[28a - 47 lines; 28b - 50 lines]

1a)[line 1] TACHRICH SHEL SHTAROS- [three] documents in a bundle, where the first one is rolled up (or folded up) by itself and then placed into the second one, which is rolled (or folded) around the first one, and then the two of them are placed into the third document, which is rolled (or folded) around the first two

b)[line 2] AGUDAH SHEL SHTAROS- [three] documents in a bundle, where all three documents are lying one on top of the other, and together they are rolled or folded up

2)[line 13] SIMANIN V'SIMANIN V'ED ECHAD- if one person claims the item with Simanim and the other claims the item with Simanim and the testimony of one witness

3a)[line 14] EIDEI ARIGAH- witnesses that he wove it

b)[line 14] V'EIDEI NEFILAH- and [the other person brings] witnesses that it fell from him

4)[line 14] ZEVUNEI ZAVNAH- he sold it

5a)[line 15] MIDAS ORKO- the length of the Talis or cloak, which is wrapped around the body (see figure)

b)[line 15] U'MIDAS ROCHBO - and [the other person says] the width of the Talis or cloak, which covers the body from the top down (see figure)

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6a)[line 16] SHE'UREI KA MESHA'ER LAH- he can estimate [its width based upon the height of its owner]

b)[line 16] KAD MECHASI LAH MARAH V'KAI- when its owner is standing wrapped in it

7)[line 17] U'MIDAS GAMAV- and [the other person says] the length plus the width, which forms the Greek letter "Gam" (Gamma) in a rectangular Talis

8)[line 18] U'MIDAS MISHKELOSAV- and [the other person says] its weight

9a)[line 22]CHIVRA- white

b)[line 22]SUMKA- red

10)[line 23]CHAFISAH- (O.F. bolzole) a small leather shepherd's purse


The request (She'eilah) for rain is added to the ninth Berachah of Shemoneh Esrei, "Barech Aleinu" (Birkas ha'Shanim) during the winter. The Tana'im argue (Ta'anis 10a) with regard to the first day of the request. The Halachah follows the ruling that we start from the 7th of Marcheshvan until the first day of Pesach in Eretz Yisrael; from December 4th or 5th until the first day of Pesach in Chutz la'Aretz.

12)[line 30] ACHAR HE'CHAG- after Sukos

13)[line 31] NEHAR PERAS- the easternmost boundary of Eretz Yisrael

14)[line 32] , ... B'MIKDASH RISHON D'NEFISHEI YISRAEL TUVA...BA'INAN KULEI HAI- during the time of the first Beis ha'Mikdash, when there were many Yisraelim [living in Greater Eretz Yisrael, which extends to Nehar Peras,]...that much time was needed

15)[Line 34]" ""KOL HA'KAHAL KE'ECHAD ARBA RIBO ALPAYIM SH'LOSH ME'OS SHISHIM" - "The entire congregation altogether numbered forty-three thousand, three hundred and sixty." (Ezra 2, 64) (THE CONGREGATION THAT RETURNED WITH EZRA)

(a)This number incorporates all those who returned from Bavel with Ezra, including the Kohanim the Levi'im and the Nesinim (i.e. the Giv'onim whom Yehoshua had appointed as wood-choppers and water-drawers for the community).

(b)The total comprised all the families listed earlier in the chapter. All of these were from the tribes of Yehudah and Binyamin, who comprised the vast majority of the returnees. In fact, the Seder Olam explains, they numbered thirty-thousand. The remaining thirteen thousand plus that made up the total were from other tribes who were not listed earlier.

(c)The verse goes on to list another seven thousand three hundred and thirty-seven slaves and maidservants, who were not included in the forty-three thousand, as well as two hundred male and female singers, who kept the people in good spirits as they traveled with great Simchah from Galus Bavel back to Eretz Yisrael.

16a)[line 35]" [ ...]""VA'YESHVU HA'KOHANIM VEHA'LEVIYIM [VEHA'SHO'ARIM VEHA'MESHORERIM U'MIN HA'AM VEHA'NESINIM V'CHOL YISRAEL B'AREIHEM...]"- "So the Kohanim, and the Leviyim, [and the gatekeepers, and the singers, and some of the people, and the Nesinim, and all Yisrael, lived in their cities; and when the seventh month came, the people of Yisrael were in their cities.]" (Nechamyah 7:72(73))

b)[line 36]"[ ] [ ,] ""[VA'YESHVU HA'KOHANIM VEHA'LEVIYIM U'MIN HA'AM] VEHA'MESHORERIM VEHA'SHO'ARIM [VEHA'NESINIM B'AREIHEM;] V'CHOL YISRAEL B'AREIHEM"- "[So the Kohanim, and the Leviyim, and some of the people,] and the singers, and the gate keepers, [and the Nesinim, lived in their cities,] and all Yisrael in their cities." (Ezra 2:70) - According to the DIKDUKEI SOFRIM, the Gemara may not be quoting two separate (and very similar) verses. In various manuscripts, part of only one verse is quoted, that of Nechemyah, and the correct Girsa of the Gemara should therefore be, "VA'YESHVU HA'KOHANIM VEHA'LEVIYIM (V'GOMER) (VEHA'SHO'ARIM VEHA'MESHORERIM) [VEHA'MESHORERIM VEHA'SHO'ARIM] [V'GOMER] V'CHOL YISRAEL B'AREIHEM..."

17a)[line 37] D'MITZVAS ALMA- that everyone traveled in groups

b)[line 38] U'MISHTAKCHEI SHAYARTA D'AZLEI BEIN BI'YEMAMA U'VEIN B'LEILYA- and it was possible to find caravans that traveled during the day and the night

18)[line 42] , KI MACHRIZ; GELIMA MACHRIZ- when he announces [that he has found a lost object such as a cloak,] he announces [that he found] a cloak

19)[line 43] AVEIDASA MACHRIZ- when he announces [that he has found a lost object such as a cloak,] he announces [that he found] a lost object

20)[line 43] BA'INAN L'MITFEI LEI CHAD YOMA L'IYUNEI B'MANEI- we need to add one extra day for him to search all of his possessions (it seems like they did not have very many possessions in those times)


21)[line 8] MISHE'RABU HA'ANASIM- when the extortionists became prevalent

22a)[line 9]SHECHEINAV- his neighbors

b)[line 9]MEYUDA'AV- his acquaintances

23)[line 10] D'AMREI AVEIDASA L'MALKA- [people] that say that lost objects belong to the king

24)[line 11] ASHKACH ODAYA D'DINAREI- found a vessel filled with gold coins

25)[line 11] ( ) [ ] CHAZYEI HA'HU (BAR NASH) [BAR ROMA'AH] D'KA MIRTAS- a certain (onlooker) [Roman] noticed that he (Rav Ami) was scared (lit. shaking).

26)[line 14] EVEN TO'EN- a stone located outside of the city of Yerushalayim, on which anybody who found a lost article stood to announce his find. The person who lost the article would come and give Simanim (identifying features) and claim it.

27)[line 14] NIFNEH L'SHAM- turns to (i.e. goes) there

28)[line 16] TZE'U U'RE'U IM NIMCHEIS EVEN HA'TO'EN- Choni ha'Me'agel said, after he was successful in convincing HaSh-m to give the Jewish people rain, "Go out and see if the Even ha'To'en has been covered over with water." It was so high that it could not be covered with water unless a deluge came to the world (BARTENURA)

29)[line 17]HA'RAMAI- the [renowned] cheat

30)[line 31] IRKAS LEI CHAMARA- he lost a donkey

31)[line 33] , " ?"AMAR LEHU: ANA RAMA'AH ANA?!- he said to them, "Am I a cheat?!"

32)[line 41] METAPEL BAHEN- he must take care of them

33)[line 41] SHAM DEMEIHEN U'MENICHAN- he estimates their value (whether in court - RASHI - or by himself - ROSH) and puts them (the coins) aside

34a)[line 41]AGALIM- calves

b)[line 41]SEYACHIN- young donkeys

35a)[line 42]AVAZIN- geese

b)[line 42]TARNEGOLIN- roosters

36)[line 43]TARNEGOLES- a hen (which produces eggs)

37)[line 43] BEHEMAH GASAH- a large farm animal, such as a bull

38a)[line 47] HA D'RAYA- this refers to a case where there is readily available pastureland

b)[line 48] V'HA D'FETUMAH- this refers to a case where he must feed the animal himself

39a)[line 48]RAVREVEI- large

b)[line 48]ZUTREI- small


Background to the Daf - BAVA METZIA 28 3 Background to the Daf - BAVA METZIA 28