10 Batlanim in a city, it is considered a village.
The Megilah may be read early, but not later.
The following may be delayed but not advanced:
Eitzei Kohanim (when certain families would donate wood for the Mizbe'ach);
(The fast of) Tish'ah b'Av;
Chagigah (the Shelamim that one must offer on each festival);
Hakhel (reading the Torah in the presence of all of Israel on the second day of Sukos).
Even though the Megilah may be read on an earlier day, eulogies and fasting are permitted on that day. One may fulfill Matanos l'Evyonim on that day.
(R. Yehudah): In a place where villagers do not enter on Mondays and Thursdays, the Megilah is read only on the proper day.
(Gemara - Beraisa): The 10 Batlanim are people that are always in the Beis ha'Keneses.
The Megilah may be read early but not later.
Question: Why may we not read later?
Answer (R. Aba): "One will not pass over."
(R. Aba): "The months of the year" teaches that a year is always composed of full months, without extra days.
(R. Aba): "A month of days" teaches that a month is always composed of full days, without extra hours.
The following may be delayed but not advanced - Eitzei Kohanim...
We do not advance Tish'ah b'Av because we do not advance punishments;
Chagigah and Hakhel (and Eitzei Kohanim) are not advanced because we cannot fulfill a Mitzvah before its time.
(Beraisa): Chagigah and the entire time of Chagigah are delayed.
Question: We understand when Chagigah is delayed, i.e. when it (Yom Tov) falls on Shabbos, we bring Chagigah the next day.
However, what is 'the time of Chagigah'?
Answer #1 (R. Oshaya): The Beraisa means, we delay Chagigah when it is on Shabbos; we delay Olas Re'iyah even on Yom Tov which is the time of Chagigah (i.e. it is not Shabbos). The Beraisa is like Beis Shamai:
(Mishnah - Beis Shamai): We may bring Shelamim on Yom Tov, but we may not do Semichah; we may not bring Olos;
Beis Hillel permit Shelamim and Olos and to do Semichah.
Answer #2 (Rava): The Beraisa teaches that we may delay the Chagigah the entire time of Chagigah, but no longer.
(Mishnah): If one did not bring the Chagigah on the first day he may bring it any time during the festival, even the last day of Yom Tov. After this, he has no obligation to bring it.
Answer #3 (Rav Ashi): Chagigah may be delayed its entire time, even on Shavu'os, which is only one day.
(Mishnah): Beis Hillel agree to Beis Shamai that when Shavu'os falls on Shabbos, the next day is (l'Chatchilah) the day of Shechitah (for Chagigah and Olas Re'iyah. They may be brought until six days after Shavu'os.)
IS MELACHAH PERMITTED ON PURIM?
(R. Eliezer): Rebbi planted a tree on Purim and openly bathed on the 17th of Tamuz. He tried to uproot Tish'ah b'Av, but the other Chachamim disagreed.
(R. Aba): He tried to uproot Tish'ah b'Av only in a year when it fell on Shabbos and it was already pushed off to the next day.
R. Eliezer: "Two are better than one" (you saved me from a mistake)!
Question: How could Rebbi plant on Purim?
(Rav Yosef - Beraisa): "(The days of Purim are for) Simchah" forbids eulogies; "Mishteh" forbids fasting; "Yom Tov" forbids Melachah.
Answer #1: Rebbi celebrated Purim on the 14th; he planted on the 15th.
Objection: Rebbi lived in Teverya, which was surrounded by a wall from the time of Yehoshua!
Answer #2: Rebbi planted on the 14th; he celebrated Purim on the 15th.
Question: Was Rebbi really sure that Teverya was surrounded by a wall from the time of Yehoshua (and therefore he planted on the 14th)? Chizkiyah read the Megilah in Teverya on both days, because he was unsure if it had a wall from the days of Yehoshua!
Answer: Chizkiyah was unsure, but Rebbi was sure.
Question: Even if he was sure, work is forbidden!
(Megilas Ta'anis (a Beraisa which lists days of celebration)): The 14th and 15th are days of Purim on which we may not eulogize.
(Rava): (Since we already know this from Megilas Esther, surely) this teaches that the Isurim apply on both days, regardless of which day one celebrates.
Answer: Rava teaches about eulogies and fasting, but not Melachah.
Question: Rav cursed a man for planting flax on Purim, and the flax didn't grow!
Answer: The case was, he planted on the day he celebrates.
Answer #3 (Rabah brei d'Rava): We can even say that Rebbi planted on the day he celebrates. Yisrael never accepted to refrain from work on Purim.
. Support: The Megilah records that Mordecai wanted to enact Yom Tov, but when it records Yisrael's acceptance of Purim, it omits this.
Question: If so, why did Rav curse the man?
Answer: In Rav's area, people had a custom not to work (one may not act leniently in front of them);
Version #1: There was no such custom in Rebbi's area.
Version #2: There was such a custom in Rebbi's area; Rebbi planted a tree of Simchah.
(Mishnah): If the (four series of) Ta'aneisim (due to lack of rain) finished and rain did not come, we decrease business, building, planting, engagements and weddings.
(Beraisa): Only building and planting of Simchah is prohibited, such as a house in which to marry off one's son or a king's orchard. (These are permitted on Purim.)
CRITERIA FOR BEING CONSIDERED A WALLED CITY.
Chizkiyah was unsure whether or not Teverya had a wall from the time of Yehoshua.
Question: A verse says that Chamas, Rekes and Kineres were walled cities at that time; we hold that Rekes is Teverya!
Answer: One 'wall' of Teverya is the sea; Chizkiyah was unsure if this suffices.
Question: Certainly this is not considered a wall!
(Beraisa): "That has a wall" excludes a row of houses which serves as a wall; "around" excludes Teverya, whose wall is the sea.
Answer: The Beraisa discusses redeeming a house sold in a walled city. Chizkiyah was unsure regarding the Megilah;
Perhaps the distinction between open and walled cities is whether or not they are exposed (Teverya is exposed);
Or, perhaps the distinction is whether or not the city is protected (Teverya is protected).
Version #1: Rav Asi read the Megilah on both days in Hutzal. He did not know if it was walled from the days of Yehoshua.
Version #2 (Rav Asi): Hutzal had a wall from the days of Yehoshua.