[3a - 53 lines; 3b - 45 lines]
1)[line 1]מהוה הווMIHAVAH HAVU- they existed beforehand
2)[line 22]"מפורש ושום שכל""MEFORASH, V'SOM SECHEL"- "clearly, with the application of wisdom" (Nechemyah 8:8) - According to the Derashah of Rav regarding the word "Meforash" in this verse, the Targum existed at the time of Nechemyah, hundreds of years before Onkelus ha'Ger.
3)[line 24]במקראMIKRA- the traditional pronunciation of the words
4)[line 25]פיסקי טעמיםPISKEI TE'AMIM- the cantillations with which the verses are read
5)[line 26]המסורתMASORES- the traditional spelling of the Scriptural text
6)[line 37]פרעה חגיראPAR'OH CHAGIRA- (lit. Par'oh the Lame, also known as Par'oh Nechoh) King of Egypt at the time of Yoshiyahu ha' Melech, who wanted to pass through Eretz Yisrael on his way to war against Ashur (Melachim II 23:29-35, Divrei ha'Yamim II 35:20-36:4). His archers killed Yoshiyahu, who did not want to let his army pass through the land. He is called "the Lame" because he tried to sit on the miraculous throne of Shlomo ha'Melech and was hit by one of the mechanical golden lions, which crippled him (Vayikra Rabah 20:1, Targum Sheni, beginning of Megilas Esther).
7)[line 37]בבקעת מגידוBIK'AS MEGIDO- the valley of Megido (Armageddon), where Yoshiyahu was killed by the archers of Par'oh Nechoh
8)[line 37]"וראיתי אני דניאל לבדי את המראה והאנשים אשר היו עמי לא ראו את המראה אבל חרדה גדלה נפלה עליהם ויברחו בהחבא""V'RA'ISI ANI LEVADI ES HA'MAR'AH, VEHA'ANASHIM ASHER HAYU IMO LO RA'U ES HA'MAR'AH, AVAL CHARADAH GEDOLAH NAFLAH ALEIHEM, VA'YIVRECHU B'HECHAVEI" - "And I alone saw the vision, whereas the men who were with him did not see the vision, but a great fear fell upon them and they fled the scene and went into hiding." (Daniel 10:7). (DANIEL'S FRIGHTENING VISION)
(a)This incident occurred during the third year of Koresh, King of Persia's reign. The king had just withdrawn his permission to build the Beis-Hamikdash (it would be another eighteen years before Daryavesh would allow them to continue).
(b)Broken-hearted over the news, Daniel fasted and mourned for three weeks. He was standing on the banks of the great River Chidekel on the twenty-fourth of Nisan, when he saw the vision of an Angel wearing linen garments (a reference to Gavriel) and a jewel-studded belt. His body resembled dark-blue marble, and his face was like lightning, his eyes looked like fire-brands and his arms and legs like the color of tarnished copper, whilst his voice sounded like a multitude.
(c)He saw the vision but the men who accompanied him (Chagai, Mal'achi, and Zecharyah) did not. They did, however, sense its presence. They were terror-stricken and they fled.
(c)The angel informed Daniel that his prayers had been answered, and he was subsequently shown various visions concerning the current exile of Persia, which was still in its early stages, and the exile of Greece (Yavan) which was destined to follow.
9)[line 41]איבעיתוIV'ISU- they were frightened
10)[line 42]מזלייהו חזוMAZALAIHU CHAZU- their spiritual counterparts saw
11)[line 43]לינשוף מדוכתיהLINSHOF MI'DUCHTEI- he should jump from his place
12)[line 43]גרמידיGARMIDEI- Amos
13)[line 44]שמינא מינאיSHEMEINA MINAI- is fatter than me
14)[line 46]ולוים בדוכנןLEVIYIM B'DUCHANAN- the Leviyim, standing on the Duchan. The Duchan was a raised platform with three steps on which the Leviyim stood facing the Sanctuary (their backs to the people) while singing to HaSh-m, when the Kohanim offered obligatory public Korbenos Olah (burnt-offerings) or the Shelamim (peace-offerings) of Shavuos. They also played musical instruments to accompany the singing.
15a)[line 46]וישראל במעמדןYISRAEL B'MA'AMDAN- Israelites, standing in the Azarah when the Korban Tamid was offered, representing the entire people of Israel
b)[line 46]במעמדןB'MA'AMADAN (MA'AMADOS)
(a)The Mishnah in Ta'anis 26a states that the early prophets divided Bnei Yisrael into twenty-four groups, or Ma'amados. Each Ma'amad consisted of Kohanim, Leviyim, and Yisraelim, and it was their duty to make sure that the Korbanos were sacrificed properly. The Ma'amados worked in a rotation and took responsibility for the Korbanos of one week, twice each year.
(b)When each Ma'amad's turn arrived, the Kohanim and Leviyim would travel to the Beis ha'Mikdash to perform the divine service. Some of the Yisraelim traveled to Yerushalayim also, but most of them stayed in their own cities. It was the job of the Yisraelim to pray that the week's Korbanos should be accepted by HaSh-m. They gathered together to fast, read special portions of the Torah, and recite the special Shemoneh Esreh of Ta'aniyos (see Background to Shabbos 24:1).
16)[line 50]"ויהי בהיות יהושע ביריחו וישא עיניו וירא והנה איש עומד לנגדו וחרבו שלופה בידו וילך יהושע אליו ויאמר לו הלנו אתה אם לצרינו""VA'YEHI BI'HEYOS YEHOSHUA BI'YERICHO... VA'YAR V'HINEH ISH OMED L'NEGDO, V'CHARBO SHELUFAH B'YADO, VA'YELECH YEHOSHUA ELAV VA'YOMER LO, HA'LANU ATAH IM L'TZAREINU." - "And it was when Yehoshua was in Yericho that he saw a man standing facing him, sword in hand. Yehoshua went up to him and said, 'Are you on our side or on the side of our enemies?'" (Yehoshua 5:13) (YEHOSHUA'S RENDEZVOUS WITH THE ANGEL)
(a)Rashi explains that Yehoshua could not actually have been standing in the town of Yericho, and thus Chazal learn from this verse that the area immediately outside of a town is considered part of the town.
(b)The angel told Yehoshua that he certainly was not on the side of Yisrael's enemies, since he was the guardian angel of Yisrael (the angel Micha'el) who had just arrived to help Yisrael after having been rejected by Moshe Rabeinu (in Parshas Ki Sisa) who refused to accept the help of an angel in place of HaSh-m. He came at this time to help Yisrael defeat the city of Yericho, since it was part of HaSh-m's plan to topple its walls, something which Yisrael could not possibly do on their own.
17a)[line 5]מענותME'ANOS- lament for the deceased in unison by saying the same words at the same time
b)[line 6]מטפחותMETAPCHOS- (a) to beat the heart (which was done publicly as a sign of mourning) (RASHI here and to Shabbos 148b); (b) to clap (as a sign of mourning) (RASHI Beitzah 30a, RAMBAM ibid., ROSH ibid.)
18)[line 9]מקוננותMEKONENOS- lament for the deceased by one woman leading and all the other women repeating her words
19)[line 16]ומת מצוהMES MITZVAH
(a)When a dead Jew is found unattended and an attempt to determine who his relatives are brings about no response, the dead body is called a Mes Mitzvah. The person who found the body is obligated to bury it. (RAMBAM Hilchos Avel 3:8)
(b)The body must be buried where it is found; "Mes Mitzvah Koneh Mekomo" - it "acquires the place where it rests." Even if it is found in the middle of a field that belongs to someone else, it is buried there. (However, if the body is found within 2000 Amos of a Jewish community, it must be buried in the community cemetery (RAMBAM Hilchos Tum'as Mes 8:7).)
20)[line 19]"לאביו ולאמו לאחיו ולאחתו לא יטמא להם במתם כי נזר אלקיו על ראשו""L'AVIV UL'IMO L'ACHIV UL'ACHOSO LO YITAMA LAHEM B'MOSAM KI NEZER ELOKAV AL ROSHO" - "He shall not make himself Tamei for his father, or for his mother, for his brother, or for his sister, when they die, because the crown of his G-d is upon his head." (Bamidbar 6:7) (THE OBLIGATION TO BURY A MES MITZVAH OVERRIDES OTHER MITZVOS)
(a)The Gemara makes a series of Derashos from the words in this verse. (The Torah Temimah explains that these Derashos are based on the word "Lahem," "for them," which is seemingly redundant, which empowers the Chachamim to preclude one thing from each of the relatives listed). They expound:
1."l'Aviv" - [for his father he may not make himself Tamei, but] a Nazir may make himself Tamei in order to bury a Mes Mitzvah .
2."l'Imo" - [for his mother he may not make himself Tamei,] but a Nazir who is also a Kohen may make himself Tamei in order to bury a Mes Mitzvah.
3."l'Achiv" - [for his brother he may not make himself Tamei,] but a Nazir who is also a Kohen Gadol may make himself Tamei in order to bury a Mes Mitzvah.
4."la'Achoso" - [for his sister he may not make himself Tamei,] but one who is on his way to offer his Korban Pesach or to circumcise his son (the failure to do which is punishable with Kares) may make himself Tamei in order to bury a Mes Mitzvah.
(b)All of the above are obligated to stop whatever they are doing and to bury the Mes Mitzvah.
21)[line 29]כבוד הבריותKEVOD HA'BERIYOS- human dignity
22)[line 41]עשרה בטלניןASARAH BATLANIN- (a) ten people supported by the community to stay in the Beis Keneses throughout the day and be available to make a Minyan for prayer (RASHI here and to 5a); (b) ten people who work during the day but arrive at the Beis Keneses early in the morning and stay late in the evening to be available to make a Minyan for prayer (RAN 5a)