BAVA METZIA 27 - Dedicated by Drs. Shalom and Syma Kelman of Baltimore in honor of their children and grandchildren.

[27a - 55 lines; 27b - 47 lines]

1)[line 1]TAGAR- merchant

2)[line 5]DASHAN- threshed them

3)[line 5]ISAMYEI?- Should I remove it [from my compilation of Beraisa'os]?

4)[line 8]SIMLAH- garment

5)[line 13]"[ ... ] [ ]""[LO SIR'EH ES SHOR ACHICHA, O ES SE'YO NIDACHIM, V'HIS'ALAMTA MEHEM; HASHEV TESHIVEM L'ACHICHA... V'CHEN TA'ASEH LA'CHAMORO V'CHEN TA'ASEH L'SIMLASO V'CHEN TA'ASEH L']CHOL AVEIDAS ACHICHA [ASHER TOVAD MIMENU U'MTZASAH, LO SUCHAL L'HIS'ALEM]"- "[You shall not see the bull of your brother or his sheep cast off, and hide yourself from them; you must certainly return them to your brother... In like manner shall you do with his donkey; and so shall you do with his garment; and with] every lost thing of your brother's, [which he has lost, and you have found, shall you do likewise; you may not hide yourself.]" (Devarim 22:1, 3)

6a)[line 16] HANEI MILEI B'EDIM D'GUFAH- that is, if Simanin are not d'Oraisa

b)[line 16] V'SIMANIN D'GUFAH- that is, if Simanin are d'Oraisa (see TOSFOS DH b'Edei)

7)[line 17]D'UKAF- of [its] pack saddle

8a)[line 20] GIZAS ZENAVO- the shearing of the tail hairs

b)[line 20]GIZOSAV- its shearing; fleeces

9)[line 22] CHAMOR D'VOR L'REBBI YEHUDAH- the word "" "Chamor" written in the verse (Shemos 21:33) that discusses the damages incurred from the digging of a pit. The Rabanan learn that the word "Chamor" limits the liability of the one who dug the pit; he is not obligated in damages to utensils. Rebbi Yehudah learns from the extra word "" "O" that the one who dug the pit is obligated in damages to utensils, and as such, the word "Chamor" is unnecessary (see Bava Kama 53b- 54a).

10)[line 23] V'SEH D'AVEIDAH- and the word "" "Seh" written in the verse (Devarim 22:1, "Seyo") that discusses the Mitzvah to return a lost object

11)[line 24]GELALIM- excrement

12)[line 37] MASHMA'US DORSHIN- the implication of the verse regarding how to learn the Halachah; i.e. which verse teaches the Halachah

13a)[line 49] PERUTAH SHE'HUZLAH- a coin or an object that was worth only a Perutah at the time that it was lost that went down in value before it was found

b)[line 51] PERUTAH SHE'HUKRAH- a coin or an object that was worth less than a Perutah at the time that it was lost that went up in value until it was worth a Perutah before it was found


(a)There are certain instances where the Torah requires proof of identity, for example, in order to reclaim a lost object, or to identify a dead man and permit his wife to remarry. There is an argument as to whether Simanin ("signs" - identifying features) are considered a valid proof on a d'Oraisa level (Simanin d'Oraisa) or not (Simanin Lav d'Oraisa or Simanin d'Rabanan) in these instances.

(b)The Simanin under discussion are not general signs (e.g. the color of the clothes of the deceased), nor very specific signs (e.g. the lost Get had a hole next to the third letter Alef). The former certainly is not accepted as proof, while the latter certainly is accepted (see Insights to Yevamos 120:1). The Simanin under discussion are signs that lie in between these extremes.


15)[line 9] KEDI NASVAH- they were mentioned unnecessarily (i.e. Simanin are not learned directly from the verse, but rather the verse is only an Asmachta for them)


See above, entry #14. When identifying a dead man, the witnesses can only testify that he died if they saw and recognized his facial features, including his nose.

17)[line 16]KELAV- his clothing

18a)[line 17]D'AROCH- that he was long (i.e. tall)

b)[line 17]GOTZ- short

19)[line 18] D'CHAISHINAN L'SH'EILAH- for we suspect that he borrowed the clothes

20)[line 20] () [] LO SHE'ULEI INSHEI UCHPA- people do not (borrow) [lend out] pack saddles

21)[line 21] D'MESAKEV LEI L'CHAMRA- (O.F. redois(s)ier - to wound; to graze) because [unless they are made to order] they injure the donkey

22)[line 22] B'CHIVREI UV'SUMKEI- referring to white or red (two common colors) clothes

23)[line 23]B'KIS- onto a money bag

24)[line 23]ARNEKI- a change purse or money bag

25)[line 23]TABA'AS- a ring

26)[line 27] MISHUM D'MESAMNEI- (lit. because they signify [a bad turn of events]) people are superstitious and do not lend out their purse or money bag because they feel that this signifies that they will incur a financial loss

27)[line 28] MISHUM D'MEZAYEIF- a person suspects that his signet ring will be copied illicitly

28)[line 28]SHUMA- (O.F. verrue) a wart

29)[line 31] SHUMA METZUYAH B'VEN GILO- identical moles are commonly found on a ben Gil (someone who is born on the same day and under the same Mazal).

30)[line 36] SIMAN MUVHAK- a very specific identifying mark that is proof without a doubt

31)[line 43] , ECHAD HA'LOVEH MI'SHELOSHAH; YACHZIR LA'LOVEH- if a person borrows money from three different creditors, [and a person finds the three loan documents (that are Mekuyamim - Daf 20b) together,] he must return them to the debtor. (They are obviously loans that were repaid and the documents were returned to the debtor, who subsequently lost them.)

32)[line 44] , SHELOSHAH SHE'LAVU MIN HA'ECHAD; YACHZIR LA'MALVEH- if three people borrowed money from one creditor, [and a person finds the three loan documents (written by three different scribes - Daf 20b) together,] he must return them to the creditor. (They are obviously loans that were not repaid and the documents were lost by the creditor.)

33)[line 46]" ( ), SHEMA MINAH: MI'LOVEH NAFUL- we therefore conclude that they fell from the Loveh